{ "cells": [ { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": { "slideshow": { "slide_type": "slide" } }, "source": [ "# Requests, The Web, JSON, and APIs" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": { "slideshow": { "slide_type": "slide" } }, "source": [ "# The Web\n", "* Client/Server\n", "* HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)\n", "* Java Script\n", "* JSON (Java Script Object Notation)\n", "* The Browser" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": { "slideshow": { "slide_type": "slide" } }, "source": [ "# HTTP, Methods, Reponses\n", "* Hyper Text Transfer Protocol\n", "* GET, POST, PUT...\n", "* Response Codes: 1xx, 2xx, 3xx, 4xx, 5xx\n" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": { "slideshow": { "slide_type": "slide" } }, "source": [ "# GET\n", "* The most common method\n", "* Used to request data from a specified resource" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": { "slideshow": { "slide_type": "slide" } }, "source": [ "# POST\n", "* Method for sending data\n", "* Typically used to update or create resources\n", "* Is the cause of problems when you try to hit back in your browser\n" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": { "slideshow": { "slide_type": "slide" } }, "source": [ "# Other Methods\n", "* PUT: Update resources\n", "* DELETE: Delete resources\n", "* Still Other Methods: PATCH/OPTION/HEAD Less commonly used" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": { "slideshow": { "slide_type": "slide" } }, "source": [ "# Response Codes\n", "* 1xx Informational, uncommon\n", "* 200 Success response, most common response\n", "* 3xx Redirect, page has moved etc.\n", "* 4xx Your problem\n", "* 5xx Their problem" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": { "slideshow": { "slide_type": "slide" } }, "source": [ "# Requests\n", "* HTTP for Humans\n", "* Simple methods for getting, posting, and authenticating with websites" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 1, "metadata": { "slideshow": { "slide_type": "-" } }, "outputs": [], "source": [ "import requests" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 2, "metadata": { "slideshow": { "slide_type": "-" } }, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "200" ] }, "execution_count": 2, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "google_response = requests.get('http://google.com')\n", "google_response.status_code" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 3, "metadata": { "slideshow": { "slide_type": "-" } }, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "12459" ] }, "execution_count": 3, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "len(google_response.content)\n", "# google_response.content" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "https://www.dictionary.com/browse/biology" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 6, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "200" ] }, "execution_count": 6, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "import os\n", "os.environ['http_proxy'] = \"http://proxy.swmed.edu:3128\" \n", "os.environ['https_proxy'] = \"https://proxy.swmed.edu:3128\" \n", "dictionary_search = requests.get('http://www.dictionary.com/browse/biology')\n", "dictionary_search.status_code" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 8, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "b'\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n Biology | Define Biology at Dictionary.com\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n

biology

[bahy-ol-uh-jee]
See more synonyms for biology on Thesaurus.com
noun
  1. the science of life or living matter in all its forms and phenomena, especially with reference to origin, growth, reproduction, structure, and behavior.
  2. the living organisms of a region: the biology of Pennsylvania.
  3. the biological phenomena characteristic of an organism or a group of organisms: She is studying the biology of worms, especially in regard to their reproductive behavior.

Origin of biology

From the German word Biologie, dating back to 1805\\xe2\\x80\\x9315. See bio-, -logy
Dictionary.com Unabridged\\nBased on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, \\xc2\\xa9 Random House, Inc. 2018


Examples from the Web for biology

Contemporary Examples of biology

Historical Examples of biology

  • They know everything about biology, but almost nothing about life.

    Alarms and Discursions

    G. K. Chesterton

  • Why this should be so is one of the most profound problems of biology.

    The Meaning of Evolution

    Samuel Christian Schmucker

  • His progress, and the progress of thousands of other researchers in biology, must have been watched.

    Forever

    Robert Sheckley

  • What are the general adaptive contributions of biology to human nature?

    College Teaching

    Paul Klapper

  • What are the results in the individual which biology should aim to bring to every student?

    College Teaching

    Paul Klapper


British Dictionary definitions for biology

biology

noun
  1. the study of living organisms, including their structure, functioning, evolution, distribution, and interrelationships
  2. the structure, functioning, etc, of a particular organism or group of organisms
  3. the animal and plant life of a particular region
Derived Formsbiologist, noun
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition \\n\\xc2\\xa9 William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 \\xc2\\xa9 HarperCollins \\nPublishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Word Origin and History for biology

n.

1819, from Greek bios \"life\" (see bio-) + -logy. Suggested 1802 by German naturalist Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus (1776-1837), and introduced as a scientific term that year in French by Lamarck.

Online Etymology Dictionary, \\xc2\\xa9 2010 Douglas Harper

biology in Medicine

biology

(b\\xc4\\xab-\\xc5\\x8fl\\xe2\\x80\\xb2\\xc9\\x99-j\\xc4\\x93)
n.
  1. The science of life and of living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution. It includes botany and zoology.
  2. The life processes or characteristic phenomena of a group or category of living organisms.
Related formsbi\\xe2\\x80\\xa2ol\\xe2\\x80\\xb2o\\xe2\\x80\\xa2gist n.
The American Heritage\\xc2\\xae Stedman's Medical Dictionary \\n Copyright \\xc2\\xa9 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.

biology in Science

biology

[b\\xc4\\xab-\\xc5\\x8fl\\xe2\\x80\\xb2\\xc9\\x99-j\\xc4\\x93]
  1. The scientific study of life and of living organisms. Botany, zoology, and ecology are all branches of biology.
The American Heritage\\xc2\\xae Science Dictionary \\n Copyright \\xc2\\xa9 2011. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

biology in Culture

biology

The study of life and living systems.

The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition \\nCopyright \\xc2\\xa9 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n '" ] }, "execution_count": 8, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "dictionary_search.content" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 9, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "151" ] }, "execution_count": 9, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "start = dictionary_search.text.find('Biology')\n", "start" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 10, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "323" ] }, "execution_count": 10, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "finish = dictionary_search.text.find(' See more')\n", "finish" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 11, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "'Biology definition, the science of life or living matter in all its forms and phenomena, especially with reference to origin, growth, reproduction, structure, and behavior.'" ] }, "execution_count": 11, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "definition = dictionary_search.text[start:finish]\n", "definition" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 12, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [], "source": [ "def dictionary_search(word):\n", " url = 'https://dictionary.com/browse/' + word\n", " response = requests.get(url)\n", " start = response.text.find(word)\n", " finish = response.text.find(' See more')\n", " definition = response.text[start:finish]\n", " return definition" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 13, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "name": "stdout", "output_type": "stream", "text": [ "Biology definition, the science of life or living matter in all its forms and phenomena, especially with reference to origin, growth, reproduction, structure, and behavior.\n" ] } ], "source": [ "print(dictionary_search('Biology'))" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 14, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "name": "stdout", "output_type": "stream", "text": [ "DNA is encoded in the sequence of the bases and is transcribed as the strands unwind and replicate.\n" ] } ], "source": [ "print(dictionary_search('DNA'))" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 15, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "b'\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n Dna | Define Dna at Dictionary.com\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n

DNA

  1. Genetics. deoxyribonucleic acid: an extremely long macromolecule that is the main component of chromosomes and is the material that transfers genetic characteristics in all life forms, constructed of two nucleotide strands coiled around each other in a ladderlike arrangement with the sidepieces composed of alternating phosphate and deoxyribose units and the rungs composed of the purine and pyrimidine bases adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine: the genetic information of DNA is encoded in the sequence of the bases and is transcribed as the strands unwind and replicate.Compare base pair, gene, genetic code, RNA.
  2. the set of nongenetic traits, qualities, or features that characterize a person or thing: Humility is just not in her DNA.

Origin of DNA

1930\\xe2\\x80\\x9335; d(eoxyribo)n(ucleic) a(cid)
Dictionary.com Unabridged\\nBased on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, \\xc2\\xa9 Random House, Inc. 2018

Related Words for dna

heredity, RNA, gene, chromosome

Examples from the Web for dna

Contemporary Examples of dna

Historical Examples of dna

  • Ruoy xis snisuoc emac ereh yadretsey, dna dah hcae a eceip fo ekac.

  • Siht si elttil Yssac\\'s yadhtrib, dna ehs si eerht sraey dlo.

  • The Dna takes a westerly course towards the Gulf of Riga where it empties near the city of that name.

    The Story of Russia

    R. Van Bergen, M.A.

  • Another bishop sailed up the Dna with a fleet of twenty-three ships, and in 1200 founded Riga.

    The Story of Russia

    R. Van Bergen, M.A.

  • The cup and foot are of agate, probably specimens of the classic period; the mounting, which dates from the time of Dna.


British Dictionary definitions for dna

DNA

noun
  1. deoxyribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that is the main constituent of the chromosomes of all organisms (except some viruses). The DNA molecule consists of two polynucleotide chains in the form of a double helix, containing phosphate and the sugar deoxyribose and linked by hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine. DNA is self-replicating, plays a central role in protein synthesis, and is responsible for the transmission of hereditary characteristics from parents to offspringSee also genetic code
abbreviation for
  1. did not attend
Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition \\n\\xc2\\xa9 William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 \\xc2\\xa9 HarperCollins \\nPublishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Word Origin and History for dna

DNA

n.

1944, abbreviation of deoxyribonucleic acid (1931).

Online Etymology Dictionary, \\xc2\\xa9 2010 Douglas Harper

dna in Medicine

DNA

(d\\xc4\\x93\\xe2\\x80\\xb2\\xc4\\x95n-\\xc4\\x81\\xe2\\x80\\xb2)
n.
  1. Deoxyribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that consists of two long chains of nucleotides twisted together into a double helix and joined by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases adenine and thymine or cytosine and guanine; it carries the cell\\'s genetic information and hereditary characteristics via its nucleotides and their sequence and is capable of self-replication and RNA synthesis.
The American Heritage\\xc2\\xae Stedman's Medical Dictionary \\n Copyright \\xc2\\xa9 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.

dna in Science

DNA

[d\\xc4\\x93\\xe2\\x80\\xb2\\xc4\\x95n-\\xc4\\x81\\xe2\\x80\\xb2]
  1. Short for deoxyribonucleic acid. The nucleic acid that is the genetic material determining the makeup of all living cells and many viruses. It consists of two long strands of nucleotides linked together in a structure resembling a ladder twisted into a spiral. In eukaryotic cells, the DNA is contained in the nucleus (where it is bound to proteins known as histones) and in mitochondria and chloroplasts. In the presence of the enzyme DNA polymerase and appropriate nucleotides, DNA can replicate itself. DNA also serves as a template for the synthesis of RNA in the presence of RNA polymerase. Compare RNA. See Note at histone.
The American Heritage\\xc2\\xae Science Dictionary \\n Copyright \\xc2\\xa9 2011. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

dna in Culture

DNA

The molecule that carries genetic information in all living systems (see genetic code). The DNA molecule is formed in the shape of a double helix from a great number of smaller molecules (see nucleotides). The workings of the DNA molecule provide the most fundamental explanation of the laws of genetics.

DNA acts in three important way. First, when a cell divides, the DNA uncoils, and each strand creates a new partner from the surrounding material \\xe2\\x80\\x94 a process called replication. The two cells that result from the cell division have the same DNA as the original (see mitosis). Second, in sexual reproduction, each parent contributes one of the two strands in the DNA of the offspring. Third, inside the cell, the DNA governs the production of proteins and other molecules essential to cell function.

