Skip to content

Workshop for Variant Prioritization

Today we are going to:

  • Find genes that are associated with a phenotype
  • Identify Candidate variation
    • Solving a rare disease case from a trio.
    • Identifying somatic muations in paired cancer-normal cell lines.
  • Filter Varinats by QC using BCFTools

Data for this Workshop

  • To mount bioHPC storage onto your computer
  • Lamella Data Storage
  • Click your profile icon on the right and select settings
  • Select External Storage on the Left
  • Add a new storage called course (on left)
  • Select "Username and Password"
  • Add on the right: "archive", "nanocourse/sequence_analysis", "trainXX", "trainX_password"

  • Navigate to /archive/nanocourse/sequence_analysis/shared/variant_prioritization_session2

Find Genes associated with a Phenoype using the NCBI Tools

Find Variants of a gene of Interest

  • From the NCBI Gene database
  • Search the Term = msh6 (also try this in PubMed) or msh6[sym] AND human[orgn]
  • Go to the Variation section of the Gene record (in the Table of Contents)
  • Variation Viewer (GRCh38)
  • Filter by Source dbSNP, in ClinVar, Pathogenic

Find Variants Associated with a Disease

  • From the MedGen database
  • Search the term = severe combined immunodeficiency
  • Some have active Gene links. To limit to those that do:
  • Use Limits (link under search box) to select those "Associated with a gene", run Search
  • Use the "Find related data" menu, select the Gene database (takes you to Gene)
  • Pick of of the listed diseases and click the ClinVar link (open in new window)
  • Filter Pathogenic Variants
  • Filter by Reviewer Status to find expertly reviewed variants.
  • How many variants do you find
  • Select on link for the disease
    • What are tissues where the genes associated with that disease are expressed?

Filtering Variants

Solving a rare disease case from a trio

Data

Find data files here: /archive/nanocourse/sequence_analysis/shared/variant_prioritization_session2

A patient presented at the hospital with hyperammonemia after giving birth. The patient and her parents have been sequenced. The VCF (Hg19) file provided for you.

  • Go to Gene.iobio
  • Load the VCF File and Index, hyperammonemia.vcf.gz and hyperammonemia.vcf.gz.tbi by Clicking Files
  • Proband = GMDP_3_0054_1
  • Father = GMDP_3_0054_2
  • Mother = GMDP_3_0054_3
  • Hint click trio and load the file 3 files and select the sample name for each of family member
  • Add a gene list
  • Use the phenotype button to add the gene list.
  • Increase the number of genes from 10 to 100
  • See all variants (not just coding variants) -- Under Options
  • Also update filters to see all impact variants not just those with "know pathgenicity"
  • Once you have updated the filters, click Analyze all

Hint, this is a compound het with one mutation not in the coding region

Can you find out what might be the causal variant?

Identifying disease causing muations in paired cancer sample

Data

Find data files here: /archive/nanocourse/sequence_analysis/shared/variant_prioritization_session2

A patient presented at the hospital with . The patient's tumor has been sequenced. The VCF (HG38) file has been provided for you.

  • Here is a gene list for clinically actionable solid tumors

  • Go to Gene.iobio

  • Load the VCF File and Index, AML_Cancer.vcf.gz and AML_Cancer.vcf.gz.tbi
  • Change the Genome Build to HG38
  • Add a gene list
  • AKT1,ALK,APC,ATM,BRAF,CDH1,CTNNB1,EGFR,ERBB2,FBXW7,FGFR2,GNAQ,GNAS,HRAS,IDH1,KIT,KRAS,MET,NRAS,PDGFRA,PIK3CA,PTEN,SMAD4,SMARCB1,SMO,SRC,STK11,TP53
  • Explore these variants
  • Are any of these Pathogenic or High Impact variants seen in other AML patients (search COSMIC)
  • Are any of these mutations associated with treatment (search CIVIC)
  • Are any of these mutations seen in subjects in GnomAD

Log into BioHPC

First, we will log into the a compute node

  • Set up a WebGUI session on BioHPC
  • Launch via "connect with VNC client", open using turbovnc. You can also launch the session by "connect via web" but copying and pasting may not work under this mode.
  • Open a terminal window -- you should be in the directory /archive/nanocourse/genome_analysis/trainXX
  • Copy session3 material into your directory and work from there
cp -r /archive/nanocourse/sequence_analysis/shared/variant_prioritization_session2 .
cd variant_prioritization_session2

Practice VCF manipulation skills with BCFtools

We are going to practice VCF manipulation skills on VCF from CEPH family 1463 with 17 members.