The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition \\nCopyright \\xc2\\xa9 2005 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
\\n \\n \\n \\n \\n \\n '" ] }, "execution_count": 15, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "dna_search = requests.get('https://dictionary.com/browse/DNA')\n", "dna_search.content" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 16, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "''" ] }, "execution_count": 16, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "dictionary_search('biology')" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 17, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [], "source": [ "# Perhaps we can fix it\n", "def dictionary_search(word):\n", " url = 'https://dictionary.com/browse/' + word\n", " response = requests.get(url)\n", " start = response.text.find(word)\n", " finish = response.text.find(' See more')\n", " definition = response.text[start:finish]\n", " return definition" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 18, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "''" ] }, "execution_count": 18, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "dictionary_search('DNA')\n", "dictionary_search('biology')" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": { "slideshow": { "slide_type": "slide" } }, "source": [ "# API\n", "* Application Programming Interface\n", "* Web API\n", "* XML/JSON\n", "* Much easier to use than scraping" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "# JSON\n", "* Java Script Object Notation\n", "* Similar to Python dictionaries\n", "* Key/Value store\n", "* Incredibly common data interchange format on the web and elsewhere" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 19, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "'{\"gene_name\": \"BRAF\"}'" ] }, "execution_count": 19, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "import json\n", "data = {'gene_name': 'BRAF'}\n", "json.dumps(data)" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 20, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "'{\"gene_name\": \"BRAF\", \"patient_count\": 3}'" ] }, "execution_count": 20, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "data['patient_count'] = 3\n", "json.dumps(data)" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 21, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "'{\"gene_name\": \"BRAF\", \"patient_count\": 3, \"is_alive\": true}'" ] }, "execution_count": 21, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "data['is_alive'] = True\n", "json.dumps(data)" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 22, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "'{\"gene_name\": \"BRAF\", \"patient_count\": 3, \"is_alive\": true, \"phone_number\": null}'" ] }, "execution_count": 22, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "data['phone_number'] = None\n", "json.dumps(data)" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 23, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "'{\"gene_name\": \"BRAF\", \"patient_count\": 3, \"is_alive\": true, \"phone_number\": null, \"more_data\": {}}'" ] }, "execution_count": 23, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "data['more_data'] = {}\n", "json.dumps(data)" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 24, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "'[{\"gene_name\": \"BRAF\", \"patient_count\": 3, \"is_alive\": true, \"phone_number\": null, \"more_data\": {}}, 1]'" ] }, "execution_count": 24, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "data_table = [data, 1]\n", "json.dumps(data_table)" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 25, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "name": "stdout", "output_type": "stream", "text": [ "{'gene_name': 'BRAF'}\n" ] }, { "data": { "text/plain": [ "dict" ] }, "execution_count": 25, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "input_data = json.loads('{\"gene_name\": \"BRAF\"}')\n", "print(input_data)\n", "type(input_data)" ] }, { "cell_type": "markdown", "metadata": {}, "source": [ "https://mygene.info" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 26, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "{'max_score': 435.33853,\n", " 'took': 11,\n", " 'total': 386,\n", " 'hits': [{'_id': '673',\n", " '_score': 435.33853,\n", " 'entrezgene': '673',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 9606},\n", " {'_id': '109880',\n", " '_score': 358.14212,\n", " 'entrezgene': '109880',\n", " 'name': 'Braf transforming gene',\n", " 'symbol': 'Braf',\n", " 'taxid': 10090},\n", " {'_id': '114486',\n", " '_score': 309.06714,\n", " 'entrezgene': '114486',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'Braf',\n", " 'taxid': 10116},\n", " {'_id': '112945628',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '112945628',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 30464},\n", " {'_id': '109296160',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '109296160',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 94835},\n", " {'_id': '103769301',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '103769301',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 57421},\n", " {'_id': '100219601',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '100219601',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 59729},\n", " {'_id': '104629609',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '104629609',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 100784},\n", " {'_id': '110394457',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '110394457',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 8996},\n", " {'_id': '100934801',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '100934801',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 9305}]}" ] }, "execution_count": 26, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "query = {'q': 'BRAF'}\n", "response = requests.get('http://mygene.info/v3/query', params=query)\n", "braf_data = response.json()\n", "braf_data" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 27, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "[{'_id': '673',\n", " '_score': 435.33853,\n", " 'entrezgene': '673',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 9606},\n", " {'_id': '109880',\n", " '_score': 358.14212,\n", " 'entrezgene': '109880',\n", " 'name': 'Braf transforming gene',\n", " 'symbol': 'Braf',\n", " 'taxid': 10090},\n", " {'_id': '114486',\n", " '_score': 309.06714,\n", " 'entrezgene': '114486',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'Braf',\n", " 'taxid': 10116},\n", " {'_id': '112945628',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '112945628',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 30464},\n", " {'_id': '109296160',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '109296160',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 94835},\n", " {'_id': '103769301',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '103769301',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 57421},\n", " {'_id': '100219601',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '100219601',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 59729},\n", " {'_id': '104629609',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '104629609',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 100784},\n", " {'_id': '110394457',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '110394457',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 8996},\n", " {'_id': '100934801',\n", " '_score': 285.43057,\n", " 'entrezgene': '100934801',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 9305}]" ] }, "execution_count": 27, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "braf_data['hits']" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 28, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "'673'" ] }, "execution_count": 28, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "braf_id = braf_data['hits'][0]['_id']\n", "braf_id" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 29, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "{'HGNC': '1097',\n", " 'MIM': '164757',\n", " 'Vega': 'OTTHUMG00000157457',\n", " '_id': '673',\n", " '_score': 12.80121,\n", " 'accession': {'genomic': ['AC006006.2',\n", " 'AC006344.2',\n", " 'AC006347.2',\n", " 'AC079339.5',\n", " 'CH236950.1',\n", " 'CH471070.1',\n", " 'EU600171.1',\n", " 'HB432546.1',\n", " 'HC464558.1',\n", " 'HM459603.1',\n", " 'HQ224878.1',\n", " 'KF481581.1',\n", " 'KT584890.1',\n", " 'KY769663.1',\n", " 'KY769664.1',\n", " 'KY769665.1',\n", " 'KY769666.1',\n", " 'KY769667.1',\n", " 'KY769668.1',\n", " 'NC_000007.14',\n", " 'NG_007873.3',\n", " 'X65187.1'],\n", " 'protein': ['AAA35609.2',\n", " 'AAA96495.1',\n", " 'AAD15551.1',\n", " 'AAD43193.1',\n", " 'AAI01758.1',\n", " 'AAI12080.1',\n", " 'AAS00359.1',\n", " 'ACD11489.1',\n", " 'ADN43065.1',\n", " 'ADQ00186.1',\n", " 'ADX94397.1',\n", " 'AIE38317.1',\n", " 'ARR27440.1',\n", " 'ARR27441.1',\n", " 'ARR27442.1',\n", " 'ARR27443.1',\n", " 'ARR27444.1',\n", " 'ARR27445.1',\n", " 'CAA46301.1',\n", " 'CAB81553.1',\n", " 'CAZ68014.1',\n", " 'CBK51920.1',\n", " 'EAL24023.1',\n", " 'EAW83964.1',\n", " 'EAW83965.1',\n", " 'NP_001341538.1',\n", " 'NP_004324.2',\n", " 'P15056.4',\n", " 'XP_016868047.1',\n", " 'XP_016868048.1'],\n", " 'rna': ['AA252358.1',\n", " 'AA834931.1',\n", " 'AA975673.1',\n", " 'AI203435.1',\n", " 'AJ276310.1',\n", " 'AK054801.1',\n", " 'AK094023.1',\n", " 'AK098095.1',\n", " 'AK124257.1',\n", " 'AK314346.1',\n", " 'AW971583.1',\n", " 'BC038966.1',\n", " 'BC101757.1',\n", " 'BC112079.1',\n", " 'BM263585.1',\n", " 'DB454480.1',\n", " 'DN996440.1',\n", " 'HM437233.1',\n", " 'M21001.1',\n", " 'M95712.2',\n", " 'NM_001354609.1',\n", " 'NM_004333.5',\n", " 'NR_148928.1',\n", " 'XM_017012558.1',\n", " 'XM_017012559.1',\n", " 'XR_001744857.1',\n", " 'XR_001744858.1'],\n", " 'translation': [{'protein': 'AAA35609.2', 'rna': 'M95712.2'},\n", " {'protein': 'AAA96495.1', 'rna': 'M21001.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'XP_016868048.1', 'rna': 'XM_017012559.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'ADN43065.1', 'rna': 'HM437233.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'AAI01758.1', 'rna': 'BC101757.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_001341538.1', 'rna': 'NM_001354609.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'XP_016868047.1', 'rna': 'XM_017012558.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'CAB81553.1', 'rna': 'AJ276310.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'AAI12080.1', 'rna': 'BC112079.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_004324.2', 'rna': 'NM_004333.5'}]},\n", " 'alias': ['B-RAF1', 'B-raf', 'BRAF1', 'NS7', 'RAFB1'],\n", " 'ec': '2.7.11.1',\n", " 'ensembl': {'gene': 'ENSG00000157764',\n", " 'protein': ['ENSP00000288602',\n", " 'ENSP00000418033',\n", " 'ENSP00000419060',\n", " 'ENSP00000420119',\n", " 'ENSP00000493543',\n", " 'ENSP00000493678',\n", " 'ENSP00000493783',\n", " 'ENSP00000494784',\n", " 'ENSP00000495132',\n", " 'ENSP00000495858',\n", " 'ENSP00000496776'],\n", " 'transcript': ['ENST00000288602',\n", " 'ENST00000469930',\n", " 'ENST00000479537',\n", " 'ENST00000496384',\n", " 'ENST00000497784',\n", " 'ENST00000642228',\n", " 'ENST00000642272',\n", " 'ENST00000642808',\n", " 'ENST00000642875',\n", " 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'cdsstart': 140426293,\n", " 'chr': '7',\n", " 'position': [[140419126, 140426316],\n", " [140434416, 140434570],\n", " [140439611, 140439746],\n", " [140449086, 140449218],\n", " [140453074, 140453193],\n", " [140453986, 140454033],\n", " [140476711, 140476888],\n", " [140477790, 140477875],\n", " [140481375, 140481493],\n", " [140482820, 140482957],\n", " [140487347, 140487384],\n", " [140494107, 140494267],\n", " [140500161, 140500281],\n", " [140501211, 140501360],\n", " [140507759, 140507862],\n", " [140508691, 140508795],\n", " [140534408, 140534672],\n", " [140549910, 140550012],\n", " [140624365, 140624728]],\n", " 'strand': -1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_001354609',\n", " 'txend': 140624728,\n", " 'txstart': 140419126},\n", " {'cdsend': 140624503,\n", " 'cdsstart': 140434396,\n", " 'chr': '7',\n", " 'position': [[140432363, 140434570],\n", " [140439611, 140439746],\n", " [140449086, 140449218],\n", " [140453074, 140453193],\n", " [140453986, 140454033],\n", " [140476711, 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[140508691, 140508795],\n", " [140534408, 140534672],\n", " [140549910, 140550012],\n", " [140624365, 140624728]],\n", " 'strand': -1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NR_148928',\n", " 'txend': 140624728,\n", " 'txstart': 140432363}],\n", " 'generif': [{'pubmed': 8621729, 'text': 'MEK1 interacts with B-Raf.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12068308,\n", " 'text': 'somatic missense mutations in 66% of malignant melanomas and at lower frequency in a wide range of human cancers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12198537,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations in colorectal cancers occur only in tumours that do not carry mutations in a RAS gene known as KRAS, and BRAF mutation is linked to the proficiency of these tumours in repairing mismatched bases in DNA'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12447372, 'text': 'High frequency of BRAF mutations in nevi'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12619120,\n", " 'text': 'The V599E BRAF mutation appears to be a somatic mutation associated with melanoma development and/or progression in a proportion of affected individuals.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12644542,\n", " 'text': 'results demonstrate that the mutational status of BRAF and KRAS is distinctly different among histologic types of ovarian serous carcinoma, occurring most frequently in invasive micropapillary serous carcinomas and its precursors, serous borderline tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12670889,\n", " 'text': 'High prevalence of BRAF mutations in thyroid cancer is genetic evidence for constitutive activation of the RET/PTC-RAS-BRAF signaling pathway in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12697856,\n", " 'text': 'activating BRAF mutations may be an important event in the development of papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12753285,\n", " 'text': 'cAMP activates ERK and increases proliferation of autosomal dominant polycystic kindey epithelial cells through the sequential phosphorylation of PKA, B-Raf and MAPK in a pathway separate from the classical receptor tyrosine kinase cascade'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12778069,\n", " 'text': 'gene is mutated in skin melanoma, but not in uveal melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12810628,\n", " 'text': '13 germline BRAF variants, 4 of which were silent mutations in coding regions & 9 nucleotide substitutions in introns, were found in melanoma patients and melanoma family, but none appeared statistically likely to be a melanoma susceptibility gene.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12821662,\n", " 'text': 'B-raf is involved in adhesion-independent ERK1/2 signaling in melanocytes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12824225,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that BRAF T1796A activating mutation is not common in primary uveal melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12855697,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf has a role in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in T cells and prevents antigen-presenting cell-induced anergy'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12879021,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF has a role in in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck through uncommon mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12881714,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V599E) mutation appears to be an alternative event to RET/PTC rearrangement rather than to RAS mutations, which are rare in PTC. BRAF(V599E) may represent an alternative pathway to oncogenic MAPK activation in PTCs without RET/PTC activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12893203,\n", " 'text': 'Mucinous ovarian cancers without a KRAS mutation have not sustained alternative activation of this signaling pathway through mutation of the BRAF oncogene.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12917419,\n", " 'text': '3 cell lines derived from human choroidal melanoma express B-Raf containing the V599E mutation and showed a 10-fold increase in endogenous B-RafV599E kinase activity and a constitutive activation of the MEK/ERK pathway that is independent of Ras'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12931219,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations are not detectable in plasma cell leukemia and multiple myeloma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12970315,\n", " 'text': 'mutation of BRAF gene could be a potentially useful marker of prognosis of patients with advanced thyroid cancers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14501284,\n", " 'text': 'Our findings of a high frequency of BRAF mutations at codon 599 in benign melanocytic lesions of the skin indicate that this mutation is not sufficient by itself for malignant transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14507635,\n", " 'text': 'Both BRAF and FBXW7 mutations functionally activate kinase effectors important in pancreatic cancer and extend potential options for therapeutic targeting of kinases in treatment of phenotypically distinct pancreatic adenocarcinoma subsets.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14513361,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations, which are present in a variety of other human cancers, do not seem to be involved in gastric cancer development'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14522897,\n", " 'text': 'Uceal melanomas arise independent of oncogenic BRAF and NRAS mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14534542,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations were seen in stomach neoplasms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14602780,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are restricted to papillary carcinomas and poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas arising from papillary carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14612909,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF is occasionally mutated in NHL, and BRAF mutation may contribute to tumor development in some NHLs'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14618633,\n", " 'text': 'None of the cases of gastric cancer showed braf mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14639609,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations of BRAF are associated with extensive hMLH1 promoter methylation in sporadic colorectal carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14668801,\n", " 'text': 'Missense mutation is marker of colonic but not gastric cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14688025,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations were found in exon 15 in colorectal adenocarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14691295,\n", " 'text': 'Our data indicate that BRAF gene mutations are rare to absent events in uveal melanoma of humans.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14695152,\n", " 'text': 'NRAS and BRAF mutations arise early during melanoma pathogenesis and are preserved throughout tumor progression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14695993,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are associated with proximal colon tumors with mismatch repair deficiency and MLH1 hypermethylation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14719068,\n", " 'text': 'New enriched PCR-RFLP assay for detecting mutations of BRAF codon 599 mutation in pleural mesotheliomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14722037,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genotype prevalence and gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14724583,\n", " 'text': \"RAS or BRAF mutations are detected in about 32% of all Barrett's adenocarcinomas; the disruption of the Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) kinase pathway is a frequent but also early event in the development of Barrett's adenocarcinoma\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 14734469,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are frequently present in sporadic colorectal cancer with methylated hMLH1'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14961576,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations in BRAF gene is associated with malignant melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14966563,\n", " 'text': 'These studies identify isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase as a potential target for reducing the growth of K-Ras- and B-Raf-induced malignancies.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15001635,\n", " 'text': 'The lack or low prevalence of BRAF mutation in other thyroid neoplasms is consistent with the notion that other previously defined genetic alterations on the same signaling pathway are sufficient to cause tumorigenesis in most thyroid neoplasms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15009714,\n", " 'text': 'possible cooperation between BRAF activation and PTEN loss in melanoma development.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15009715,\n", " 'text': 'mutations in the BRAF gene and to some extent in the N-ras gene represent early somatic events that occur in melanocytic nevi'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15014028,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation may be acquired during development of metastasis but is not a significant factor for primary melanoma development and disease outcome.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15077125,\n", " 'text': 'ovarian serous cystadenomas do not contain mutations in either BRAF or KRAS genes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15104286,\n", " 'text': 'These results suggest that the BRAF mutation is unlikely to be involved in gastric carcinogenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15126572,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V599E) is more common genetic alteration found to date in adult sporadic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). It is unique for this thyroid cancer histotype, and it might drive the development of PTCs of classic papillary subtype.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15140228,\n", " 'text': 'The finding of tandem mutations in thin melanomas makes it more likely that they arise as a simultaneous rather than sequential event.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15145515,\n", " 'text': 'Radiation-induced tumors have a low prevalence of BRAF point mutations and high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15150271,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf kinase activity regulation by tuberin and Rheb is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15161700,\n", " 'text': 'mucosal melanomas of the head and neck do not frequently harbor an activating mutation of BRAF'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15179189,\n", " 'text': 'in contrast to cutaneous melanoma, BRAF does not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of uveal melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15186612,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are rather rare in solitary cold adenomas and adenomatous nodules and do not explain the molecular etiology of ras mutation-negative cold thyroid nodules.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15191558,\n", " 'text': 'activation of this gene may be one of the early events in the pathogenesis of some melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15263001,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf and ERK are activated by cyclic AMP after calcium restriction'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15273715, 'text': 'mutated in papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15277467,\n", " 'text': 'In this study, this BRAF mutation was demonstrated in some conjunctival melanoma tissue samples, suggesting that some conjunctival melanomas may share biological features in common with cutaneous melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15313890,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that SPRY2, an inhibitor of ERK signaling, may be bypassed in melanoma cells either by down-regulation of its expression in WT BRAF cells, or by the presence of the BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15330192,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations within the BRAF gene are useful markers for the differential diagnosis between Spitz nevus and malignant melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15331929,\n", " 'text': 'we found 19 cases (38%) to harbor somatic B-raf exon 15 mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15339934,\n", " 'text': 'Data provide evidence that B-Raf is a positive regulator of T cell receptor-mediated sustained ERK activation, which is required for NFAT activation and the full production of IL-2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15373778,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V599E) mutation is seven times higher in lesions with structural changes and 13 times higher in growing lesions as compared with lesions without changes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15488754,\n", " 'text': 'REVIEW: our understanding of B-RAF as an oncogene and of its role in cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15489648,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations of BRAF or KRAS oncogenes are early events in the serrated polyp neoplasia pathway. CpG island methylation plays a role in serrated polyp progression to colorectal carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15538400,\n", " 'text': 'mutated in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15577314,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are associated with conjunctival neoplasms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15630448,\n", " 'text': 'AKAP9-BRAF fusion was preferentially found in radiation-induced papillary carcinomas developing after a short latency, whereas BRAF point mutations were absent in this group'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15632082,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that Rit is involved in a novel pathway of neuronal development and regeneration by coupling specific trophic factor signals to sustained activation of the B-Raf/ERK and p38 MAP kinase cascades.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15653554,\n", " 'text': 'a novel Ras-independent ERK1/2 activation system in which p110gamma/Raf-1/MEK1/2 and PKA/B-Raf/MEK1/2 cooperate to activate ERK1/2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15702478,\n", " 'text': 'We found mutations in p53, K-ras, and BRAF genes in 35%, 30%, and 4% of tumors, respectively, and observed a minimal or no co-presence of these gene alterations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15705790,\n", " 'text': 'KSHV-infected cell lines expressed higher levels of B-Raf and VEGF-A; B-Raf-induced VEGF-A expression was demonstrated to be sufficient to enhance tubule formation in endothelial cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15710605,\n", " 'text': 'autoinhibition was negatively regulated by acidic substitutions at phosphorylation sites within the activation loop'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15765445,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations in the BRAF protooncogene (V599E)may be an alternative pathway of tumorigenesis of familial colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15782118,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations proved to be absent in tumors from hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (HNPCC) families with germline mutations in the MMR genes MLH1 and MSH2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15791479,\n", " 'text': 'The data of this study suggest that activating mutations of B-RAF are not a frequent event in gliomas; nevertheless, when present they are associated with high-grade malignant lesions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15791648,\n", " 'text': 'B-raf mutations surrounding Thr439 found in human cancers are unlikely to contribute to increased oncogenic properties of B-raf'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15824163,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15842051,\n", " 'text': 'These results suggest that BRAF mutations do not have a role in tumorigenesis of neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15880523,\n", " 'text': 'Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas which are derived from papillary carcinomas are due to BRAF and p53 mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15904951,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15935100,\n", " 'text': 'B-raf V599E and V599K oncogenic mutations are likely to affect melanocyte-specific pathways controlling proliferation and differentiation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15968271,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15968271,\n", " 'text': 'The increasing frequency of BRAF mutations as a function of age could help account for the well documented but poorly understood observation that age is a relevant prognostic indicator for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15980887,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation occurs later in thyroid tumor progression and is restricted mainly to papillary thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15994075,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15998781,\n", " 'text': 'Role of BRAF mutation in facilitating metastasis and progression of papillary thyroid cancer in lymph nodes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16007166,\n", " 'text': 'determination of mutation specific gene expression profiles in papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16007203,\n", " 'text': 'Single-cell clones with efficient knockdown of (V 600 E)B-RAF could be propagated in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor but underwent apoptosis or senescence-like growth arrest upon withdrawal of this growth factor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16015629,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16024606,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16079850,\n", " 'text': 'sustained BRAF(V600E) expression in human melanocytes induces cell cycle arrest, which is accompanied by the induction of both p16(INK4a) and senescence-associated acidic beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) activity, a commonly used senescence marker'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16096377,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation in melanoma is most likely to occur prior to the development of metastatic disease'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16098042,\n", " 'text': 'Although BRAF and NRAS mutations are likely to be important for the initiation and maintenance of some melanomas, other factors might be more significant for proliferation and prognosis in subgroups of aggressive melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16098042,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16123397,\n", " 'text': 'The results showed that conjunctival nevi, similar to skin nevi, have a high frequency of oncogenic BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16129781,\n", " 'text': 'These data suggest that MITF is an anti-proliferation factor that is down-regulated by B-RAF signaling and that this is a crucial event for the progression of melanomas that harbor oncogenic B-RAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16143028,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16144912,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations of the BRAF gene are partly involved in the malignant transformation of the endometrium.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16144912,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16172610,\n", " 'text': 'selective reduction in catalytic activity and expression of B-Raf but not Raf-1 suggest that B-Raf may be playing an important role in altered ERK signaling in brain of suicide subjects, and thus in the pathophysiology of suicide'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16174717,\n", " 'text': 'In patients with papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF mutation is associated with poorer clinicopathological outcomes and independently predicts recurrence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16174717,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16179867,\n", " 'text': 'As the BRAF oncogene is frequently found to be mutated in human cutaneous melanomas, it may constitute a risk factor for melanoma formation within CMN and DMN.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16179870,\n", " 'text': 'The oncogenic B-raf mutations V599E and V599K, as early events in melanocyte transformation, persist throughout metastasis with important prognostic implications.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16181240,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16181547,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16199894,\n", " 'text': 'copy number gain may represent another mechanism of BRAF activation in thyroid tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16268813,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16354196,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16354196,\n", " 'text': 'The estimated proportion of attributable risk of melanoma due to variants in BRAF is 1.6%, but the burden of disease associated with this variant is greater than that associated with the major melanoma locus (CDKN2A) which has a risk of 0.2%.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16354586,\n", " 'text': 'Mutation and elevated expression of BRAF is associated with the development of testicular germ cell tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16361694,\n", " 'text': 'The authors have developed and run a high-throughput screen to find inhibitors of V600E BRAF using an enzyme cascade assay in which oncogenic BRAF activates MEK1, which in turn activates ERK2, which then phosphorylates the transcription factor ELK1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16364920,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that B-RAF activates C-RAF through a mechanism involving 14-3-3 mediated heterooligomerization and C-RAF transphosphorylation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16371460,\n", " 'text': 'V600E B-Raf requires the Hsp90 chaperone for stability and is degraded in response to Hsp90 inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16373964,\n", " 'text': 'activating mutations of PDGFR-alpha, c-kit and B-RAF are absent in gliosarcomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16376942,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16376942,\n", " 'text': 'V599E BRAF mutation was uncommon in Japanese lung cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16382052,\n", " 'text': 'aberrant B-Raf activity in angiomyolipomas leads to abnormal cellular differentiation and migration [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16397024,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genotype prevalence. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16413100,\n", " 'text': 'The most frequent B-RAF gene alterations are not involved in prostate carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16417232,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation does not seem to be sufficient to produce MAPK activation in melanocytic nevi.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16424035,\n", " 'text': 'gain-of-function BRAF signaling is strongly associated with in vivo tumorigenicity'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16439621,\n", " 'text': 'findings demonstrate that heterogeneous de novo missense mutations in three genes within the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2 cause cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16452469,\n", " 'text': 'wild-type B-Raf-mediated ERK1/2 activation plays a major role in proliferation and transformation of uveal melanocytes; Raf-1 is not involved in this activation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16452550,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16462768,\n", " 'text': 'NRAS and BRAF activating mutations can coexist in the same melanoma, but are mutually exclusive at the single-cell level'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16474404,\n", " 'text': 'Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome involves dysregulation of the RAS-RAF-ERK pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16487015,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16537381,\n", " 'text': 'Merlin and MLK3 can interact in situ and merlin can disrupt the interactions between B-Raf and Raf-1 or those between MLK3 and either B-Raf or Raf-1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16547495,\n", " 'text': 'Melanoma cells require either B-RAF or phosphoinositide-3 kinase activation for protection from anoikis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16601293,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E is associated with a high risk of recurrence and less differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma due to the impairment of Na+/I- targeting to the membrane'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16601293,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16618717,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-environment interaction and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16687919,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genotype prevalence. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16691193,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16691193,\n", " 'text': 'UV light is not necessarily required for the acquisition of the BRAF(V600E) mutation, and non-mutagenic effects of UV light to melanocytes may be more important in the nevogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16721785,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are as uncommon as KRAS mutations in prostate adenocarcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16728573,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF (V600E) was confirmed to be associated with the papillary growth pattern, but not with poorer differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma variants.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16728573,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16773193,\n", " 'text': 'among 23 melanomas located at body sites with chronic UV exposure, only a single tumour harboured the B-raf V599E mutation which was a significantly lower frequency in comparison to melanomas from sun-protected body sites'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16786134,\n", " 'text': 'a BRAFT1799A mutation may have a role in poor differentiation of thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16799476,\n", " 'text': 'A subset of Spitz nevi, some with atypical histologic features, possess BRAF mutations. The BRAF mutational status does not separate all Spitz nevi from spitzoid melanomas and non-Spitz types of melanocytic proliferations, contrary to previous reports.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16803888,\n", " 'text': 'Rheb has a central role in the regulation of the Ras/B-Raf/C-Raf/MEK signaling network'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16804544,\n", " 'text': 'CpG island methylator phenotype-positive colorectal tumors represent a distinct subset, encompassing almost all cases of tumors with BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16809487,\n", " 'text': 'findings show that MC1R variants are strongly associated with BRAF mutations in non-chronic sun-induced damage melanomas; in this subtype, risk for melanoma associated with MC1R is due to increase in risk of developing melanomas with BRAF mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16845322,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with melanoma and melanocytic nevi.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16858395,\n", " 'text': 'Thus, we propose that the hitherto unidentified function of the B-Raf amino-terminal region is to mediate calcium-dependent activation of B-Raf and the following MEK activation, which may occur in the absence of Ras activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16858683,\n", " 'text': 'Aberrant methylation and hence silencing of TIMP3, SLC5A8, DAPK and RARbeta2, in association with BRAF mutation, may be an important step in PTC tumorigenesis and progression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16879389,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation was frequent in hyperplastic polyps (67%) and sessile serrated adenomas (81%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16912199,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF has been identified as the most mutated gene in invasive cells and therefore an attractive therapeutic target in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16918136,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are associated with colorectal cancers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16918957,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16924241,\n", " 'text': 'Expression of p27Kip1 in melanoma is regulated by B-RAF at the mRNA level and via B-RAF control of Cks1/Skp2-mediated proteolysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16932278,\n", " 'text': 'Single nucleotide polymorphism found exclusively in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16937524,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 are expressed in colorectal polyps and stool'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16937524,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 are expressed in colorectal polyps and stool [BAT26]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16946010, 'text': 'Braf mutations in thyroid tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16953233,\n", " 'text': 'Concomitant KRAS and BRAF mutations increased along progression of MSS colorectal cancer, suggesting that activation of both genes is likely to harbour a synergistic effect'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16959844,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E activates not only MAPK but also NF-kappaB signaling pathway in human thyroid cancer cells, leading to an acquisition of apoptotic resistance and promotion of invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16960555,\n", " 'text': 'Expression of active mutants of B-Raf induces fibronectin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16964379,\n", " 'text': 'Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-3 (ERK3/MAPK6) is highly expressed in response to BRAF signaling.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16973828,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16987295,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF T1976A mutation is present at high frequency in benign naevi such as Spitz and Reed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17001349,\n", " 'text': 'data support a model in which mutational activation of BRAF in human melanomas contributes to constitutive induction of NF-kappaB activity and to increased survival of melanoma cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17018604,\n", " 'text': 'Normally, BRAF alone is responsible for signaling to MEK. However, when RAS is mutated in melanoma, melanocytes switch their signaling from BRAF to CRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17044028,\n", " 'text': 'Activating BRAF mutation is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17060774,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation remained a significant prognostic factor for lymph node metastasis (odds ratio = 10.8, 95% confidence interval, 3.5-34.0, P < 0.0001).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17074813,\n", " 'text': 'phosphorylation on both S365 and S429 participate in the differential regulation of B-Raf isoforms through distinct mechanisms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17097223,\n", " 'text': 'data provide evidence that oncogenic properties of BRAF contribute to the tumorigenesis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm/carcinoma (IPMN/IPMC), but at a lower frequency than KRAS'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17119056,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF-V600E mutations are mainly involved in colorectal cancer families characterized by an increased risk of other common malignancies'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17119447,\n", " 'text': 'Association with preexisting nevi and pronounced infiltration of lymphocytes was significantly higher in BRAF mutated melanoma tumours'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17148775,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17148775,\n", " 'text': 'Previously identified associations between smoking and colon cancer, whether microsatellite unstable or stable, appear to be explained by the association of smoking with BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17159915,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(T1799A) mutation is associated with a lower rate of tumor proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17159915,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17170014,\n", " 'text': 'RASSF1A methylation was observed in a high frequency in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma whereas K-ras and B-raf mutations were observed in a low frequency'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17179987,\n", " 'text': 'The role for BRAF activation in thyroid cancer development and establishing the potential therapeutic efficacy of BRAF-targeted agents in patients with thyroid cancerwill be reviewed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17186541,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with thyroid carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17186541,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17195912,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17195912,\n", " 'text': 'there is a subgroup of colorectal carcinomas which develop via the microsatellite instability pathway that carry an alteration of the BRAF gene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17199737,\n", " 'text': 'Absence of association between BRAF mutation and activation of MAPK pathway in papillary thyroid carcinoma suggests the presence of mechanisms that downregulate MAPK activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17227125,\n", " 'text': 'Copy gain of PDGFB occurs in a subset of tumors showing no evidence of mutated BRAF or rearranged ret, suggesting that copy gain of PDGFB may underlie the increased expression of platelet-derived growth factor described recently in the literature.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17270239,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17297294,\n", " 'text': 'characterization of the T1799-1801del and A1799-1816ins BRAF mutations in papillary thyroid cancer; the two new mutations resulted in constitutive activation of the BRAF kinase and caused NIH3T3 cell transformation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17302867,\n", " 'text': 'Overexpression of B-Raf mRNA and protein may be a feature of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, highlighting overactivity of the Ras-B-Raf-MAP kinase pathway in these tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17309670,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF gene plays a \"gatekeeper\" role but does not act as a predisposition gene in the development of low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17309670,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17312306,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17315191,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E represents a detectable marker in the plasma/serum from melanoma patients for monitoring but not diagnostic purposes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17318013,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF mutations are a rare event in pituitary tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17355635,\n", " 'text': 'The aim of this study was to identify the effect that BRAF oncogene has on post-transcriptional regulation in papillary thyroid carcinoma by using microRNA analysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17360030,\n", " 'text': 'findings show that RASSF1A hypermethylation and KRAS mutations and BRAF mutations are inversely correlated and play an important role in the development of cervical adenocarcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17366577,\n", " 'text': 'mutational analysis of KRAS, BRAF, and MAP2K1/2 in 56 patients with CFC syndrome; comparison of the genotype-phenotype correlation of CFC with that of Costello syndrome suggest a significant clinical overlap but not genotype overlap.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17387744,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is identified in a subset of cutaneous metastases from papillary thyroid carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17393356,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17393356,\n", " 'text': 'data suggest that BRAF mutations might be present less frequently than KRAS mutations in Greek patients with colorectal carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17440063,\n", " 'text': 'finding of a strong association between BRAF mutations and serrated histology in hyperplastic aberrant crypt foci supports the idea that these lesions are an early, sentinel, or a potentially initiating step on the serrated pathway to colorectal carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17453004,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation was occasionally observed in anaplastic carcinomas with papillary carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17453358,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17454879,\n", " 'text': 'MSI is rare in UC-related neoplasia as well as non-neoplastic lesions, and does not contribute to the development of dysplasia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17464312,\n", " 'text': 'prevalence of BRAF mutation and RET/PTC were determined in diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma; none of the cases showed a BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17483702,\n", " 'text': 'Molecular diagnosis and careful observations should be considered in children with Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome because they have germline mutations in BRAF and might develop malignancy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17487277,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17487504,\n", " 'text': 'c-kit expression is not alternative to BRAF and/or KRAS activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17488796,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation in PTCs is associated with reduced expression of key genes involved in iodine metabolism'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17507627,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17507627,\n", " 'text': 'data indicate that both early-life UV exposure and nevus propensity contribute to occurrence of BRAF+ melanoma, whereas nevus propensity and later-life sun exposure influence the occurrence of NRAS+ melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17516929,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of a BRAF mutation-associated gene expression signature in melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17518771,\n", " 'text': 'low rate of RAS-RAF mutations (2/22, 9.1%) observed in Spitz melanocytic nevi suggests that these lesions harbor as yet undetected activating mutations in other components of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK-MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17520704,\n", " 'text': 'Meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17520704,\n", " 'text': 'frequency of the BRAF mutation and the associations between BRAF mutation and clinicopathologic parameters in papillary thyroid carcinoma were evaluated by meta-analysis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17525723,\n", " 'text': 'T1790A BRAF mutation (L597Q) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a functional oncogene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17535994,\n", " 'text': 'The heterogeneous distribution of BRAF mutations suggests that discrete tumor foci in multifocal PTC may occur as independent tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17542667,\n", " 'text': 'Presence of BRAF V600E in very early stages of papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17548320,\n", " 'text': 'influence of B-RAF-specific RNA interference on the proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer BGC823 cell line'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17566669,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17566669,\n", " 'text': 'We conclude that screening for BRAF 15 exon mutation is an efficient tool in the diagnostic strategy for HNPCC'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17635919,\n", " 'text': 'In contrast to C-RAF that requires farnesylated H-Ras, cytosolic B-RAF associates effectively and with significantly higher affinity with both farnesylated and nonfarnesylated H-Ras.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17663506,\n", " 'text': 'KLF6 and p53 mutations are involved in the development of nonpolypoid colorectal carcinoma, whereas K-ras and B-raf mutations are not'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17671688,\n", " 'text': 'PPARbeta/delta has a role in growth of RAF-induced lung adenomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17685465,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid may facilitate tumor cell growth and progression once seeded in the lymph nodes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17693984,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genotype prevalence, gene-disease association, and genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17693984,\n", " 'text': 'There was no coexistence of BRAF (V600E) mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17696195,\n", " 'text': 'data showed differences in gene expression between nevi with and without the V600E BRAF mutation. Moreover, nevi with mutations showed over-expression of genes involved in melanocytic senescence and cell cycle inhibition'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17699719,\n", " 'text': 'RNA interference and pharmacologic approaches were used to assess the role of B-Raf activation in the growth of human melanomas and additionally determined if a similar role for mutant B-Raf is seen for colorectal carcinoma cell lines.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17704260,\n", " 'text': '5 unreported mutations (T241P, Q262R, G464R, E501V, N581K) were found in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. A hotspot in exon 6 at Q257 was found.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17714762,\n", " 'text': 'diffuse expression of wild-type and/or mutant B-Raf may be involved in the tumorigenic process'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17717450,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is primarily present in conventional papillary thyroid cancer; it is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype and higher risk of recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17717450,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17721188,\n", " 'text': 'Develompment of malignant strumo ovarii with papillary thyroid carcinoma features is associated with BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17727338,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation detected on fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens, more than RET/PTC rearrangements, is highly specific for papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17785355,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with high-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17785355,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17786355,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutations were found in 41.2% of the papillary thyroid carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17854396,\n", " 'text': 'Papillary thyroid cancers with no 131I uptake had a high frequency of BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17878251,\n", " 'text': 'MEK inhibition is cytostatic in papillary thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer cells bearing a BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17911174,\n", " 'text': 'effects of a MEK inhibitor, CI-1040, on thyroid cancer cells, some of which, particularly cell proliferation and tumor growth, seemed to be BRAF mutation or RAS mutation selective'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17914558,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated as early as the hyperplastic polyp stage followed by microsatellite instability at the carcinoma stage'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17924122,\n", " 'text': 'Examined associations between BRAF mutations, morphology, and apoptosis in early colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17940185,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation represents a novel indicator of the progression and aggressiveness of papillary thyroid cancer (Review)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17942568,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF interacts with PLCepsilon1 in nephrotic syndrome type 3. Both proteins are coexpressed and colocalize in developing and mature glomerular podocytes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17962436,\n", " 'text': 'In this small study, the T1799A BRAF mutation was identified in almost half of the iris melanoma tissues samples examined. This finding suggests that there may be genetic as well as clinical differences between iris and posterior uveal melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17972530,\n", " 'text': 'These results suggest that papillary thyroid carcinomas with BRAF (V600E) mutation are more aggressive than those with wildtype BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18000091,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18008004,\n", " 'text': 'mutation of N-RAS or B-RAF, signature genetic lesions present in most MMs, potently induced the expression of cell-surface CD200, a repressor of DC function.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18024410,\n", " 'text': 'no BRAF mutations identified in 65 screened JMML patients; this gene is unlikely to play a role in the pathogenesis of JMML.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18032947,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF mutation is common in melanomas, but variation in rates across melanoma subtypes points to a complex interplay between BRAF activation and other factors (eg, sun exposure).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18042262,\n", " 'text': 'the results of HRAS, BRAF and MAP2K1/2 mutation screening in a large cohort of patients with CS and CFC'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18045960,\n", " 'text': 'Detection of BRAF improves the diagnosis in fine-needle biopsy with cytological findings suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18045987,\n", " 'text': 'These results identify Rnd3 as a regulator of cross talk between the RAF/MEK/ERK and Rho/ROCK signaling pathways, and a key contributor to oncogene-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18060073,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and MEK1/2 mutations may be more common than anticipated in ovarian cancer which could have important implications for treatment of patients with this disease and suggests potential new therapeutic avenues'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18061181,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18070147,\n", " 'text': \"BRAF(V600E)'alone' does not represent a marker for poor outcome\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 18071315,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf(V600E) signaling deregulates the mitotic spindle checkpoint through stabilizing Mps1 levels in melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18098337,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF provides proliferation and survival signals in MSI colorectal carcinoma cells displaying BRAF(V600E) but not KRAS mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18172070,\n", " 'text': 'Because of the very sensitive pyrophosphorolysis-activated polymerization (PAP)technology, B-RAF mutations were found in cell lines and primary uveal melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18199160,\n", " 'text': 'A worse clinical outcome was found for CIMP-high, microsatellite stable colorectal cancer with KRAS/BRAF mutation but not for those lacking KRAS/BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18224685,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18226854,\n", " 'text': 'frequency of the occurrence of BRAF mutation and/or RET/PTC in H4-PTEN positive tumors was extremely high (75%) in papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18227705,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is not associated with cutaneous melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18228248,\n", " 'text': 'Important signalling role in T cell development.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18235983,\n", " 'text': 'Follicular histotypes of oncocytic thyroid carcinomas do not carry BRAF mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18246127,\n", " 'text': 'Mutant B-RAF mediates resistance to anoikis via Bad and Bim.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18267069,\n", " 'text': 'A genome-wide RNA-interference screening to identify genes required for an activated BRAF oncogene to block proliferation of fibroblasts and melanocytes revealed that a IGFBP7, has a central role in BRAF-mediated senescence and apoptosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18310286,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF T1799A mutation is associated with aggressive pathological outcomes of papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18310287,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is asscoiated with papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18310288,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF-V600E mutation is associated with familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18323787,\n", " 'text': 'Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity is subject to regulation even in BRAF/NRAS mutant melanoma cells and that high MAPK pathway signaling may be important only in distinct subsets of tumor cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18329792,\n", " 'text': 'RKIP could play an important role in the down-regulation of wild-type BRAF, serving thus as an endogenous inhibitor of the MAPK pathway in nasal polyps and their adjacent turbinate mucosa.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18337114,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation testing of papillary thyroid carcinoma might improve the diagnosis, prognostic stratification and treatment of these tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18343945,\n", " 'text': 'Our data provide evidence that PIK3CA and BRAF contribute to the tumorigenesis of IPMN/IPMC, but at a lower frequency than KRAS.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18368129,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18368129,\n", " 'text': 'This study confirms that the known MC1R-melanoma risk association is confined to subjects whose melanomas harbor BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18375819,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with disease stabilization in melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18381570,\n", " 'text': 'Thyroid cancers with BRAF mutation are preferentially sensitive to MEK inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18382358,\n", " 'text': 'Detecting BRAF mutation by pyrosequencing is more sensitive, faster, and less expensive than direct DNA sequencing.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18383861,\n", " 'text': 'K-RAS and BRAF mutations are a frequent genetic event in our samples of sporadic papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18383861,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18397470,\n", " 'text': 'is commonly activated by somatic point mutation, it may provide possible diagnostic and therapeutic targets in human malignant tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18398503,\n", " 'text': 'Results implicate aberrant activation of the MAPK pathway due to gene duplication or mutation of BRAF as a molecular mechanism of pathogenesis in low-grade astrocytomas and suggest inhibition of the MAPK pathway as a potential treatment.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18402768,\n", " 'text': 'Aberrant BRAF and INK4A functionally interact to promote growth and survival of melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18408659,\n", " 'text': 'in melanocytic lesions, BRAF(V600E) mutation can affect a subset of the cells and is associated with the type and quantity of sun exposure'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18413255,\n", " 'text': 'study describes the biochemical characterization of novel BRAF and MEK germline mutations in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18434602,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk1/cyclin B has a role in regulating B-raf activation at mitosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18435933,\n", " 'text': 'CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal neoplasms may result from activating mutations in either BRAF or KRAS.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18451171,\n", " 'text': 'Akt3 and mutant V600E B-Raf cooperate to promote early melanoma development.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18458053,\n", " 'text': 'oncogenic BRAF inhibition can have a different effect on cell fate depending on the cellular type'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18470905,\n", " 'text': 'aberrant methylation of the hMLH1 gene may play a role in BRAF mutation-promoted thyroid tumorigenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18509003,\n", " 'text': 'study revealed a significant correlation of BRAFV600E mutation with a lower expression of both sodium iodide symporter and thyroperoxidase in papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18509361,\n", " 'text': 'Shorter overall survival in primary melanoma was associated with the presence of ulceration and BRAF exon 15 mutations, as well as the absence of nuclear activation of Akt and of cytoplasmic activation of ERK.