  • Load bcftools module on BioHPC
module load bcftools htslib/gcc/1.8
  • Compress the VCF
bgzip -c ceph1463.vcf > ceph1463.vcf.gz

The "-c" option write on standard output, keep original files unchanged.
If you don't want to keep the original file, do:

bgzip ceph1463.vcf

If you want to decompress do

bgzip -d ceph1463.vcf.gz
  • Generate index (.tbi file) using tabix (loaded with the bcftools module)
tabix ceph1463.vcf.gz
  • Build a new directory to practice VCF manipulation skills
mkdir vcf_playground
  • Look at bcftools usage messages
bcftools --help
bcftools query --help
bcftools stats --help
bcftools filter --help
bcftools view --help

We will try out some of these tools in the following commands, you may refer to the documentation to understand the options we will be using.

  • What are the samples in this VCF?
bcftools query -l ceph1463.vcf.gz
  • Calculate stats on VCF, how many SNPs, MNPs and indels?
bcftools stats ceph1463.vcf.gz > vcf_playground/ceph1463.stats.out
less vcf_playground/ceph1463.stats.out
  • Extract just the chromosome, position and genotypes
bcftools query -f '%CHROM\t%POS\t[%GT ]\n' ceph1463.vcf.gz | less -S
  • Extract region with bcftools
bcftools filter --targets 10:96447911-96613017 ceph1463.vcf.gz | less
  • How many variants in this VCF? (grep -v "^#" excludes the meta-info and header lines that start with "#")
zcat ceph1463.vcf.gz | grep -v "^#" |wc -l
  • How many variants remaining after filtering out SNPs within 10bp of an indel?
bcftools filter --SnpGap 10 ceph1463.vcf.gz | grep -v "^#" | wc -l
  • Create a subset VCF with the maternal family members (-O specifies the compression format, -o specifies output file)
bcftools view --samples NA12891,NA12892,NA12878 ceph1463.vcf.gz -O z -o vcf_playground/maternal_family.vcf.gz
  • Check the samples in the new VCF
bcftools query -l vcf_playground/maternal_family.vcf.gz
  • Create a subset VCF with just the indels (-i specifies the inclusion expression)
bcftools filter -i 'TYPE="indel"' vcf_playground/maternal_family.vcf.gz -O z -o vcf_playground/maternal_indels.vcf.gz
  • Check if we now just have the indels in this subset VCF (grep -A n print n lines after matched pattern)
bcftools stats vcf_playground/maternal_indels.vcf.gz | grep -A 8 "SN, Summary numbers:"
  • Some of the indels have genotype 0/0 in all members of the maternal family, suggesting they are from the paternal family.
bcftools query -f '%CHROM\t%POS\t[%GT ]\n' vcf_playground/maternal_indels.vcf.gz | less -S
bcftools query -f '[%GT ]\n' vcf_playground/maternal_indels.vcf.gz|grep '0/0 0/0 0/0' | wc -l
  • Exclude such variants to keep only those from the maternal family.
bcftools view --private -s NA12891,NA12892,NA12878 vcf_playground/maternal_indels.vcf.gz -O z -o vcf_playground/maternal_only_indels.vcf.gz
bcftools query -f '[%GT ]\n' vcf_playground/maternal_only_indels.vcf.gz | grep '0/0 0/0 0/0' | wc -l
  • Create a subset with the autosomes and a subset with the X chromosome and combine them back together
tabix vcf_playground/maternal_family.vcf.gz
tabix -l vcf_playground/maternal_family.vcf.gz
bcftools view vcf_playground/maternal_family.vcf.gz --targets ^X -O z -o vcf_playground/maternal_family_autosomes.vcf.gz
tabix vcf_playground/maternal_family_autosomes.vcf.gz
tabix -l vcf_playground/maternal_family_autosomes.vcf.gz
bcftools view vcf_playground/maternal_family.vcf.gz --targets X -O z -o vcf_playground/maternal_family_X.vcf.gz
tabix vcf_playground/maternal_family_X.vcf.gz
tabix -l vcf_playground/maternal_family_X.vcf.gz
bcftools concat vcf_playground/maternal_family_autosomes.vcf.gz vcf_playground/maternal_family_X.vcf.gz -O z -o vcf_playground/maternal_family_recombined.vcf.gz
tabix vcf_playground/maternal_family_recombined.vcf.gz
tabix -l vcf_playground/maternal_family_recombined.vcf.gz