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18517279,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer microsatellite-stable cases are associated with high levels of chromosomal instability that are likely responsible for the adverse outcomes in these cases'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18519771,\n", " 'text': 'a significant relationship in overall survival in colon cancer patients with defective DNA mismatch repair and the presence of a specific mutation in BRAF (V600E)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18532874,\n", " 'text': 'Compared to melanomas without BRAF mutations, melanomas with BRAF mutations showed statistically significantly higher degrees of intraepidermal scatter of melanocytes, and a higher proportion of melanocytes arranged in nests.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18567582,\n", " 'text': 'the scaffold protein IQGAP1 couples Ca(2+) and calmodulin signaling to B-Raf function'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18592405,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18594528,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18602919,\n", " 'text': 'Rac1b and B-Raf(V600E) functionally cooperate to sustain colorectal cell viability and suggest they constitute an alternative survival pathway to oncogenic K-Ras'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18615679,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18615679,\n", " 'text': 'V600E BRAF mutation is associated with imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18615680,\n", " 'text': 'MLH1 methylation and BRAF mutations are associated with microsatellite unstable colon tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18615680,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18621636,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18628356,\n", " 'text': 'The frequencies of LOHs of 17q21, 17p13, 10q23, and 22q13 were higher in tumors with lymph node metastasis, suggesting that these LOHs may be important in increased lymph node metastasis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18628431,\n", " 'text': 'People of southern European origin had lower risk of colorectal cancers with CIMP and BRAF mutation than people of Anglo-Celtic origin, which may in part be due to genetic factors that are less common in people of southern European origin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18628967,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF regulates melanoma proliferation through the lineage specific factor MITF'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18632627,\n", " 'text': 'co-overexpression of KIT/CDK4 is a potential mechanism of oncogenic transformation in some BRAF/NRAS wild-type melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18636014,\n", " 'text': 'lung adenocarcinoma of mixed type with a high incidence of papillary and lepidic growth may be worthwhile investigating for BRAF-V600E mutation as more genetically oriented drug therapies emerge.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18650848,\n", " 'text': 'hyperactivation of the MAPK pathway following activation of an inducible form of oncogenic C-Raf induces a senescence-like proliferation arrest in B-Raf mutant melanoma cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18668139,\n", " 'text': \"N-RAS(Q61K) and B-RAF(V600E) contribute to melanoma's resistance to apoptosis in part by downregulating Bim expression\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 18669866,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18676742,\n", " 'text': 'CST6, CXCL14, DHRS3, and SPP1 are regulated by BRAF signaling and may play a role in papillary thyroid carcinoma pathogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18676756,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18682506,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18682506,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation was demonstrated to be a poor prognostic factor independent from other clinicopathological features.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18697864,\n", " 'text': 'Identification and functional characterization of a novel T599I-VKSR(600-603)del BRAF mutation in a patient with follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18710471,\n", " 'text': 'There is a higher frequency of the BRAF(V600E) mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas than in normal thyroid tissue.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18715233,\n", " 'text': 'These data suggest that regulation of BIM expression by BRAF-->MEK-->ERK signaling is one mechanism by which oncogenic BRAF(V600E) can influence the aberrant physiology of melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18716556,\n", " 'text': 'focal gains at chromosome 7q34 and increased BRAF-MEK-ERK signaling are common findings in sporadic pilocytic astrocytomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18718023,\n", " 'text': 'presence of the BRAF (V600E) mutation,the incidence of microsatellite instability high colorectal cancer in populations based study.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18757341,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS and BRAF mutations can impair response to anti-EGFR therapy for colorectal neoplasms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18757433,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18759827,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18778891,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with the CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer from young patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18778891,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18782444,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF, KRAS and PIK3CA mutations occur prior to malignant transformation demonstrating that these oncogenic alterations are primary genetic events in colorectal carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18782444,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18787396,\n", " 'text': 'These data implicates a mitotic role for B-Raf in regulating spindle formation and the spindle checkpoint in human somatic cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18794094,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18794803,\n", " 'text': 'study identified a group of melanomas with low-activity BRAF mutations (G469E- and D594G) that are reliant upon CRAF-mediated survival activity'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18798261,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation occurs independently of CpG island methylator phenotype and MSI in all types of serrated polyps and may serve as a marker of serrated pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18806830,\n", " 'text': 'study concludes a single endogenous BRAF(V600E) allele is sufficient to repress BIM & prevent death from growth factor withdrawal; colorectal cancer cells with V600E mutations are addicted to the ERK1/2 pathway for repression of BIM'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18832519,\n", " 'text': 'CIMP-high appears to be an independent predictor of a low colon cancer-specific mortality, while BRAF mutation is associated with a high colon cancer-specific mortality.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18834226,\n", " 'text': 'With at least 3 markers methylated, new CIMP-positive colorectal cancers were closely associated with proximal tumor location, low frequency of KRAS mutation, and high frequency of BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18840924,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation may play some roles in local carcinoma development, there is no evidence that BRAF(V600E) mutation significantly reflects the aggressive characteristics and poor prognosis of patients with papillary carcinoma in Japan.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18840924,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18945298,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E appeared to be the most commonly mutated gene in both the melanocytic aggregate (seven of 18, 39%) and the melanoma (four of 18, 22%)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18946221,\n", " 'text': 'Hereditary pancreatitis patients with PRSS1 mutations also had mutations in BRAF and KRAS2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18953432,\n", " 'text': 'study shows high expression of p16(INK4a) or the absence of activated B-RAF correlates with in vivo response of melanoma to cytotoxic drugs'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18974108,\n", " 'text': 'rearrangement, which was not observed in a series of 244 higher-grade astrocytomas, results in an in-frame fusion gene incorporating the kinase domain of the BRAF oncogene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18980976,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18985043,\n", " 'text': 'the T1799A BRAF mutation is present in a proportion of posterior uveal melanomas but within these tumours the distribution of the mutation is heterogeneous.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18987552,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations may not play an important role in the oncogenesis or therapy of prostate adenocarcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18992635,\n", " 'text': '8% of sporadic colorectal tumors in this study harbor mutation in the BRAF gene.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18992635,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19001320,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19001320,\n", " 'text': 'Wild-type BRAF is required for response to panitumumab or cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19003996,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF-V600E mutation is uncommon in endocrine tumors other than thyroid papillary carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19012001,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19012001,\n", " 'text': 'The result showed that the mutation rate of PIK3CA in nasopharyngeal carcinomas (n = 73) was 9.6%, whereas both BRAF (n = 65) and RAS (n = 45) were wild type in every specimen with adequate DNA for analysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19014278,\n", " 'text': 'In Korean patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, the BRAFV600E mutation is associated with a lower frequency of background Hashimoto thyroiditis and a high frequency of lymph node metastasis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19014278,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19016743,\n", " 'text': 'Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing revealed a fusion product between KIAA1549 and BRAF in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19018267,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19018267,\n", " 'text': 'ovarian cancer patients with KRAS or BRAF mutations may benefit from CI-1040 treatment'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19026650,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19033861,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19034577,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is assocciated with aggressive papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19034577,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19037234,\n", " 'text': 'NRAS and BRAF mutations increase from the radial to the vertical growth phase in cutaneous melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19064572,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study and meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19079609,\n", " 'text': 'Genetic extinction of BRAF(V600E) in established prostate tumors did not lead to tumor regression, indicating that while sufficient to initiate development of invasive prostate adenocarcinoma, BRAF(V600E) is not required for its maintenance.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19087308,\n", " 'text': 'G12D mutation may be more likely selected in a BRAF mutated context'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19098310,\n", " 'text': 'ERK activation was induced by PKD2 overexpression via B-Raf signaling, providing a possible molecular mechanism of cystogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19107232,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF pseudogene activation may play a role in thyroid tumor development.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19126563,\n", " 'text': 'Sessile serrated adenomas are encountered commonly in routine endoscopy practice and the histological diagnosis correlates strongly with the presence of BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19127559,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19133693,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19142971,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19147753,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and RET/PTC dual mutations are associated with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19147753,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19152441,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19159571,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19164452,\n", " 'text': 'MLH1-hypermethylated tumors harbor fewer APC and KRAS mutations and more BRAF mutations, suggesting that they develop distinctly from an MGMT methylator pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19178815,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations are absent or rare in the kinase domain of B-RAF in Japanese head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19178815,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19190079,\n", " 'text': 'Mutation in BRAF is associated with adrenocortical carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19190105,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19190129,\n", " 'text': 'Distinct BRAF (V600E) and KRAS mutations in high microsatellite instability sporadic colorectal cancer in African Americans.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19190129,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19194051,\n", " 'text': 'Expression levels of fibronectin, vimentin and CITED1 were positively correlated with those of BRAFV600E, suggesting pathophysiological links between activated BRAF and overexpression of these genes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19200582,\n", " 'text': '(novel) mutation in the activation kinase domain of the BRAF (A598V), this mutation led to the up-regulation of the BRAF kinase activity and its downstream signaling factors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19206169,\n", " 'text': 'Findings provide evidence for a wide phenotypic diversity associated with mutations affecting BRAF, and occurrence of a clinical continuum associated with these molecular lesions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19207009,\n", " 'text': 'the presence of the braf protein mutation increases prohibitin promoter activity and therefore potentially mediates effects of this mutation on the behavior of BRAF protein'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19208736,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFT1799A mutation or RET/PTC rearrangement, mainly corresponding to follicular variants, maintain a thyroid differentiation expression level close to that of normal tissue.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19226609,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF* melanomas appear to be associated with a specific profile of DNA copy number aberrations that is distinct from those found in NRAS* and BRAF/NRAS(wt/wt) tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19237633,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19240718,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19255327,\n", " 'text': 'Clinical trial of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19274086,\n", " 'text': 'oncogenic BRAF(V600E) induces the uncoupling of LKB1-AMPKalpha complexes providing at the same time a possible mechanism in cell proliferation that engages cell growth and cell division in response to mitogenic stimuli'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19276360,\n", " 'text': 'GDC-0879-mediated efficacy was associated strictly with BRAF(V600E) status, MEK inhibition also attenuated proliferation and tumor growth of cell lines expressing wild-type BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19282104,\n", " 'text': 'study of KRAS/BRAF mutation status in a large and well-documented cohort of primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19289622,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19289622,\n", " 'text': 'a correlation between a gene mutation--BRAF V600E--and cisplatin resistance in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19342899,\n", " 'text': 'Both BRAF and RKIP expression levels exhibit a decrease from normal skin tissue and actinic keratosis, going to squamous cell carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19344998,\n", " 'text': 'In BRAF mutated colorectal carcinoma cells quercetin, luteolin and ursolic acid decreased Akt phosphorylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19351817,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19355825,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) is associated some of the aggressive clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma including younger age at diagnosis, larger tumor size, and classic histological type, as well as also extrathyroidal invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19355825,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19358278,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19362540,\n", " 'text': 'Targets of phosphorylation by B-Raf signaling are investigated in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19369630,\n", " 'text': 'K-ras, EGFR, and BRAF mutations are disproportionately seen in adenocarcinomas of lung with a dominant micropapillary growth pattern compared with conventional adenocarcinoma in our institutional experience.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19369630,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19370505,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation was significantly found in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19370505,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19372556,\n", " 'text': 'Mutation in BRAF is associated with ERK1/2 activation and MEK1/2 inhibitor therapy in colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19378335,\n", " 'text': 'proliferation of cells harboring mutations in B-Raf, but not K-Ras, is exquisitely sensitive inhibition of the MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19383313,\n", " 'text': 'REVIEW summarizes the literature on NRAS and BRAF activating mutations in melanoma tumors with respect to available data on histogenetic classification as well as body site and presumed UV-exposure.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19383316,\n", " 'text': 'The genes whose expression is associated with BRAF mutations are not simply restricted to the MAPK/ERK signaling but also converge to enhanced immune responsiveness, cell motility and melanosomes processing involved in the adaptative UV response'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19389934,\n", " 'text': 'a subpopulation of melanocytes possesses the ability to survive BRAF(V600E)-induced senescence'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19393416,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF mutation was found to be significantly higher in papillary carcinomas when compared to follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas (55.6% vs 14.3%, P = 0.05).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19393416,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19398955,\n", " 'text': 'The murine model of mutant BRAF-induced melanoma formation provides an important tool for identifying further genetic alterations that cooperates with BRAF and that may be useful in enhancing susceptibility to BRAF-targeted therapeutics in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19404844,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19404844,\n", " 'text': 'elevated pERK expression occurs in urothelial carcinoma in the absence of B-Raf mutations and is not correlated with FGFR3 over-expression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19404918,\n", " 'text': 'Investigated BRAF mutations in 30 bladder tumors. Detected two tumor specimens bearing two different mutations, both of which were found in exon 15. One sample showed the T1799A (V600E) and the other the G1798T (V600L) mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19404918,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19414674,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19415957,\n", " 'text': 'The T1799A BRAF mutation does not appear to play a role in the tumorigenesis of the cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19416762,\n", " 'text': 'Novel BRAF mutation in a patient with LEOPARD syndrome and normal intelligence is reported.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19424571,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is not the target gene for abnormal DNA mismatch repair in patients with sporadic endometrial cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19424639,\n", " 'text': \"Report efficient molecular screening of Lynch syndrome by specific 3' promoter methylation of the MLH1 or BRAF mutation in colorectal cancer with high-frequency microsatellite instability.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 19430562,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations in BRAF were found 10% patients in the low-grade carcinoma group, however, they were not found in the high-grade carcinoma group. KRAS and BRAF mutations were mutually exclusive, and both mutations were observed in 40%.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19430562,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19440799,\n", " 'text': 'oncogenic properties of KRAS and BRAF but not NRAS, HRAS, and PIK3CA contribute to the tumorigenesis of periampullary and ampullary tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19461239,\n", " 'text': 'mismatch repair deficiency is not a crucial event for BRAF mutation in melanocytic tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19464601,\n", " 'text': 'The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway has emerged as a major player in the induction and maintenance of melanoma, particularly the protein kinase BRAF, mutated in approximately 44% of melanoma cases. Review.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19474002,\n", " 'text': 'data confirm that KRAS and BRAF mutations do occur in the same cell and that BRAF V600E mutation is associated with CIMP+ status.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19483722,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf/MKK/ERK provides a permissive environment for melanoma genesis by modulating plexin B1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19487299,\n", " 'text': 'If BRAF is mutated in the primary thyroid neoplasm, it is likely that the metastases will harbor the defect.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19487299,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19492075,\n", " 'text': 'Targeting NRAS alone or both BRAF and CRAF in combination or both BRAF and PIK3CA together showed delay in tumor growth.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19498322,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19498322,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that activating BRAF somatic mutations may be occasionally found in advanced adrenocortical carcinomas, while CTNNB1 activating mutations are early and common events in adrenal tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19504446,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19534622,\n", " 'text': 'CTNNB1 and BRAF mutations may have roles in the cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19534623,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E may have a role in development of papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19543740,\n", " 'text': 'Pilocytic astrocytomas had BRAF fusions in 70% of cases but not IDH1 or IDH2 mutations. Diffuse astrocytomas had IDH1 mutations in 76% of cases but not IDH2 mutations or BRAF fusions. Analysis of BRAF and IDH1 separates pilocytic from diffuse astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19547661,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19551857,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19561230,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations represent an alternative molecular pathway in the early tumorigenesis of a subset of KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GISTs and are per se not associated with a high risk of malignancy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19561230,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19571295,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19571295,\n", " 'text': 'study concludes that a BRAF mutation is a negative prognostic marker in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19571709,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutated tumors occurred with a much greater frequency in proximal colon tumors than in either distal colon or rectal tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19571821,\n", " 'text': 'We observed no association between germline MC1R status and somatic BRAF mutations in melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19574281,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation analysis can significantly improve FNAB diagnostic accuracy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19584155,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19584155,\n", " 'text': 'Results suggest that the mutations of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF between primary tumors and corresponding lymph node metastases should be considered whenever mutations are used for the selection of patients for EGFR-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19603018,\n", " 'text': 'Assessing KRAS and BRAF mutations might help optimising the selection of the candidate metastatic colorectal cancer patients to receive anti-EGFR moAbs.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19603018,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19603024,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (P=0.01) mutations predicted reduced progress free survival in response to cetuximab salvage therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer .'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19603024,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19624312,\n", " 'text': 'Mutated BRAF is a target in metastatic melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19626635,\n", " 'text': 'In this study, 28 matched tumor and serum samples obtained from patients with both benign and malignant thyroid disorders were analyzed for BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19626635,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19628078,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19633643,\n", " 'text': 'Characterization of candidate gene copy number alterations in the 11q13 region along with BRAF and NRAS mutations in human melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19637313,\n", " 'text': 'strong inter-relation between DR4 AND DR5 overexpression and presence of oncogenic KRAS/ BRAF mutations in colon cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19638574,\n", " 'text': 'Sorafenib inhibits NSCLC cell growth by targeting B-RAF in cells with wild-type KRAS and C-RAF in those with mutant KRAS.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19644722,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19652585,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19659611,\n", " 'text': 'simultaneous depletion of both MITF and BRAF(V600E) significantly inhibited melanoma growth even for the melanoma cell lines resistant to MITF depletion'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19667985,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that in pilocytic astrocytomas, the BRAF fusion gene has been identified as a specific and frequent event leading to potentially targetable mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19669908,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and DATA ERROR. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19679016,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that drugs are effective in targeting essential molecular pathways of BRAF, PTEN, Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19679059,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations in BRAF protein is associated with Colorectal Carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19679059,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19681119,\n", " 'text': 'Investigated the prevalence of PTPN11, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, MEK1, and MEK2 mutations in a relatively large cohort of primary embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) tumors. No mutation was observed in BRAF and MEK genes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19682280,\n", " 'text': 'This study provides a basis for understanding the molecular processes that are regulated by (V600E)BRAF/MEK signalling in melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19686742,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19690147,\n", " 'text': 'a dual mechanism that affects the Sprouty2/B-Raf interaction: Sprouty phosphorylation and B-Raf conformation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19693938,\n", " 'text': 'Whenever necessary BRAF testing may be performed on the residual samples of thyroid nodules, without interfering with routine cytology.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19704056,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19710001,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation can be used as a potential prognostic factor in PTMC patients in a BRAF(V600E)-prevalent area.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19710016,\n", " 'text': 'DGKeta acts as a novel critical regulatory component of the Ras/B-Raf/C-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade via a previously unidentified mechanism.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19718661,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of the effect on the Ras/Raf signaling pathway of post-translational modifications of neurofibromin'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19724843,\n", " 'text': 'This article focuses on reviewing the impact of the BRAFV600E mutation in the tumorigenesis of Papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19725049,\n", " 'text': 'EPAC-mediated cellular effects require activation of the B-Raf/ERK and mTOR signaling cascades'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19735675,\n", " 'text': 'Insights into the molecular function of the inactivating mutations of B-Raf involving the DFG motif.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19738388,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19738460,\n", " 'text': 'Papillary carcinomas of the thyroid with papillary growth and areas of follicular growth have a high frequency of BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19745699,\n", " 'text': 'Beta-catenin nuclear labeling is a common feature of sessile serrated adenomas and correlates with early neoplastic progression after BRAF activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19752400,\n", " 'text': 'The polyclonality of BRAF mutations in acquired melanocytic nevi suggests that mutation of BRAF may not be an initial event in melanocyte transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19759551,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of coexisting NRAS and BRAF mutations in primary familial melanomas with specific CDKN2A germline alterations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19765726,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19794125,\n", " 'text': 'As predicted from the genomic organization at this locus, 22 of 36 patients with sporadic pilocytic astrocytomas and B-Raf gene rearrangement also exhibit corresponding homeodomain interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) gene amplification.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19826477,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19829302,\n", " 'text': 'data argues against obligatory downregulation in IGFBP7 expression in BRAF mutated melanoma cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19850689,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(T1799A) can be detected in the blood of papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with residual or metastatic disease and may provide diagnostic information'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19850689,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19855373,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutations were seen in 83% of proximal and 74% of distal hyperplastic colonic polyps'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19861538,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E oncogene induces transforming growth factor beta secretion leading to sodium iodide symporter repression and increased malignancy in thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19861964,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19861964,\n", " 'text': 'These data demonstrate the feasibility of BRAF mutation detection in cfDNA of patients with advanced melanoma. Future studies should aim to incorporate BRAF mutation testing in cfDNA to further validate this biomarker for patient selection.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19878585,\n", " 'text': 'Suppression of BRAF gene expression inhibited cell proliferation in cells with BRAF(V600E) mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19880519,\n", " 'text': 'Hyperactivation of BRAF-MEK signaling activates MAP2 expression in melanoma cells by two independent mechanisms, promoter demethylation or down-regulation of neuronal transcription repressor HES1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19881948,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and KRAS oncogenes have different transforming capability in colon cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19883729,\n", " 'text': 'The knowledge of BRAF mutation status can facilitate more accurate risk stratification and better decision making at various steps in the management of papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19884549,\n", " 'text': 'Clinical trial of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19884549,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS and BRAF mutations in advanced colorectal cancer are associated with poor prognosis but do not preclude benefit from oxaliplatin or irinotecan.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19884556,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF status, EGFR amplification, and cytoplasmic expression of PTEN were associated with outcome measures in KRAS wild-type patients treated with a cetuximab-based regimen.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19884556,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19893451,\n", " 'text': 'Study identified the previously reported pathogenic mutation of NTRK3 in a KRAS/BRAF wild-type tumor and 2 somatic mutations in the Src family of kinases (YES1 and LYN) that would be expected to cause structural changes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19903786,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19908233,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF gene mutation is associated with colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19908233,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19913317,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are not relevant for rectal carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19913317,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19917255,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that melanoma cells expressing B-Raf(V600E) display a reduced C-Raf:B-Raf ratio, and further suppression of C-Raf increases MAPK activation and proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19919630,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutational status appears to be of limited diagnostic utility in distinguishing genital naevi that exhibit atypia from those that do not.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19919912,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19935791,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19955937,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19955937,\n", " 'text': 'v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene mutations are common in ovarian serous bordeline tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19956635,\n", " 'text': 'Uncategorized study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19958951,\n", " 'text': 'clinical, cytologic, and pathologic parameters of 106 consecutive surgically treated patients with BRAF-positive PTC were compared with a concurrent cohort of 100 patients with BRAF-negative PTC (papillary thyroid carcinoma)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19959686,\n", " 'text': '2-fold increased risk of BRAF V600E colonic tumor mutation was observed in current and former cigarette smokers homozygous for the OGG1 polymorphism'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19960590,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF T1796A mutation was identified in 27% of papillary thyroid cancer samples and its identification may be used to determine this risk factor of the development of papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19960590,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20008640,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20009493,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with high-risk clinicopathological characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma and worse prognosis of patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20009493,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20012784,\n", " 'text': 'Screening for BRAF, RET, KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS mutations, as well as RET-PTC1 and RET-PTC3 rearrangements, was performed on cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis with a dominant nodule'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20023270,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E detection in the tumor does not induce a higher expression of the B-raf protein or the preferential activation of the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway compared with GISTs without the BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20027224,\n", " 'text': 'CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-specific inactivation of BRAF(V600E)-induced senescence and apoptosis pathways by IGFBP7 DNA hypermethylation might create a favorable context for the acquisition of BRAF(V600E) in CIMP+ colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20043015,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20043015,\n", " 'text': 'no support for MC1R variants with BRAF mutation for melanoma risk'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20044755,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF gene rearrangements were more common in cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma than non-cerebellar tumors; clinical outcome was independent of BRAF status'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20049644,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations only in metastases is not associated with resistance to anti-EGFR treatment in primary colorectal tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20049644,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20051945,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20068183,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation seems to define a subset of malignant astrocytomas in children, in which there is frequent concomitant homozygous deletion of CDKN2A (five of seven cases).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20098682,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20118768,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20140953,\n", " 'text': 'Formalin-fixed primary melanomas from relapsed and nonrelapsed patients were sequenced for common BRAF and NRAS mutations. BRAF/NRAS mutations were detected in 77% of relapsers and 58% of nonrelapsers and did not predict ulceration or mitotic rate.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20146801,\n", " 'text': 'Data demonstrate a signaling loop between B-Raf activation and p73 function, and suggest that low expression of TAp73 in colorectal cancer cell lines with mutated B-Raf may lead to lack of response to oxaliplatin/cetuximab.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20156809,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF activating mutations are a major genetic alteration in this histologic group of pediatric low-grade brain tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20162668,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20162668,\n", " 'text': 'With MSI, specific KRAS and BRAF mutations, 3 distinct prognostic subgroups were observed: patients with (i) KRAS mutation G12D, G12V or BRAFmutation, (ii) KRAS/BRAFwild-type or KRAS G13D mutations in MSS/MSI-L and (iii) MSI-H and KRAS G13D mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20177422,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20182446,\n", " 'text': 'High oncogenic BRAF levels trigger autophagy, which may have a role in melanoma tumor progression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20186801,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20187782,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20200438,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20200438,\n", " 'text': 'we measured the prevalence and epidemiologic correlates of the BRAF V600E somatic mutation in cases collected as a part of a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer in northern Israel.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20230995,\n", " 'text': 'pathogenesis of papillary thyroid cancer , and the clinical implications of BRAF(V600E) mutation in the diagnosis, prognosis and potential targeted therapeutic strategies for thyroid cancer [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20233436,\n", " 'text': 'data support the model of BRAF and K-ras mutations arising in distinct colorectal cancer subsets associated with different clinicopathological and dietary factors, acting as mutually exclusive mechanisms of activation of the same signalling pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20234366,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20300843,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is not associated with interval cancers but is a marker of poor prognosis, particularly in microsatellite stable cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20300843,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20302979,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20303012,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20303012,\n", " 'text': 'Our study suggests that mutations of KRAS, not BRAF, may play a role in the pathogenesis of prostate carcinoma in Chinese patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20305537,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20332228,\n", " 'text': 'Studies show FOXD3 is suppressed by B-RAF, uncover a novel role and mechanism for FOXD3 as a negative cell cycle regulator, and have implications for the repression of melanocytic lineage cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20351680, 'text': 'Mutated in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20379614,\n", " 'text': 'Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20381121,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20406109,\n", " 'text': 'The miR-146b expression levels in papillary thyroid carcinoma with BRAF mutation were significantly higher than those without this mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20407018,\n", " 'text': 'Activated Raf-1 induces focal adhesion kinase expression and regulates neuroendocrine and metastatic phenotypes in gastrointestinal carcinoid cell line BON.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20410389,\n", " 'text': 'thyroid carcinoma with the BRAF(V600E) mutation tends to be taller than wide and is not associated with the presence of calcifications on ultrasound.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20413299,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20444249,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20445557,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF(V600E) can protect melanocytes from anoikis independently of cell cycle inhibition'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20453000,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20454969,\n", " 'text': 'This study identified an exceptionally high frequency of KIAA1549-BRAF fusions in pilocytic astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20460314,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20460314,\n", " 'text': 'These data demonstrate a high prevalence of B-RAF mutations in the present study population, underscoring the possibility of strong regional differences.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20473281,\n", " 'text': 'Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha is expressed in papillary thyroid carcinomas and is regulated not only by hypoxia but also by BRAF(V600E)-mediated signaling pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20473281,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20478260,\n", " 'text': 'Study concludes that the secreted protein IGFBP7 is dispensable for B-RAF(V600E)-induced senescence in human melanocytes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20485284,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutations are associated with MSI-H status and cyclin D1 overexpression and characterize a subgroup of patients with poor prognosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20485284,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20489114,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20495538,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20496269,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20498063,\n", " 'text': 'Knockdown of B-Raf(V600E) resulted in thrombospondin-1 down-regulation and a reduction of adhesion and migration/invasion of human thyroid cancer cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20501503,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20501503,\n", " 'text': 'The V600E BRAF mutation confers a worse prognosis to stage II and stage III colon cancer patients independently of disease stage and therapy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20501689,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20514492,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation may be used a biomarker for the selection of patients with colorectal cancer patients who might benefit from anti-egf receptor monoclonal antibodies.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20514492,\n", " 'text': 'Meta-analysis of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20519626,\n", " 'text': 'Studies identified the oncogenic BRAF V600E mutation in 35 of 61 archived specimens (57%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20526288,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20526288,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF 1799T>A mutation was found in 5 of 19 (26%) of infiltrative follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas and in none of the encapsulated carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20543023,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20563851,\n", " 'text': 'HER2, but not EGFR gene amplification, is frequently observed in KRAS and BRAF wild type colorectal cancer patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20563851,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20569675,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20569675,\n", " 'text': 'reports the low frequency of PIK3CA and B-RAF mutations in astrocytomas, despite the presence of activated ERK and AKT proteins'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20570909,\n", " 'text': 'Incidence of cancer in FDRs of index CRC patients with the p.V600E BRAF mutation may be explained by a genetic predisposition to develop cancer through the serrated pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20570909,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20571907,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20571907,\n", " 'text': 'PIK3CA mutations may have a role in KRAS and BRAF wild type colorectal cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20573852,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutational status of metastases is not required when the primary tumour is BRAF wild type.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20576522,\n", " 'text': 'allele specific Taqman-based real-time PCR assay allows the sensitive, accurate and reliable measurement of BRAF(V600E) mutated DNA in plasma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20591910,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20605766,\n", " 'text': 'in melanomas activation of the MAPK pathway can occur through signaling pathways operating independently of BRAF T1799A'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20607849,\n", " 'text': 'V600E BRAF mutation is not associated with seminoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20616366,\n", " 'text': 'Using traditional PCR and direct sequencing, we found KRAS mutations in 47 (40%) patients and BRAF(V600E) in 10 (8.5%)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20619739,\n", " 'text': 'if KRAS is not mutated, assessing BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA exon 20 mutations (in that order) gives additional information about the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20627194,\n", " 'text': 'PCR is practically applicable to KRAS/BRAF genotyping using small amounts of biopsied colorectal tumor cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20631031,\n", " 'text': 'No significant difference in BRAF alterations was found between pT1 tumors and thyroid capsule invasion and pT3 tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20631031,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20635392,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20640859,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20645028,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20645028,\n", " 'text': 'samples of metastatic colorectal cancer were tested for the presence of the seven most common mutations in the KRAS gene and the V600E mutation in the BRAF gene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20647301,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20647317,\n", " 'text': 'Findings delineate how mutant B-RAF protects melanoma cells from apoptosis and provide insight into possible resistance mechanisms to B-RAF inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20652941,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20670148,\n", " 'text': 'Traditional DNA sequencing and the somewhat more-sensitive pyrosequencing method can detect multiple alternative BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20679909,\n", " 'text': 'Mutant Braf can be detected in RNA from mixed populations with as few as 0.1% Braf(V600E) mutant cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20689758,\n", " 'text': 'PLX4032 has robust activity in BRAF mutated melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20702649,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20703476,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20720566,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20720566,\n", " 'text': 'association between MC1 receptor germline variation and BRAF/NRAS mutations in melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20736745,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20802181,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is rare in advanced-stage low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20802181,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20807807,\n", " 'text': 'Mutant protein kinase elicits significant therapeutic responses in mutant BRAF-driven human melanoma xenografts.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20813562,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20813562,\n", " 'text': 'first report implicating BRAF mutation in OSCC. study supports that mutations in the BRAF gene makes at least a minor contribution to OSCC tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20837233,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation detection in fine needle biopsy may be an adjunct tool for preoperative didagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20840674,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20840674,\n", " 'text': 'RET rearrangements and BRAF mutation in undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas having papillary carcinoma components'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20843808,\n", " 'text': 'A BRAF aberrant splice variant with an intact kinase domain and partial loss of the N-terminal autoinhibitory domain was identified in fibroblasts from an additional patient, and fibroblast proliferation was inhibited by BRAF-specific siRNA.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20853079,\n", " 'text': 'reduced RKIP mRNA levels and the elevated levels of B-RAF in pT1, grade III tumors vs. normal tissue, corroborate that these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of urinary bladder cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20857202,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with lack of response in wild-type KRAS metastatic colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20860430,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20881644,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20944096,\n", " 'text': 'Determination of the BRAF mutation and the growth fraction of melanomas may add a prognostic value.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20944096,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20945104,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is associated with thyroid nodules.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20945104,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20947270,\n", " 'text': 'In the present series, no BRAF mutation was detected. The presence of KRAS mutations and loss of PTEN expression were not associated with impaired response to cetuximab-based chemoradiotherapy and 3-year disease free survival.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20947270,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20950194,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF is mutated in a low percentage of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and most of these mutated cases are suspicious or positive on fine-needle aspiration.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20953721,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20955560,\n", " 'text': 'Anti-BRAF autoantibodies from RA patients preferentially recognize one BRAF peptide: P2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20959481,\n", " 'text': 'Braf mutation is associated with basal and treatment-induced regulation of the PI3K-AKT pathway as a critical regulator of AZD6244 sensitivity in cutaneous melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20962618,\n", " 'text': 'Describe benign serrated colorectal fibroblastic polyps/intramucosal perineuriomas are true mixed epithelial-stromal polyps (hybrid hyperplastic polyp/mucosal perineurioma) with frequent BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20975100,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20979647,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21048031,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21049459,\n", " 'text': 'Although many studies document BRAF mutation as a prognostic factor in PTC our results underline that it is too early to consider it as a routine clinical predictive factor.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21049459,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21051183,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21051183,\n", " 'text': 'findings indicate that somatic mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA but not BRAF oncogenes are closely associated with the development of cholangiocarcinoma in Chinese population'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21068756,\n", " 'text': 'The dermoscopical and histopathological patterns of nevi correlate with the frequency of BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21076620,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that BRAF knockdown led to suppression of the expression of the GABPbeta, which involved in regulating HPR1 promoter activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21098728,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF gene amplification can promote acquired resistance to MEK inhibitors in cancer cells harboring the BRAF V600E mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21102258,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations of EGFR, BRAF, and KRAS in adenocarcinoma were mutually exclusive and inversely correlated with RASSF1A methylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21102416,\n", " 'text': 'We show a strong association between concordant methylation of >/= 3 of five 3p22 genes with the CpG island methylator phenotype and the BRAF V600E mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21103049,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that among 181 CRC patients, stratified by microsatellite instability status, DNA sequence changes were identified in KRAS (32%), BRAF (16%), PIK3CA (4%), PTEN (14%) and TP53 (51%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21107320,\n", " 'text': 'identification of MAP3K8 (the gene encoding COT/Tpl2) as a MAPK pathway agonist that drives resistance to RAF inhibition in B-RAF(V600E) cell lines'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21107323,\n", " 'text': 'melanomas escape B-RAF(V600E) targeting not through secondary B-RAF(V600E) mutations but via receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated activation of alternative survival pathway(s) or activated RAS-mediated reactivation of the MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21129611,\n", " 'text': 'It therefore appears that BRAF mutations may play a strong negative prognostic role and only a slight role in resistance to anti-EGFR Abs.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21131919,\n", " 'text': 'Primary esophageal melanomas of Caucasian patients harbor mutations of c-Kit, KRAS and BRAF in varied frequencies.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21134544,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma is associated with an increased risk of palpable nodal recurrence and the need for reoperative surgery.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21134562,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and confer an aggressive thyroid cancer phenotype.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21161938,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS mutations arise more frequently than BRAF mutations in Moroccan patients with colorectal carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21166657,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF mutation was frequently detected in patients with superficial spreading melanoma (OR=2.021; P<0.001) and in melanomas arising in nonchronic sun-damaged skin (OR=2.043; P=0.001).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21167555,\n", " 'text': 'concluded that follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma differs from conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma in the rate of BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21176117,\n", " 'text': 'These results show that melanoma cell phenotype is an important factor in MAPK pathway inhibition response, as invasive phenotype cell response is dependent on BRAF mutation status.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21185263,\n", " 'text': 'this study has confirmed that the BRAF(T1799A) mutation confers cancer cells sensitivity to PLX4032 and demonstrated its specific potential as an effective and BRAF(T1799A) mutation-selective therapeutic agent for thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21190184,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf(insT) and B-Raf(V600E) , but not B-Raf(wt) , provoke drastic morphological alterations in human astrocytes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21203559,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF alternative splicing is differentially regulated in human and mouse. BRAF exon 9b is required for learning and memory associated with the hippocampus.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21215707,\n", " 'text': 'In melanoma cells, oncogenic (V600E) BRAF signaling downregulates PDE5A through the transcription factor BRN2, leading to increased cGMP and Ca2+ and the induction of invasion through increased cell contractility.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21223556,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf signaling has a key function in the altered expression of contractile receptors in the cerebrovasculature.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21223812,\n", " 'text': 'The high expression of activated ERK is not caused by BRAF gene mutation in nasal mucosa malignant melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21224857,\n", " 'text': 'Acquisition of a BRAF mutation is not a founder event, but may be one of the multiple clonal events in melanoma development, which is selected for during the progression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21239517,\n", " 'text': 'We found that performing BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis on the fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens was of great help to make a therapeutic decision for thyroid nodules when the fine-needle aspiration biopsy results were equivocal'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21249150,\n", " 'text': 'the oncogenic effect of BRAF(V600E) is associated with the inhibition of MST1 tumor suppressor pathways, and the activity of RASSF1A-MST1-FoxO3 pathways determines the phenotypes of BRAF(V600E) tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21263251,\n", " 'text': 'These findings suggest that BRAF mutations may be associated with the pathogenesis of sessile serrated colorectal adenomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21270111,\n", " 'text': 'Findings suggest inhibition of autophagy in combination with ER stress-inducing agents may represent a means by which to harness autophagy for the therapeutic benefit of B-RAF wild-type melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21274671,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf mutations, microsatellite instability and p53 protein expression is not associated with sporadic basal cell carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21274720,\n", " 'text': 'The analysis of BRAF V600E mutation in 1,320 nervous system tumors reveals high mutation frequencies in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, ganglioglioma and extra-cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21285991,\n", " 'text': 'Presence of mutated BRAF is one of the most powerful prognostic factors for advanced and recurrent CRC'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21289333,\n", " 'text': '803 metastatic colorectal cancer samples studied for KRAS exon 2 and BRAF exon 15 mutations; BRAF mutated samples were characterized for mismatch repair function; 344 tumours were mutated -34 involving BRAF mutations (8 of microsatellite instability type)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21303778,\n", " 'text': 'Ras/Raf/MAPK and RhoA/ROCKII signalling pathways are abnormally activated in eutopic endometrial stromal cells of patients with endometriosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21305640,\n", " 'text': '78 colorectal tumor samples were mutant for BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21307665,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of gallbladder carcinomas, gallbladder adenomas, and high-grade dysplastic lesions for the BRAF and the KRAS mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21317202,\n", " 'text': 'Findings suggest that inhibition of Raf-MEK-Erk pathway might offer a novel therapeutic strategy in neuroendocrine tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21317224,\n", " 'text': 'Studies showed that siRNA knockdown of BIM significantly blunted the apoptotic response in PTEN+ melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21317286,\n", " 'text': 'identified BAD serine 134 to be strongly involved in survival signaling of B-RAF-V600E-containing tumor cells and found that phosphorylation of BAD at this residue is critical for efficient proliferation in these cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21321384,\n", " 'text': 'identifying downstream events from the BRAFV600E/ERK1/2 pathway will eventually identify novel biomarkers that can be used to correlate with disease outcome and overall survival.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21324100,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that BRAF-mutated melanomas occur in a younger age group on skin without marked solar elastosis and less frequently affect the head and neck area, compared to melanomas without BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21326296,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations have a smaller role in the carcinogenesis of malignant melanoma in Chinese Han than in Western patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21332555,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations were rare in colorectal laterally-spreading tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21343559,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of mutant BRAF had no impact on the disease-free interval from diagnosis of first-ever melanoma to first distant metastasis; however, it may have impacted survival thereafter.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21345796,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf associates with and stimulates NHE1 activity and that B-Raf(V600E) also increases NHE1 activity that raises intracellular pH.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21351275,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with selective inhibition of thyroid cancer cells by the novel MEK inhibitor RDEA119 and genetic-potentiated synergism with the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21356389,\n", " 'text': 'IDH1 mutation works with other oncogenic mutations and could contribute to the metastasis in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21362156,\n", " 'text': 'Regulation of NR4A nuclear receptor expression by oncogenic BRAF in melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21383284,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutational status yielded no useful prognostic information in predicting recurrence and benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21383288,\n", " 'text': 'Thus, MEK1(C121S) or functionally similar mutations are predicted to confer drug resistance of neoplasms to combined MEK/RAF inhibition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21383698,\n", " 'text': 'tumor initiation by oncogenic BRAF renders thyroid cells susceptible to TGFbeta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, through a MAPK-dependent process'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21390154,\n", " 'text': 'K-ras gene mutation is a common event in Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, but may not be a prognostic factor in CRC , while BRAF is rarely mutated in Chinese CRC patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21408138,\n", " 'text': 'Allele-specific qPCR assays for the most frequent activating mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA in tumor-positive fine needle cytological aspirates were compared against histological material of primary tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21412762,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21424126,\n", " 'text': 'study suggested that both KRAS and BRAF mutations are exclusive, but KRAS and PIK3CA mutations are coexistent'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21424530,\n", " 'text': 'This study demonistrated that the role of RAF kinase fusions as a central oncogenic mechanism in the development of pilocytic astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21426297,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations at the position V600 of BRAF were described in approximately 8% of all solid tumors, including 50% of melanomas, 30 to 70% of papillary thyroid carcinomas and 5 to 8% of colorectal adenocarcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21427714,\n", " 'text': 'There were no significant differences in the frequency of BRAF mutations among lesions exhibiting the hyperplastic, adenomatous, or mixed patterns.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21430505,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation may play different roles between medium and giant CMNs in melanocytic tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21431280,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF T1799A mutation may be an early and essential carcinogenic event in nearly all Korean papillary thyroid carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21441079,\n", " 'text': 'In papilary thyroid carcinoma, the BRAFT1799A mutation is associated with age over 60 & a tumor size of 1cm or greater, but not with other clinicopathological characteristics, tumor recurrence or persistence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21441910,\n", " 'text': \"KSR interacts with a regulatory Raf molecule in cis to induce a conformational switch of MEK, facilitating MEK's phosphorylation by a separate catalytic Raf molecule in trans\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 21447798,\n", " 'text': 'Amplification of the driving oncogene, KRAS or BRAF, underpins acquired resistance to MEK1/2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21451543,\n", " 'text': 'Activated BRAF promotes melanoma cell growth by matrix metalloproteinase-1'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21455633,\n", " 'text': 'No V600E mutation was identified in the BRAF gene in any sample.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21456008,\n", " 'text': 'the impact of BRAF mutation and microsatellite instability on prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21457162,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are specific for serrated adenocarcinoma and identify a subset of serrated adenocarcinomas with gene methylation and a tendency for MSI-H'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21479234,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutations are common in the majority of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21483104,\n", " 'text': 'Heterogeneity of KRAS and BRAF mutation status intra-tumorally in colorectal cancer was assessed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21498916,\n", " 'text': 'findings support the notion that BRAF(V600E), which can be detected preoperatively in papillary thyroid carcinoma fine-needle aspiration biopsy material, has a potential to contribute to patients stratification into high- and low-risk groups.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21512141,\n", " 'text': 'Mutated BRAF is detected in approximately 45% of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21514245,\n", " 'text': 'Ablation of B-Raf had no significant effect on development of K-Ras oncogene-driven non-small cell lung carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21553007,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations, but not KRAS mutations, were associated with a worse outcome in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21557216,\n", " 'text': 'MSS/BRAF mutant cancers were more commonly proximal (38/54, 70.3%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21570823,\n", " 'text': 'Analysis showed that blood samples with PCR evidence for CMC were heterogeneous for BRAF status under limiting-dilution conditions, suggestive of heterogeneity of CMC'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21577205,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that Raf kinases are excellent molecular targets for anticancer therapy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21587258,\n", " 'text': 'Wnt5a methylation was strongly associated with tumour microsatellite instability tumours after adjustment for age, sex, and tumour location and with BRAF V600E mutation, a marker of CpG island methylator phenotype'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21594703,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with recurrent papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21636552,\n", " 'text': 'introduction of constitutively active BRAF V600E into human cortical stem and progenitor cells initially promotes clonogenic growth in soft agar but ultimately results in dramatically reduced proliferation and arrested growth of the culture.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21653734,\n", " 'text': 'Compared with BRAF-wt papillary thyroid cancer, those harboring BRAF(V600E) exhibit downregulated VEGFA, VEGFR, and PDGFRbeta expression, suggesting presence of BRAF mutation does not imply stronger response to drugs targeting VEGF and PDGFB signal pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21663470,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutation was present in all patients with hairy-cell leukemia who were evaluated.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21681432,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutation did not show association with clinical or molecular characteristics of colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21693616,\n", " 'text': 'Eight of 16 primary tumor samples and 4 of 6 metastatic samples showed BRAF V600E gene mutations and no copy number changes were associated exclusively with metastatic cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21696415,\n", " 'text': 'The frequency of BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion transcripts is significantly lower in adult patients with pilocytic astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21705440,\n", " 'text': 'MEK1(F129L) mutation also strengthened binding to c-Raf, suggesting an underlying mechanism of higher intrinsic kinase activity'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21707687,\n", " 'text': 'The application of BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in US-guided FNAB can improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid nodules.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21716161,\n", " 'text': 'We describe a new mutation of BRAF, T599dup, in a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with tall cell papillary thyroid carcinomas component.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21725359,\n", " 'text': 'identified concurrent mutational inactivation of the PTEN and RB1 tumor suppressors as a mechanism for loss of BRAF/MEK dependence in melanomas harboring (V600E)BRAF mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21750338,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation of papillary thyroid carcinoma may have differential predictive values for LN metastasis, according to tumor size.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21774961,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis using residual liquid-based preparation cytologic samples is, therefore, a powerful additional diagnostic tool for diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21788131,\n", " 'text': 'Patients with mutations in BRAF or NRAS gene are frequently present with ulceration, and mutation in BRAF or NRAS gene is indicator for poor prognosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21796448,\n", " 'text': 'Importance of infiltrative growth pattern and invasiveness over presence of BRAF mutation in classic and follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma for development of nodal metastases.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21803329,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is not indicative for predicting papillary thyroid cancer prognosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21825258,\n", " 'text': 'study reports that V600E and non-V600E BRAF mutations affect different patients with non-small-cell lung cancer; V600E mutations are significantly associated with female sex and represent a negative prognostic factor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21826673,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations and llelic loss of susceptibility loci are associated with familial non-medullary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21835307,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway is upregulated in progressive retinal arterial macroaneurysm patients, caused by mutation in IGFBP7.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21863388,\n", " 'text': 'Braf mutation in metastatic melanoma treated with BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21871821,\n", " 'text': 'Genetic analysis revealed individual heterozygous mutations in the KRAS (phenotype of CFC/Noonan syndrome) and BRAF genes (phenotype of CFC syndrome)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21875464,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation has a significant correlation with papillary thyroid carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21882184,\n", " 'text': 'the BRAF(V600E) mutation should be considered as a poor prognostic marker in papillary thyroid cancer (Meta-Analysis)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21900390,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that BRAF V600E mutation initiates follicular cell transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21901162,\n", " 'text': 'In sporadic colorectal tumourspatients, the most frequently mutated gene was APC (68.9% of tumours), followed by KRAS (31.1%), TP53 (27.2%), BRAF (8.7%) and CTNNB1 (1.9%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21903858,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) causes upregulation of TIMP-1 via NF-kappaB. TIMP-1 binds then its surface receptor CD63, leading eventually to Akt activation, which in turn confers antiapoptotic behavior and promotion of cell invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21906875,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are of pathogenetic significance in wild type gastrointestinal stromal tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21909080,\n", " 'text': \"CXCR4 expression and BRAF mutation status could cooperatively induce and promote a more aggressive phenotype in papillary thyroid carcinoma through several pathways and specifically increase the tumors' spread outside of the thyroid gland.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 21915661,\n", " 'text': 'Aberrant CIMP was detected in 16% of chromosomal instable tumors and in 44% of both microsatellite instable and microsatellite and chromosomally stable carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21936566,\n", " 'text': 'this novel B-Raf fusion protein (SND-1 was identified as the B-Raf fusion partner) presents a novel target with potential clinical implications in the treatment of patients resistant to c-Met inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21937738,\n", " 'text': 'A prominent epigenetic mechanism through which BRAF V600E can promote papillary thyroid cancer tumorigenesis by altering the methylation and hence the expression of numerous important genes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21943101,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation V600E significantly induces cell migration and invasion properties in vitro in colon cancer cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21948220,\n", " 'text': 'In malignant FNABs in papillary thyroid carcinoma, BRAF(V600E) mutation was significantly associated with presence of extra-thyroidal extension and metastases after surgery.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22006538,\n", " 'text': 'DNA methylation of each marker was quantified using combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) and analyzed along with various genetic factors associated with CRC [the BRAF and KRAS mutations, MLH1 methylation and microsatellite instability'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22012135,\n", " 'text': 'An integrated approach combining both VE1 mutant protein immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis may increase the diagnostic accuracy of BRAF mutation analysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22027477,\n", " 'text': 'Postmenopausal hormone therapy was associated with borderline statistically significant risk reductions for BRAF-wildtype tumours among women with prolonged exposure to Postmenopausal hormone therapy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22028477,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with hairy cell leukemia and B-cell neoplasms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22033631,\n", " 'text': 'high prevalence of BRAF (V600E) mutation is associated with synchronous bilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22038996,\n", " 'text': 'Results support evaluation of BRAF(V600E)-specific inhibitors for treating BRAF(V600E) malignant astrocytomas (MA) patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22039425,\n", " 'text': 'study examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with mutant BRAF advanced cancer; conclude that BRAF appears to be a druggable mutation that also defines subgroups of patients with phenotypic overlap, albeit with differences that correlate with histology or site of mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22043994,\n", " 'text': 'This article reviewes the spectrum of KRAS/BRAF genotype and the impact of KRAS/BRAF mutations on the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22065586,\n", " 'text': 'Ras induces DR5 expression through co-activation of ERK/RSK and JNK signaling pathways'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22072557,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with hairy cell leukemia and other mature B-cell neoplasms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22072743,\n", " 'text': 'BAG3 protein sustains anaplastic thyroid tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. The underlying molecular mechanism appears to rely on BAG3 binding to BRAF, thus protecting it from proteasome-dependent degradation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22105174,\n", " 'text': 'Murine thyroid tumors carrying the human BRAF(V600E) mutations are exquisitely dependent on the oncoprotein for viability.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22105775,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600E) is a prevalent genetic alteration in adult sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma in Indian cohort and it may be responsible for the progression of its classic variant.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22114137,\n", " 'text': 'Overall, no difference existed in microsatellite instability or BRAF mutation frequencies between African Americans and Caucasians with colorectal neoplasms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22133769,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are associated with hairy cell leukemia and related lymphoproliferative disorders.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22136270,\n", " 'text': 'Case Report: describe case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22137342,\n", " 'text': 'thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines are B-Raf inhibitors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22145942,\n", " 'text': 'Pyrosequencing of BRAF V600E in routine samples of hairy cell leukaemia identifies CD5+ variant hairy cell leukaemia that lacks V600E.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22147429,\n", " 'text': 'V600E mutation of the BRAF gene reported to be associated with poor prognosis of germ cell tumors in adults prognostic biomarkers cannot necessarily be transferred from one age group to the other.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22147942,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with inferior survival in stage III colon cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22150560,\n", " 'text': 'papillary thyroid cancers in young patients display a low prevalence of the already identified oncogenic alterations; the increasing prevalence with age is mainly due to V600E BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22156467,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutation is associated with a higher pathological stage at surgery and a higher rate of recurrence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22156468,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations enhance the predictability of malignancy in thyroid follicular lesions of undetermined significance.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22157687,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and KRAS mutations were observed in six (46.2%) and four (30.3%) filiform serrated adenomaS, respectively.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22170714,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma is a later subclonal event, its intratumoral heterogeneity may hamper the efficacy of targeted pharmacotherapy, and its association with a more aggressive disease should be reevaluated.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22174938,\n", " 'text': 'The antibody response against the catalytic domain of BRAF is not specific for rheumatoid arthritis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22178589,\n", " 'text': 'Report mutations in KRAS, EGFR, and BRAF in cholangiocarcinoma and identify therapeutic targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22180495,\n", " 'text': 'Findings suggest that the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib in combination with standard-of-care or novel targeted therapies may lead to enhanced and sustained clinical antitumor efficacy in CRCs harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22189819,\n", " 'text': 'Aberrant gene methylation driven by BRAF(V600E) altered expression of the DNA methyltransferase 1 and histone methyltransferase EZH2 profoundly.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22190222,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation was associated with high-risk clinicopathologic characteristics in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The BRAF(V600E) mutation may be a potential prognostic factor in PTC patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22190283,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf gene mutation primarily occurs at two loci--the exon 11 glycine loop and the activation area of exon 15--in surgically resected specimens of hepatocellular carcinoma patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22194995,\n", " 'text': 'These data support a model where the continuous regenerative process initiated by oncogenic B-RAF-driven alveolar disruption provides a tumor-promoting environment associated with chronic inflammation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22199277,\n", " 'text': 'RET mutations may have a role in medullary thyroid carcinoma, while BRAF, AKT1, and CTNNB1 do not; the role of HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS mutations are not determined'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22199339,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of BRAF gene mutations in non-small cell lung cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22203991,\n", " 'text': 'These results provide a functional link between oncogenic BRAF and angiogenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22210186,\n", " 'text': 'Patients with microsatellite instability tumor phenotype had favorable prognosis, but in those with the V600E BRAF mutation higher recurrence rate was observed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22210875,\n", " 'text': 'Our results suggest that HCLv and IGHV4-34(+) HCLs have a different pathogenesis than HCLc and that a significant minority of other HCLc are also wild-type for BRAF V600.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22214007,\n", " 'text': 'Although it constitutes a poor prognostic factor in colorectal cancer, it is not conclusive if it interferes with a poor therapeutic effect when cetuximab is used.[review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22227015,\n", " 'text': 'The findings show mutant BRAF-induced oncogenic stress manifests itself by DNA damage and growth arrest by activating the pCHK2-p53-p21 pathway.It also confers tumor-promoting phenotypes such as the up-regulation of GLUT1 and enhances glucose metabolism.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22228154,\n", " 'text': 'In patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma, there were significant differences between BRAF wild-type and mutant tumors in age, female sex, proximal tumor location, frequency of microsatellite instability, and survival.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22230299,\n", " 'text': 'One chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patient and one patient with B-prolymphocytic leukaemia were found to harbour the BRAF V600E mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22233696,\n", " 'text': 'Sessile serrated adenomas are precursors of sporadic colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability.Identified a novel surface microstructure, the Type II open-shape pit pattern (Type II-O), which was specific to SSAs with BRAF mutation and CIMP.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22235286,\n", " 'text': 'evidence for heterogeneity of the BRAF(V600E) mutation within individual melanoma tumor specimens'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22245873,\n", " 'text': 'No BRAF mutations were found in colon adenocarcinomas from renal transplant recipients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22246856,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation in low and intermediate grade lymphomas is associated with frequent occurrence in hairy cell leukaemia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22249628,\n", " 'text': 'None of the molecular marker mutations that were analyzed in this study, including the BRAF mutation, predicted lymph node metastasis in classic papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22250191,\n", " 'text': 'During therapy with selective BRAF inhibitors, panniculitis with arthralgia represents a new adverse effect that can require dose reduction.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22258409,\n", " 'text': 'Mutational activation of both BRAF and PIK3CA genes does contribute to hepatocellular tumorigenesis at somatic level in Southern Italian population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22282465,\n", " 'text': 'In naive GISTs carrying activating mutations in KIT or PDGFRA a concomitant activating mutation was detected in KRAS (5%) or BRAF (about 2%) genes. I'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22287190,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with colorectal serrated adenocarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22294102,\n", " 'text': 'No hotspot mutations in Braf were found in oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Greek population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22314188,\n", " 'text': 'Colon adenocarcinomas with BRAF mutations have morphologic characteristics distinct from those with KRAS mutations and BRAF-mutated proximal colonic adenocarcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair have an aggressive clinical course.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22317764,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that 266 (76.2%) tumors harbored EGFR mutations, 16 (4.6%) HER2 mutations, 15 (4.3%) EML4-ALK fusions, 7 (2.0%) KRAS mutations, and 2 (0.6%) BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22317887,\n", " 'text': 'Report of oncogenic BRAF/KRAS mutations in sporadic glomus tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22331186,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFmut as a useful marker in hairy cell leukemia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22331825,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is an independent prognostic biomarker for colorectal liver metastasectomy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22335197,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation-positive papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) displayed infiltrative growth, stromal fibrosis, psammoma bodies, plump eosinophilic tumour cells, and classic fully developed nuclear features of PTC.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22339435,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that the BRAF V600E mutation does not seem to play a role in myeloid malignant transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22358007,\n", " 'text': '(BRAF(V600E))detected in 141/170 malignant thyroid nodules (82.9%) (140 PTCs and one follicular variant of PTC). BRAF status not associated with US features with the exception of a negative relation between BRAF(V600E) and an irregular shape (p = 0.004).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22361037,\n", " 'text': 'This is the first reported study of the relationship between CK20/CK7 immunophenotype, BRAF mutations and microsatellite status in colorectal carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22367297,\n", " 'text': 'A distinct subset of atypical Spitz tumors is characterized by BRAF mutation and loss of BAP1 expression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22368298,\n", " 'text': \"review demonstrates that tumour BRAF V600E mutation, and MLH1 promoter 'C region' methylation specifically, are strong predictors of negative MMR mutation status[review]\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 22374786,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of activating GNAS mutations, in association with KRAS or BRAF mutations, is a characteristic genetic feature of colorectal villous adenoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22376079,\n", " 'text': 'evidence presented that ERK activation occurs in a K-ras or B-raf -independent manner in the majority of primary colon cancer cases; B-raf mutations are not associated with mismatch-repair deficiency through loss of hMLH1 or hMSH2 expression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22376167,\n", " 'text': 'The V600E BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas may contribute to the initiation of the glycolytic phenotype and confers growth advantages in cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22382362,\n", " 'text': 'Eleven patients displayed Durable Disease Control (DDC) of which 55% had BRAF-V600E mutation positive tumors and 45% did not.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22393095,\n", " 'text': 'Patient diagnosed with colon cancer shows poor prognosis with BRAF genetic mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22395615,\n", " 'text': 'findings show (V600E)B-RAF copy-number gain as a mechanism of acquired B-RAF inhibitor resistance in 4 out of 20 patients treated with B-RAF inhibitor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22398042,\n", " 'text': 'In a cohort of Indian patients with ulcerative colitis, with or without neoplasia, none showed the BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22417847,\n", " 'text': 'we have analyzed the prevalence of somatic mutations in the FGFR3, PIK3CA, AKT1, KRAS, HRAS, and BRAF genes in bladder cancers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22426079,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that TaqMan(R) Mutation Detection assay is an important technology to consider in the field of mutation detection for KRAS, BRAF and EGFR point mutation screening.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22426956,\n", " 'text': 'genetic association studies in population in Turkey: Data suggest that a mutation in BRAF (V600E; found in 39.45% of patients) is associated with aggressiveness of papillary thyroid neoplasms; lymph node metastasis increases when mutation is present.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22427190,\n", " 'text': 'Investigation the prevalence of mutations in the BRAF gene and its correlation with demographic characteristics, tumor location and stage in 100 colorectal carcinoma patients from India.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22429583,\n", " 'text': 'Article reviews the current understanding of BRAF gene, its structure, expression, and signal pathway in non-small cell lung cancer. [Review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22430133,\n", " 'text': 'The prevalence of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA somatic mutations in 861 randomly selected Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22430208,\n", " 'text': 'We propose that , and that persistent phosphorylation of Mps1 through BRAF(V600E) signaling is a key event in disrupting the control of centrosome duplication and chromosome stability that may contribute to tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22430215,\n", " 'text': 'expression of these oncogenes markedly stimulated ERK1/2 activities and morphologically transformed IECs. Importantly however'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22431777,\n", " 'text': 'Effective use of PDT in the treatment of BRAF inhibitor-associated KAs and SCCs.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22431868,\n", " 'text': 'EFVPTC 1 patient BRAFV600E mutation, NVPTC 2 patients, FVPTC 2 patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22435913,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of a patient with pancreatic metastasis arising from a BRAF(V600E)-positive papillary thyroid cancer [case report]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22451557,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis from FNA specimens for calcified thyroid nodules may be performed for a greater negative predictive value and unveil the malignancy in 25% of indeterminate or nondiagnostic cytology.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22456166,\n", " 'text': 'Report marked differences in the genetic pattern of the BRAF or NRAS mutated and wild-type melanoma subgroups.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22459936,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations play a limited role in the development of sinonasal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22471241,\n", " 'text': 'Out of 1041 Korean patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, 0.4% had rare types of BRAF mutation and three new somatic mutations were identified'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22471666,\n", " 'text': 'An update on malignancies displaying high frequencies of BRAF mutations and the mechanisms underlying the side effects and drug resistance phenomena associated with Raf inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22488961,\n", " 'text': 'prevalence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation increased with increased tumor size'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22492957, 'text': 'BRAF V600E is associated with gliomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22498935,\n", " 'text': 'No BRAF V600E mutations were indentified in this study of patients with endometrial cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22500044,\n", " 'text': 'Highly sensitive and specific molecular assays such as MEMO sequencing are optimal for detecting the BRAF mutations in thyroid FNAC because these techniques can detect PTC that might be missed by cytology or less sensitive molecular assays.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22506009,\n", " 'text': 'The (600DLAT)B-RAF and (V600E)B-RAF mutations were found enriched in DNA and mRNA from the CD1a+ fraction of granuloma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22508706,\n", " 'text': 'The analysis of BRAF mutations by pyrosequencing is useful to refine the risk stratification of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22510757,\n", " 'text': 'Patients with serrated polyposis syndrome referred to genetics clinics had a pan-colonic disease with a high polyp burden and a high rate of BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22510884,\n", " 'text': 'It was shown that the dimer interface within the kinase domain plays a pivotal role for the activity of B-Raf and several of its gain-of-function mutants.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22514085,\n", " 'text': 'The tumor with T1799A BRAF mutation and tumor sizes of 2 cm or more were clinicopathologic parameters associated with lower STAT1 activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22515292,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E is common in patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma but does not predict recurrence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22515520,\n", " 'text': 'Mutation BRAF transforms cells through cross talk with developmental pathways Hedgehog and Wnt, as well as by deregulation of colorectal cancer related kinase pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22516966,\n", " 'text': 'Report upregulation of Bim and the splicing factor SRp55 in melanoma cells from patients treated with selective BRAF inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22522845,\n", " 'text': 'In signet ring cell carcinoma, BRAF V600E mutation adversely affects survival in microsatellite-stable tumors, but not in high-level microsatellite-unstable tumor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22531127,\n", " 'text': 'study concludes that generally, overweight increases the risk of colorectal cancer; taller individuals have an increased risk of developing a tumour with a BRAF mutation or microsatellite instability'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22531170,\n", " 'text': 'Demonstrate that BRAF V600E mutation-specific antibody can be used in immunohistochemical diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22534474,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and KIT mutations have been found in Japanese melanoma patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22535154,\n", " 'text': 'study shows there are clinically and biologically distinct subtypes of BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma, defined by genotype, with distinct etiology and behavior; cumulative sun-induced damage in primary cutaneous melanoma and older age are associated with V600K BRAF mutations;it establishes prevalence of the BRAF mutation by age-decade'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22535974,\n", " 'text': 'The diagnostic sensitivity for thyroid cancer is significantly increased by BRAF V600E mutation analysis, indicating that the screening for BRAF mutation in FNAB samples has a relevant diagnostic potential.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22549559,\n", " 'text': 'Recurrent/persistent PTC in the central compartment typically harbors the BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22549727,\n", " 'text': 'abrogation of BRAFV600E-induced senescence contributes to melanomagenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22549934,\n", " 'text': 'The mTOR pathway could be a good target to enhance therapy effects in certain types of thyroid carcinoma, namely in those harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22568401,\n", " 'text': 'These results suggest that low-grade diffuse gliomas with 1p/19q loss have frequent BRAF gains'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22579930,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations in colorectal cancer have sustained prevalence rate in the Taiwanese population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22581800,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF regulates expression of long noncoding RNAs in melanocytes and melanoma cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22586484,\n", " 'text': 'In the present study, we did not find any significant correlations between KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations and the loss of PTEN expression and various clinicopathological features in Chinese patients with colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22591444,\n", " 'text': 'Our results suggest that in a small fraction of diffuse gliomas, KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene and BRAF(v600E) mutation may be responsible for deregulation of the Ras-RAF-ERK signaling pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22592144,\n", " 'text': 'Immunohistochemical detection of the mutated V600E BRAF protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma may facilitate mutational analysis in the clinical setting.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22614711,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF p.Val600Lys mutations were present at a relatively high frequency in the cohort of metastatic melanoma patients (27/183, 15%)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22614978,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF/NRAS mutations were identified in 58% of primary melanomas (43% BRAF; 15% NRAS)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22628551,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that RNF149 (RING finger protein 149) interacts with wild-type BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22639828,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that BRAF V600E mutation may not be widespread in hematologic malignancies, excluding hairy-cell leukemia (HCL).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22649091,\n", " 'text': \"Patient's BRAF mutation was likely responsible for his tumor's marked response to dasatinib, suggesting that tumors bearing kinase-impaired BRAF mutations may be exquisitely sensitive to dasatinib.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 22681706,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with lymph node metastasis in multiple papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22684223,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of BRAF mutations in these adenomatous precursors to colon cancer suggests that they represent sessile serrated adenomas with complete cytologic dysplasia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22694820,\n", " 'text': 'In papillary thyroid cancer, significant correlations between the methylation status of four genes (TIMP3, RASSF1A, RARbeta2 and DCC) and the V600E BRAF mutation were found.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22699145,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that 14% with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) and 7% ampullary adenocarcinomas (A-ACs) had mutations in both KRAS and BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22702340,\n", " 'text': 'In papillary thyroid carcinoma BRAFV600E is associated with increased expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator and its cognate receptor, but not with disease-free interval.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22705994,\n", " 'text': 'Hairy cell leukemia cell lines expressing annexin A1 and displaying B-cell receptor signals characteristic of primary tumor cells lack the signature BRAF mutation to reveal unrepresentative origins.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22706026,\n", " 'text': 'The combined effects of EGFR downregulation, ligand competition, and immune effector function conspire to inhibit tumor growth in xenograft models of cetuximab-resistant BRAF and KRAS mutant cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22727996,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutations are present in approximately 90% of all kidney metanephric adenoma cases, serving as a potential valuable diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22730329,\n", " 'text': 'Reactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3)/Ras mediates resistance to vemurafenib in human B-RAF V600E mutant melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22732794,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation revealed a strong association with specific histological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22740704,\n", " 'text': 'These results clearly prove that the BRAFV600E mutation is not associated with the development of distant metastases or fatal outcome in papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22742884,\n", " 'text': 'Vemurafenib is effective for advanced melanomas expressing the BRAF V600E mutations [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22743296,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with response to vemurafenib in lung adenocarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22751131,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf/MKK/ERK controls key aspects of cancer cell behavior and gene expression by modulating a network of miRNAs with cross-regulatory functions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22752848,\n", " 'text': 'study reports a novel complex BRAF mutation identified in 4/492 Japanese papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC) cases; findings suggest the BRAF(V600delinsYM)mutation, is a gain-of-function mutation and plays an important role in PTC development'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22767446,\n", " 'text': 'study found a relatively higher B-Raf serine/threonine-protein kinase (BRAF)(V600E) mutation rate in classical type papillary thyroid carcinomas than in other similar studies'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22770943,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mRNA expression may help to identify PTC among thyroid nodules independently of the presence of BRAFV600E mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22772867,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600) mutations are are associated with melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22773810,\n", " 'text': 'Lung cancers with acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors occasionally harbor BRAF gene mutations but lack mutations in KRAS, NRAS, or MEK1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22797077,\n", " 'text': 'RSK regulates activated BRAF signalling to mTORC1 and promotes melanoma growth'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22798288,\n", " 'text': 'Data show clinical significance to BRAF(L597) mutations in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22798500,\n", " 'text': 'In CRC patients treated with cetuximab, activating mutation signatures for BRAF (58 genes) were developed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22799316,\n", " 'text': 'Preoperative BRAF mutation was a predictive factor for occult contralateral papillary thyroid microcarcinoma presence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22809251,\n", " 'text': 'As has been reported in other common types of melanoma, V600 BRAF mutation is the most common mutation of those tested in spindle cell melanoma. NRAS or KIT mutation appears to be rare, if not completely absent.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22814862,\n", " 'text': 'we found no cases of Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors of the fourth ventricle showing KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusion or BRAF (V600E) mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22820187,\n", " 'text': 'these results link epigenetic genes to methylation and suppression of tumor suppressor genes as a mechanism involved in BRAFV600E-promoted melanoma tumorigenesis and uncover a novel molecular signature that predicts a poor prognosis of melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22820660,\n", " 'text': 'No BRAF V600E mutations were detected in nonserous epithelial ovarian tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22824468,\n", " 'text': 'Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in BRAF gene is associated with diseases.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22826122,\n", " 'text': 'It was concluded that extracellular kinase-mediated up-regulation of c-myc by K-Ras or B-Raf oncogenes disrupts the establishment of apical/basolateral polarity in colon epithelial cells independently of its effect on proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22826437,\n", " 'text': 'RAF1(D486N), as well as other kinase-impaired RAF1 mutants, showed increased heterodimerization with BRAF, which was necessary and sufficient to promote increased MEK/ERK activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22833462,\n", " 'text': 'Investigated BRAF and RAF1 alterations in Chinese prostate cancer.Found BRAF truncated in five of 200 informative Chinese cases & RAF1 was truncated in three of 204 informative cases and genomic rearrangements were correlated w/high Gleason scores.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22850568,\n", " 'text': 'This study reveals a novel mechanism of immune suppression sensitive to BRAF(V600E) inhibition, and indicates that clinical blockade of IL-1 may benefit patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22858857,\n", " 'text': 'A review summarizes the role of the BRAF V600E mutation in the development and progression of thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22859608,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22863493,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAFV600E occurs exclusively in papillary thyroid carcinoma and papillary carcinoma-derived anaplastic cancer, rising as a specific diagnostic marker for this tumor when identified in cytological / histological exams'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22870241,\n", " 'text': 'High-throughput genotyping in metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma identifies phosphoinositide-3-kinase and BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22876591,\n", " 'text': 'Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome is caused by heterogeneous mutations in BRAF gene.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22879539,\n", " 'text': 'High prevalence of BRAF V600E mutations is associated with Erdheim-Chester disease but not in other non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22880048,\n", " 'text': 'This study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22887810,\n", " 'text': 'A K601E BRAF mutation is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22892521,\n", " 'text': 'The results of this study supported an important role for BRAF duplication and MAPK pathway activation in gliomas of the optic nerve proper.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22898351,\n", " 'text': 'MSI status, KRAS and BRAF mutation rates varied remarkably among the colonic carcinoma subsites irrespective of right- and left-sided origin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22899730,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of a BRAF c.1799T>A (p.V600E) mutation is associated with significantly poorer prognosis after colorectal cancer diagnosis among subgroups of patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22912864,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that mutation frequency in malanoma patients was found witih BRAF(V600) in 51%, NRAS in 19%, PI3K pathway in 41% and PTEN in 22%.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22918165,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is an early event in thyroid carcinogenesis, and is associated with distinctive morphology and aggressive features even in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22926515,\n", " 'text': 'ARAF seems to stabilize BRAF:CRAF complexes in cells treated with RAF inhibitors and thereby regulate cell signaling in a subtle manner to ensure signaling efficiency'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22930283,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with early stage disease and improved outcome in patients with low-grade serous ovarian cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22931913,\n", " 'text': 'We conclude that the presence of BRAF mutation, NRAS mutation, and the absence of an immune-related expressed gene profile predict poor outcome in melanoma patients with macroscopic stage III disease.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22932786,\n", " 'text': 'Thus, in this meta-analysis, the BRAF mutation in PTC was significantly associated with PTC recurrence, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension, and advanced stage AJCC III/IV.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22938585,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and AKT1 mutations can be rapidly and accurately detected for cancer diagnosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22941165,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutation is the only independent predictor of compartment lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22946697,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that of the 32 cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) patients, 28 (88%) had a known mutation in a gene that is causative for CFC, including BRAF (n = 21), MEK1 (n = 2), MEK2 (n = 4), and KRAS (n = 1).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22972589,\n", " 'text': 'Higher response rates and longer time to progression were observed with selumetinib-containing regimens in patients who had melanoma that harbored a BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22973979,\n", " 'text': 'found a significantly increased risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma attributed to the SNP variants rs17161747, rs1042179, and rs3748093 for those with a family history of cancer, for smokers, and for both those of age <45 years and nondrinkers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22996177,\n", " 'text': 'This report is the first to identify the rare, variant BRAF V600D mutation in LCH, and provides support for constitutively activated BRAF oncogene-induced cell senescence as a mechanism of regression in congenital, benign LCH.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23009221,\n", " 'text': 'consistent with previous studies, it was concluded that the incidence of BRAF V600E mutation in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, if any, is extremely infrequent'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23010278,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF upregulates SGLT1 activity, an effect requiring vesicle insertion into the cell membrane.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23010994,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is suggested to be poor prognostic factors in CRLM.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23014346,\n", " 'text': 'Braf mutation status is not significantly associated with poor survival for melanoma in Koreans.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23021375,\n", " 'text': 'EGFR and downstream genetic alterations in KRAS/BRAF and PI3K/AKT pathways have roles in colorectal cancer and treatment [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23026937,\n", " 'text': 'Immunohistochemistry is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of V600E BRAF mutation in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23033302,\n", " 'text': 'the spectrum and frequency distribution of the identified KRAS and BRAF mutations in Serbian patient with colorectal cancer are in good accordance with literature data.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23036672,\n", " 'text': 'We describe 3 patients with BRAF V600E mutation metastatic melanoma in whom treatment with vemurafenib resulted in prompt extracranial disease response but progression of metastatic disease in the brain.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23039341,\n", " 'text': 'Studied the cytotoxicity and anti-tumour activity of novel MEK inhibitor, E6201, in a panel of melanoma cell lines. Most melanoma cell lines were sensitive or hypersensitive to E6201; the sensitivity correlated with wildtype PTEN and mutant BRAF status.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23041829,\n", " 'text': 'Findings support the potential use of immunohistochemistry as an ancillary screening tool to assess the BRAFV600E mutation status in primary cutaneous melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23051629,\n", " 'text': 'Increased BRAF mutation with age along with the lack of a UVR magnitude-BRAF mutation association suggests that duration of exposure rather than UVR exposure dose is the more likely link to acquiring mutations in melanocytic nevi.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23055340,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS and BRAF mutations are infrequent or absent, respectively in Intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23055546,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation was associated with lymph node metastases (LNM), advanced stage, extrathyroidal extension, tumor size, male gender, multifocality, absence of capsule, classic PTC, and tall-cell variant papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23056577,\n", " 'text': 'A systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that BRAF mutation is an absolute risk factor for patient survival in colorectal cancer and melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23062653,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation was not found to be significantly associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23066120,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation was demonstrated to be a poor prognostic factor for the persistence of the disease independent from other clinical-pathological features in low-risk intrathyroid papillary thyroid carcinoma patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23069257,\n", " 'text': 'Histopathologic changes suggesting prolapsed rectal mucosa should take precedence over BRAF results in diagnosing sessile serrated adenomas in the rectum.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23088640,\n", " 'text': 'analysis suggests that BRAF mutations occur at a low frequency in chronic lymphocytic leukemia'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23095503,\n", " 'text': 'Desmoplastic malignant melanoma: a study of ten cases and status of BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23096133,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas with anaplastic features.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23096702,\n", " 'text': 'We found that NRAS-mutant melanomas were significantly more likely from older patients and BRAF-mutant melanomas were more frequent in melanomas from the trunk.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23098991,\n", " 'text': 'Studied differential miRNA expression in metastatic colorectal cancer by microarrays from primary tumors of 33 patients who had wild-type KRAS/BRAF and third- to sixth-line anti-EGFRmAb treatment, with/without irinotecan.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23110075,\n", " 'text': 'Study demonstrates that chromosomal instability commonly occurs in advanced BRAF mutant/MSS colorectal cancers where it may contribute to poorer survival, and further highlights molecular similarities occurring between these and BRAF wild type cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23125007,\n", " 'text': 'One hundred and ten patients (51%) were identified who were potentially nonresponders to anti-EGFR therapy: 13/117 (11.1%) had the V600E BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23132792,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with cervical lymph node metastasis and recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23138171,\n", " 'text': 'Clinical characteristics of colorectal cancer with the V600E BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23153455,\n", " 'text': 'These findings indicate that ABCG2 confers resistance to vemurafenib in A375 cells, suggesting involvement of this transporter in acquired resistance to vemurafenib.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23157614,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation was more frequent in women, but this gender difference was not statistically significant.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23157823,\n", " 'text': 'In Chinese colorectal carcinoma patients, BRAF mutation is associated with tumor differentiation and primary tumor sites.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23157824,\n", " 'text': 'Codon 12, 13 in KRAS gene and codon 600 in BRAF gene are the most common mutation points in Chinese colorectal cancer. KRAS and BRAF mutations are mutually exclusive. KRAS and BRAF gene mutation is higher in females than that in males.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23158172,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutational status is predictive of papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23159116,\n", " 'text': 'V600E point mutation was identified in the BRAF gene in 3 intramucosal nevi and in 2 melanomas. Only 1 blue nevus harbored the GNAQ209 mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23161556,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation as a new serum marker for papillary thyroid carcinomas were not detectable in patientts diagnosed with thyroid neoplasms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23161722,\n", " 'text': 'data confirm that among lymphoproliferative disorders, BRAF V600E mutation is restricted to hairy cell leukemia (HCL); no mutations were identified in variant HCL, NMZL, ENMZL, PTLD, PTCL, ALCL, or LGL proliferations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23163107,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation might be associated with a more aggressive phenotype and a poor prognosis in classic variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23179992,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600E) mutation is associated with papillary thyroid carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23188063,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations were correlated with poor overall survival in the full patient cohort'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23190154,\n", " 'text': 'Our findings suggest that RAS pathway activation due to BRAF V600E and KRAS mutations is an important event in a subset of peripheral nerve sheath tumours not related to neurofibromatosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23190890,\n", " 'text': 'Oncogenic B-RAF(V600E) signaling induces the T-Box3 transcriptional repressor to repress E-cadherin and enhance melanoma cell invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23192464,\n", " 'text': 'Aim of this work is to provide a detailed comparison of clinical-pathologic features between well-differentiated and poorly differentiated tumors according to their BRAF and RASSF1A status.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23192956,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600E) mutation is associated with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23203004,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600E) is non-associated with Gal-3 expression, whereas it is associated with cytoplasmatic localization of p27kip1 and higher CK19 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23207070,\n", " 'text': 'The present study revealed that ESCC of Brazilian patients do not present mutations in hot spots of EGFR, K-RAS and BRAF and only a minor proportion present overexpression of EGFR or HER2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23208503,\n", " 'text': 'results suggest that mutant B-RAF signaling downregulates Tiam1/Rac activity resulting in an increase in N-cadherin levels and a decrease in E-cadherin levels and ultimately enhanced invasion'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23224067,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations affecting BRAF, EGFR, PIK3CA, and KRAS are not associated with sporadic vestibular schwannomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23235345,\n", " 'text': 'the BRAF V600E mutation is not pathobiologically relevant in primary central nervous system lymphoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23237741,\n", " 'text': 'Patients with V600R BRAF mutations can be treated successfully with oral BRAF inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23242808,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that BRAF and EGF receptor or SRC family kinase inhibition blocked proliferation and invasion of the resistant tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23246082,\n", " 'text': 'the role of BRAF mutations in melanoma and colorectal cancer, focusing on similarities and differences of BRAF mutations (Review)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23253715,\n", " 'text': 'The status of BRAF(V600E) mutation was more frequent in multifocal PTC patients with lymph node metastasis and diagnosis at later age.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23263826,\n", " 'text': 'we deduce that in the absence of mutation activation, B-Raf overexpression or downregulation is a protective event, since it delays the development of both malignant and benign thyroid tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23274581,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23280049,\n", " 'text': 'Preoperative mutation screening for BRAF(V600E) does not meaningfully improve risk stratification and is unlikely to alter the initial management of patients with indeterminate nodules.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23287985,\n", " 'text': 'Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis appears to be a clonal proliferation that may or may not have BRAF V600E mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23290787,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that BRAF mutations are identified in 40-50% of patients with melanoma, and treatment with either of two BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib, dabrafenib) or the MEK inhibitor trametinib is associated with improved clinical benefit.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23297805,\n", " 'text': 'No point mutations were identified in BRAF codon Val600Glu in the studied colorectal adenocarcinomas in the Turkish population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23307859,\n", " 'text': 'High BRAF is associated with metastatic melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23310942,\n", " 'text': 'This study shows that BRAF mutation occurs in Nigerian colorectal cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23317446,\n", " 'text': 'Results demonstrated the action of Dabrafenib and the inhibition of MAPK pathway in melanoma cell lines carrying BRAFV600D/R mutations; these results could be helpful to enlarge the number of patients who may benefit of a more effective targeted treatment'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23324583,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations is associated with colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23334329,\n", " 'text': 'Human neural crest progenitor cells are susceptible to BRAF(V600E)-induced transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23343956,\n", " 'text': 'no association with BRAF-V600E mutation in gastroeosophageal tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23349307,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that besides confirming the constant presence of BRAF-V600E in all patients with hairy cell leukemia, phospho-ERK1/ERK2 expression was observed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23352452,\n", " 'text': 'Ras pathway activation via EGF treatment induced strong binding between B-Raf and C-Raf and a low level of binding between B-Raf and A-Raf.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23354951,\n", " 'text': 'Alternative splicing of exons 14, 15, 15b, 16b and 16c occurs in a considerable fraction of BRAF mRNA in normal colon and colorectal cancer cells and is independent of the V600E mutational status of the parental allele.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23355004,\n", " 'text': 'The detected Merkel cell polyomavirus prevalence in non-small cell lung cancer in combination with the deregulated expression of BRAF and Bcl-2 genes suggests that these events are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23359496,\n", " 'text': 'Kidins220 is a novel T-cell receptor (TCR)-interacting protein that couples B-Raf to the TCR. Kidins220 is mandatory for sustained Erk signaling and is crucial for TCR-mediated T cell activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23370429,\n", " 'text': 'This is the first report of BRAF V600E mutation in endometrial cancer, indicating that it may contribute to tumorigenesis of endometrial cancer, although at a low frequency compared with KRAS mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23370668,\n", " 'text': 'study suggests that highly aggressive papillary thyroid microcarcinoma may arise in a subset of patients with BRAF(V600E) mutation and tumors greater than 5 mm; multivariate analysis showed that tumor recurrence was not associated with BRAF(V600E)mutation'},\n", " ...],\n", " 'genomic_pos': {'chr': '7',\n", " 'end': 140924928,\n", " 'ensemblgene': 'ENSG00000157764',\n", " 'start': 140719327,\n", " 'strand': -1},\n", " 'genomic_pos_hg19': {'chr': '7',\n", " 'end': 140624564,\n", " 'start': 140419127,\n", " 'strand': -1},\n", " 'go': {'BP': [{'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000165',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'MAPK cascade'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000165',\n", " 'term': 'MAPK cascade'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000186',\n", " 'term': 'activation of MAPKK activity'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0002318',\n", " 'term': 'myeloid progenitor cell differentiation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006468',\n", " 'pubmed': 17563371,\n", " 'term': 'protein phosphorylation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0008542',\n", " 'term': 'visual learning'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0009887',\n", " 'pubmed': 9207797,\n", " 'term': 'animal organ morphogenesis'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IMP',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0010628',\n", " 'pubmed': 22065586,\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of gene expression'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0010764',\n", " 'term': 'negative regulation of fibroblast migration'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0010828',\n", " 'pubmed': 23010278,\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of glucose transmembrane transport'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0030878',\n", " 'term': 'thyroid gland development'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0033138',\n", " 'pubmed': 19667065,\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0035019',\n", " 'term': 'somatic stem cell population maintenance'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0035690',\n", " 'term': 'cellular response to drug'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0042127',\n", " 'term': 'regulation of cell proliferation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043066',\n", " 'pubmed': 19667065,\n", " 'term': 'negative regulation of apoptotic process'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043367',\n", " 'term': 'CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell differentiation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043369',\n", " 'term': 'CD4-positive or CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell lineage commitment'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043434',\n", " 'term': 'response to peptide hormone'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043524',\n", " 'term': 'negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0045580',\n", " 'term': 'regulation of T cell differentiation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0048538',\n", " 'term': 'thymus development'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0048680',\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of axon regeneration'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0050772',\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of axonogenesis'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0050852',\n", " 'term': 'T cell receptor signaling pathway'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0051291',\n", " 'term': 'protein heterooligomerization'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0051496',\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of stress fiber assembly'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0051591',\n", " 'term': 'response to cAMP'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0060291',\n", " 'term': 'long-term synaptic potentiation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0060323',\n", " 'term': 'head morphogenesis'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0060324',\n", " 'term': 'face development'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0070374',\n", " 'pubmed': 22065586,\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IMP',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0070413',\n", " 'pubmed': 9837904,\n", " 'term': 'trehalose metabolism in response to stress'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0071277',\n", " 'pubmed': 18567582,\n", " 'term': 'cellular response to calcium ion'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0090150',\n", " 'pubmed': 23010278,\n", " 'term': 'establishment of protein localization to membrane'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:1900026',\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:1990090',\n", " 'term': 'cellular response to nerve growth factor stimulus'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:2000301',\n", " 'term': 'negative regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:2000352',\n", " 'term': 'negative regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process'}],\n", " 'CC': [{'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005634',\n", " 'term': 'nucleus'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005739',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'mitochondrion'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005829',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'cytosol'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005829',\n", " 'term': 'cytosol'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005829',\n", " 'term': 'cytosol'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005886',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'plasma membrane'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005886',\n", " 'term': 'plasma membrane'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043005',\n", " 'term': 'neuron projection'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043231',\n", " 'term': 'intracellular membrane-bounded organelle'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0044297',\n", " 'term': 'cell body'}],\n", " 'MF': [{'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0004672',\n", " 'pubmed': 17563371,\n", " 'term': 'protein kinase activity'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0004674',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'protein serine/threonine kinase activity'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0004674',\n", " 'pubmed': 19667065,\n", " 'term': 'protein serine/threonine kinase activity'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0004709',\n", " 'term': 'MAP kinase kinase kinase activity'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005509',\n", " 'pubmed': 18567582,\n", " 'term': 'calcium ion binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IPI',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005515',\n", " 'pubmed': [12620389,\n", " 15161933,\n", " 16810323,\n", " 16888650,\n", " 17380122,\n", " 17563371,\n", " 17979178,\n", " 18567582,\n", " 20130576,\n", " 20141835,\n", " 21441910,\n", " 21478863,\n", " 22169110,\n", " 22510884,\n", " 22939624,\n", " 23153539,\n", " 23680146,\n", " 23934108,\n", " 24255178,\n", " 24441586,\n", " 24746704,\n", " 25155755,\n", " 25241761,\n", " 25437913,\n", " 25600339,\n", " 26165597,\n", " 26466569,\n", " 26496610,\n", " 27353360],\n", " 'term': 'protein binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005524',\n", " 'term': 'ATP binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IPI',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0031267',\n", " 'pubmed': 12194967,\n", " 'qualifier': 'NOT',\n", " 'term': 'small GTPase binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0031434',\n", " 'term': 'mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IPI',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0042802',\n", " 'pubmed': [16858395, 19727074, 22169110, 22510884, 25155755, 25437913],\n", " 'term': 'identical protein binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0046982',\n", " 'term': 'protein heterodimerization activity'}]},\n", " 'homologene': {'genes': [[6239, 177436],\n", " [7165, 1278538],\n", " [7227, 31221],\n", " [7955, 403065],\n", " [8364, 779570],\n", " [9031, 396239],\n", " [9544, 693554],\n", " [9598, 463781],\n", " [9606, 673],\n", " [9615, 475526],\n", " [9913, 536051],\n", " [10090, 109880],\n", " [10116, 114486]],\n", " 'id': 3197},\n", " 'interpro': [{'desc': 'Protein kinase domain',\n", " 'id': 'IPR000719',\n", " 'short_desc': 'Prot_kinase_dom'},\n", " {'desc': 'Serine-threonine/tyrosine-protein kinase, catalytic domain',\n", " 'id': 'IPR001245',\n", " 'short_desc': 'Ser-Thr/Tyr_kinase_cat_dom'},\n", " {'desc': 'Protein kinase C-like, phorbol ester/diacylglycerol-binding domain',\n", " 'id': 'IPR002219',\n", " 'short_desc': 'PE/DAG-bd'},\n", " {'desc': 'Raf-like Ras-binding', 'id': 'IPR003116', 'short_desc': 'RBD_dom'},\n", " {'desc': 'Serine/threonine-protein kinase, active site',\n", " 'id': 'IPR008271',\n", " 'short_desc': 'Ser/Thr_kinase_AS'},\n", " {'desc': 'Protein kinase-like domain superfamily',\n", " 'id': 'IPR011009',\n", " 'short_desc': 'Kinase-like_dom_sf'},\n", " {'desc': 'Protein kinase, ATP binding site',\n", " 'id': 'IPR017441',\n", " 'short_desc': 'Protein_kinase_ATP_BS'},\n", " {'desc': 'Diacylglycerol/phorbol-ester binding',\n", " 'id': 'IPR020454',\n", " 'short_desc': 'DAG/PE-bd'},\n", " {'desc': 'Ubiquitin-like domain superfamily',\n", " 'id': 'IPR029071',\n", " 'short_desc': 'Ubiquitin-like_domsf'}],\n", " 'ipi': 'IPI00303797',\n", " 'map_location': '7q34',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'other_names': ['94 kDa B-raf protein',\n", " 'B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (p94)',\n", " 'B-Raf serine/threonine-protein',\n", " 'murine sarcoma viral (v-raf) oncogene homolog B1',\n", " 'proto-oncogene B-Raf',\n", " 'serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf',\n", " 'v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B',\n", " 'v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1'],\n", " 'pantherdb': {'HGNC': '1097',\n", " 'ortholog': [{'MGI': '88190',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 10090,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'P28028'},\n", " {'RGD': '619908',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 10116,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'F1M9C3'},\n", " {'Ensembl': 'ENSGALG00000012865',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9031,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q04982'},\n", " {'ZFIN': 'ZDB-GENE-040805-1',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 7955,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q1LYG2'},\n", " {'WormBase': 'WBGene00003030',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 6239,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q07292'},\n", " {'FlyBase': 'FBgn0003079',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 7227,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'P11346'},\n", " {'HGNC': '42952',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'V9GXZ4'},\n", " {'HGNC': '26617',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q8NB16'},\n", " {'HGNC': '6850',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q16584'},\n", " {'HGNC': '10019',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q13546'},\n", " {'HGNC': '10020',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'O43353'},\n", " {'HGNC': '6851',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q12852'},\n", " {'HGNC': '6849',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q02779'},\n", " {'HGNC': '6852',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'O43283'},\n", " {'HGNC': '6861',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'P80192'},\n", " {'dictyBase': 'DDB_G0273445',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 352472,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q86AT8'},\n", " {'dictyBase': 'DDB_G0278909',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'O',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 352472,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q54XI9'},\n", " {'dictyBase': 'DDB_G0289555',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'O',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 352472,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q54HC6'},\n", " {'dictyBase': 'DDB_G0278535',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'O',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 352472,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q54XX5'},\n", " {'TAIR': 'AT4G24480',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'O',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 3702,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'F4JQX7'},\n", " {'TAIR': 'AT5G03730',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'O',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 3702,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q05609'}],\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'P15056'},\n", " 'pathway': {'kegg': [{'id': 'hsa04010',\n", " 'name': 'MAPK signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04012', 'name': 'ErbB signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04015', 'name': 'Rap1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04024', 'name': 'cAMP signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04062',\n", " 'name': 'Chemokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04068', 'name': 'FoxO signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04150', 'name': 'mTOR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04270',\n", " 'name': 'Vascular smooth muscle contraction - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04510', 'name': 'Focal adhesion - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04650',\n", " 'name': 'Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04720', 'name': 'Long-term potentiation - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04722',\n", " 'name': 'Neurotrophin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04726', 'name': 'Serotonergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04730', 'name': 'Long-term depression - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04810',\n", " 'name': 'Regulation of actin cytoskeleton - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04910',\n", " 'name': 'Insulin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04914',\n", " 'name': 'Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04934', 'name': 'Cushing,s syndrome - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05034', 'name': 'Alcoholism - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05160', 'name': 'Hepatitis C - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05200', 'name': 'Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05205',\n", " 'name': 'Proteoglycans in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05210', 'name': 'Colorectal cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05211', 'name': 'Renal cell carcinoma - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05212', 'name': 'Pancreatic cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05213', 'name': 'Endometrial cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05214', 'name': 'Glioma - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05215', 'name': 'Prostate cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05216', 'name': 'Thyroid cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05218', 'name': 'Melanoma - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05219', 'name': 'Bladder cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05220',\n", " 'name': 'Chronic myeloid leukemia - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05221', 'name': 'Acute myeloid leukemia - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05223',\n", " 'name': 'Non-small cell lung cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05224', 'name': 'Breast cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05225',\n", " 'name': 'Hepatocellular carcinoma - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05226', 'name': 'Gastric cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'}],\n", " 'netpath': {'id': 'Pathway_EGFR1', 'name': 'EGFR1'},\n", " 'pharmgkb': [{'id': 'PA165959425', 'name': 'Pathway_PA165959425'},\n", " {'id': 'PA165959584', 'name': 'Sorafenib Pharmacodynamics'},\n", " {'id': 'PA165980050', 'name': 'Vemurafenib Pathway, Pharmacodynamics'},\n", " {'id': 'PA165980050', 'name': 'update your name in edit mode'}],\n", " 'pid': [{'id': 'cd8tcrdownstreampathway',\n", " 'name': 'Downstream signaling in naïve CD8+ T cells'},\n", " {'id': 'cdc42_pathway', 'name': 'CDC42 signaling events'},\n", " {'id': 'erbb1_downstream_pathway', 'name': 'ErbB1 downstream signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'fak_pathway',\n", " 'name': 'Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase'},\n", " {'id': 'mapktrkpathway',\n", " 'name': 'Trk receptor signaling mediated by the MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'mtor_4pathway', 'name': 'mTOR signaling pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'pdgfrbpathway', 'name': 'PDGFR-beta signaling pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'tcrraspathway', 'name': 'Ras signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'vegfr1_2_pathway',\n", " 'name': 'Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2'}],\n", " 'reactome': [{'id': 'R-HSA-112314',\n", " 'name': 'Neurotransmitter receptors and postsynaptic signal transmission'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-112315', 'name': 'Transmission across Chemical Synapses'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-112316', 'name': 'Neuronal System'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-1295596', 'name': 'Spry regulation of FGF signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-162582', 'name': 'Signal Transduction'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-162582', 'name': 'Signal Transduction'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-1643685', 'name': 'Disease'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-166520', 'name': 'Signaling by NTRKs'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-169893', 'name': 'Prolonged ERK activation events'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-170968', 'name': 'Frs2-mediated activation'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-170984', 'name': 'ARMS-mediated activation'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-187037', 'name': 'Signaling by NTRK1 (TRKA)'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-187687', 'name': 'Signalling to ERKs'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-187706', 'name': 'Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-190236', 'name': 'Signaling by FGFR'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-438064', 'name': 'Post NMDA receptor activation events'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-442742',\n", " 'name': 'CREB phosphorylation through the activation of Ras'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-442755',\n", " 'name': 'Activation of NMDA receptors and postsynaptic events'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654726', 'name': 'Negative regulation of FGFR1 signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654727', 'name': 'Negative regulation of FGFR2 signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654732', 'name': 'Negative regulation of FGFR3 signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654733', 'name': 'Negative regulation of FGFR4 signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654736', 'name': 'Signaling by FGFR1'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654738', 'name': 'Signaling by FGFR2'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654741', 'name': 'Signaling by FGFR3'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654743', 'name': 'Signaling by FGFR4'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5663202', 'name': 'Diseases of signal transduction'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5673000', 'name': 'RAF activation'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5673001', 'name': 'RAF/MAP kinase cascade'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5674135', 'name': 'MAP2K and MAPK activation'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5674499',\n", " 'name': 'Negative feedback regulation of MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5675221', 'name': 'Negative regulation of MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5683057', 'name': 'MAPK family signaling cascades'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5684996', 'name': 'MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-6802946',\n", " 'name': 'Signaling by moderate kinase activity BRAF mutants'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-6802948',\n", " 'name': 'Signaling by high-kinase activity BRAF mutants'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-6802949', 'name': 'Signaling by RAS mutants'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-6802952', 'name': 'Signaling by BRAF and RAF fusions'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-6802955',\n", " 'name': 'Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-6802957', 'name': 'Oncogenic MAPK signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-9006934', 'name': 'Signaling by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-9006934', 'name': 'Signaling by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases'}],\n", " 'smpdb': [{'id': 'SMP00320',\n", " 'name': 'Intracellular Signalling Through Adenosine Receptor A2a and Adenosine'},\n", " {'id': 'SMP00321',\n", " 'name': 'Intracellular Signalling Through Adenosine Receptor A2b and Adenosine'}],\n", " 'wikipathways': [{'id': 'WP185', 'name': 'Integrin-mediated Cell Adhesion'},\n", " {'id': 'WP2032',\n", " 'name': 'Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) signaling pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP2261', 'name': 'Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma'},\n", " {'id': 'WP23', 'name': 'B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP2355',\n", " 'name': 'Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP2512', 'name': 'Integrated Lung Cancer Pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP2571', 'name': 'Polycystic Kidney Disease Pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP2828', 'name': 'Bladder Cancer'},\n", " {'id': 'WP306', 'name': 'Focal Adhesion'},\n", " {'id': 'WP3676', 'name': 'BDNF-TrkB Signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'WP382', 'name': 'MAPK Signaling Pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP3929', 'name': 'Chemokine signaling pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP3931', 'name': 'ESC Pluripotency Pathways'},\n", " {'id': 'WP4155', 'name': 'Endometrial cancer'},\n", " {'id': 'WP4205', 'name': 'MET in type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma'},\n", " {'id': 'WP4216',\n", " 'name': 'Chromosomal and microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer'},\n", " {'id': 'WP422', 'name': 'MAPK Cascade'},\n", " {'id': 'WP437', 'name': 'EGF-EGFR Signaling Pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP51', 'name': 'Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton'},\n", " {'id': 'WP615', 'name': 'Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer'},\n", " {'id': 'WP712', 'name': 'Estrogen signaling pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP722', 'name': 'Serotonin HTR1 Group and FOS Pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP734', 'name': 'Serotonin Receptor 4-6-7 and NR3C Signaling'}]},\n", " 'pdb': ['1UWH',\n", " '1UWJ',\n", " '2FB8',\n", " '2L05',\n", " '3C4C',\n", " '3D4Q',\n", " '3IDP',\n", " '3II5',\n", " '3NY5',\n", " '3OG7',\n", " '3PPJ',\n", " '3PPK',\n", " '3PRF',\n", " '3PRI',\n", " '3PSB',\n", " '3PSD',\n", " '3Q4C',\n", " '3Q96',\n", " '3SKC',\n", " '3TV4',\n", " '3TV6',\n", " '4CQE',\n", " '4DBN',\n", " '4E26',\n", " '4E4X',\n", " '4EHE',\n", " '4EHG',\n", " '4FC0',\n", " '4FK3',\n", " '4G9C',\n", " '4G9R',\n", " '4H58',\n", " '4JVG',\n", " '4KSP',\n", " '4KSQ',\n", " '4MBJ',\n", " '4MNE',\n", " '4MNF',\n", " '4PP7',\n", " '4R5Y',\n", " '4RZV',\n", " '4RZW',\n", " '4WO5',\n", " '4XV1',\n", " '4XV2',\n", " '4XV3',\n", " '4XV9',\n", " '4YHT',\n", " '5C9C',\n", " '5CSW',\n", " '5CSX',\n", " '5CT7',\n", " '5FD2',\n", " '5HI2',\n", " '5HID',\n", " '5HIE',\n", " '5ITA',\n", " '5J17',\n", " '5J18',\n", " '5J2R',\n", " '5JRQ',\n", " '5JSM',\n", " '5JT2',\n", " '5VAL',\n", " '5VAM',\n", " '5VR3',\n", " '5VYK',\n", " '6B8U',\n", " '6CAD'],\n", " 'pfam': ['PF00130', 'PF02196', 'PF07714'],\n", " 'pharmgkb': 'PA25408',\n", " 'pharos': {'target_id': 1932},\n", " 'pir': 'A57977',\n", " 'prosite': ['PS50011', 'PS50081', 'PS50898'],\n", " 'reagent': {'GNF_Qia_hs-genome_v1_siRNA': [{'id': 'GNF246467',\n", " 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF246468', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF246469', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF246470', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-Origene': [{'id': 'GNF033097', 'relationship': 'similar to'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF036220', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF046927', 'relationship': 'weakly similar to'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-druggable_lenti-shRNA': [{'id': 'GNF092340', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF092341', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF092342', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-druggable_plasmid-shRNA': [{'id': 'GNF051312', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF056078', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF060793', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-druggable_siRNA': [{'id': 'GNF067889', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF067890', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-pkinase_IDT-siRNA': [{'id': 'GNF165248', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF165249', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF165250', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF165251', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_mm+hs-MGC': {'id': 'GNF279495', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " 'Invitrogen_IVTHSSIPKv2': [{'id': 'GNF324655', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF324656', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'NIBRI_hs-Secretome_pDEST': {'id': 'GNF339157', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " 'NOVART_hs-genome_siRNA': [{'id': 'GNF092847', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF132545', 'relationship': 'is'}]},\n", " 'refseq': {'genomic': ['NC_000007.14', 'NG_007873.3'],\n", " 'protein': ['NP_001341538.1',\n", " 'NP_004324.2',\n", " 'XP_016868047.1',\n", " 'XP_016868048.1'],\n", " 'rna': ['NM_001354609.1',\n", " 'NM_004333.5',\n", " 'NR_148928.1',\n", " 'XM_017012558.1',\n", " 'XM_017012559.1',\n", " 'XR_001744857.1',\n", " 'XR_001744858.1'],\n", " 'translation': [{'protein': 'XP_016868047.1', 'rna': 'XM_017012558.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'XP_016868048.1', 'rna': 'XM_017012559.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_001341538.1', 'rna': 'NM_001354609.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_004324.2', 'rna': 'NM_004333.5'}]},\n", " 'reporter': {'HG-U133_Plus_2': ['206044_s_at',\n", " '226391_at',\n", " '236402_at',\n", " '243829_at'],\n", " 'HG-U95Av2': ['1654_at', '40306_at'],\n", " 'HG-U95B': '55694_at',\n", " 'HTA-2_0': ['TC07001926.hg.1', 'TC07001927.hg.1', 'TC07003197.hg.1'],\n", " 'HuEx-1_0': ['2320411', '3076340', '3982172'],\n", " 'HuGene-1_1': ['7897745', '8143417'],\n", " 'HuGene-2_1': ['16659054', '17063631']},\n", " 'summary': 'This gene encodes a protein belonging to the RAF family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERK signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene, most commonly the V600E mutation, are the most frequently identified cancer-causing mutations in melanoma, and have been identified in various other cancers as well, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colorectal cancer, thyroid carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, hairy cell leukemia and adenocarcinoma of lung. Mutations in this gene are also associated with cardiofaciocutaneous, Noonan, and Costello syndromes, which exhibit overlapping phenotypes. A pseudogene of this gene has been identified on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017].',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'type_of_gene': 'protein-coding',\n", " 'umls': {'cui': 'C0812241'},\n", " 'unigene': ['Hs.550061', 'Hs.324250', 'Hs.600998', 'Hs.659507', 'Hs.684552'],\n", " 'uniprot': {'Swiss-Prot': 'P15056',\n", " 'TrEMBL': ['H7C4S5',\n", " 'A0A2R8Y8E0',\n", " 'A0A2U3TZI2',\n", " 'A0A2R8Y492',\n", " 'A0A2R8Y467',\n", " 'H7C560',\n", " 'A0A2R8Y679',\n", " 'A0A2R8YES9',\n", " 'H7C5K3',\n", " 'A0A2R8YDP5']},\n", " 'wikipedia': {'url_stub': 'BRAF (gene)'}}" ] }, "execution_count": 29, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "braf_response = requests.get('http://mygene.info/v3/gene/' + braf_id)\n", "braf_response.json()" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 30, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "'This gene encodes a protein belonging to the RAF family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERK signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene, most commonly the V600E mutation, are the most frequently identified cancer-causing mutations in melanoma, and have been identified in various other cancers as well, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colorectal cancer, thyroid carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, hairy cell leukemia and adenocarcinoma of lung. Mutations in this gene are also associated with cardiofaciocutaneous, Noonan, and Costello syndromes, which exhibit overlapping phenotypes. A pseudogene of this gene has been identified on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017].'" ] }, "execution_count": 30, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "braf_info = braf_response.json()\n", "braf_info['summary']" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 31, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "[{'query': '673',\n", " 'HGNC': '1097',\n", " 'MIM': '164757',\n", " 'Vega': 'OTTHUMG00000157457',\n", " '_id': '673',\n", " '_score': 20.348886,\n", " 'accession': {'genomic': ['AC006006.2',\n", " 'AC006344.2',\n", " 'AC006347.2',\n", " 'AC079339.5',\n", " 'CH236950.1',\n", " 'CH471070.1',\n", " 'EU600171.1',\n", " 'HB432546.1',\n", " 'HC464558.1',\n", " 'HM459603.1',\n", " 'HQ224878.1',\n", " 'KF481581.1',\n", " 'KT584890.1',\n", " 'KY769663.1',\n", " 'KY769664.1',\n", " 'KY769665.1',\n", " 'KY769666.1',\n", " 'KY769667.1',\n", " 'KY769668.1',\n", " 'NC_000007.14',\n", " 'NG_007873.3',\n", " 'X65187.1'],\n", " 'protein': ['AAA35609.2',\n", " 'AAA96495.1',\n", " 'AAD15551.1',\n", " 'AAD43193.1',\n", " 'AAI01758.1',\n", " 'AAI12080.1',\n", " 'AAS00359.1',\n", " 'ACD11489.1',\n", " 'ADN43065.1',\n", " 'ADQ00186.1',\n", " 'ADX94397.1',\n", " 'AIE38317.1',\n", " 'ARR27440.1',\n", " 'ARR27441.1',\n", " 'ARR27442.1',\n", " 'ARR27443.1',\n", " 'ARR27444.1',\n", " 'ARR27445.1',\n", " 'CAA46301.1',\n", " 'CAB81553.1',\n", " 'CAZ68014.1',\n", " 'CBK51920.1',\n", " 'EAL24023.1',\n", " 'EAW83964.1',\n", " 'EAW83965.1',\n", " 'NP_001341538.1',\n", " 'NP_004324.2',\n", " 'P15056.4',\n", " 'XP_016868047.1',\n", " 'XP_016868048.1'],\n", " 'rna': ['AA252358.1',\n", " 'AA834931.1',\n", " 'AA975673.1',\n", " 'AI203435.1',\n", " 'AJ276310.1',\n", " 'AK054801.1',\n", " 'AK094023.1',\n", " 'AK098095.1',\n", " 'AK124257.1',\n", " 'AK314346.1',\n", " 'AW971583.1',\n", " 'BC038966.1',\n", " 'BC101757.1',\n", " 'BC112079.1',\n", " 'BM263585.1',\n", " 'DB454480.1',\n", " 'DN996440.1',\n", " 'HM437233.1',\n", " 'M21001.1',\n", " 'M95712.2',\n", " 'NM_001354609.1',\n", " 'NM_004333.5',\n", " 'NR_148928.1',\n", " 'XM_017012558.1',\n", " 'XM_017012559.1',\n", " 'XR_001744857.1',\n", " 'XR_001744858.1'],\n", " 'translation': [{'protein': 'AAA35609.2', 'rna': 'M95712.2'},\n", " {'protein': 'AAA96495.1', 'rna': 'M21001.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'XP_016868048.1', 'rna': 'XM_017012559.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'ADN43065.1', 'rna': 'HM437233.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'AAI01758.1', 'rna': 'BC101757.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_001341538.1', 'rna': 'NM_001354609.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'XP_016868047.1', 'rna': 'XM_017012558.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'CAB81553.1', 'rna': 'AJ276310.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'AAI12080.1', 'rna': 'BC112079.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_004324.2', 'rna': 'NM_004333.5'}]},\n", " 'alias': ['B-RAF1', 'B-raf', 'BRAF1', 'NS7', 'RAFB1'],\n", " 'ec': '2.7.11.1',\n", " 'ensembl': {'gene': 'ENSG00000157764',\n", " 'protein': ['ENSP00000288602',\n", " 'ENSP00000418033',\n", " 'ENSP00000419060',\n", " 'ENSP00000420119',\n", " 'ENSP00000493543',\n", " 'ENSP00000493678',\n", " 'ENSP00000493783',\n", " 'ENSP00000494784',\n", " 'ENSP00000495132',\n", " 'ENSP00000495858',\n", " 'ENSP00000496776'],\n", " 'transcript': ['ENST00000288602',\n", " 'ENST00000469930',\n", " 'ENST00000479537',\n", " 'ENST00000496384',\n", " 'ENST00000497784',\n", " 'ENST00000642228',\n", " 'ENST00000642272',\n", " 'ENST00000642808',\n", " 'ENST00000642875',\n", " 'ENST00000643356',\n", " 'ENST00000643790',\n", " 'ENST00000644120',\n", " 'ENST00000644650',\n", " 'ENST00000644905',\n", " 'ENST00000644969',\n", " 'ENST00000645443',\n", " 'ENST00000646334',\n", " 'ENST00000646427',\n", " 'ENST00000646730',\n", " 'ENST00000646891',\n", " 'ENST00000647434'],\n", " 'translation': [{'protein': 'ENSP00000419060', 'rna': 'ENST00000496384'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000496776', 'rna': 'ENST00000644969'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000493543', 'rna': 'ENST00000646891'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000493678', 'rna': 'ENST00000642228'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000288602', 'rna': 'ENST00000288602'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000494784', 'rna': 'ENST00000646730'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000418033', 'rna': 'ENST00000479537'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000495132', 'rna': 'ENST00000647434'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000493783', 'rna': 'ENST00000644650'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000420119', 'rna': 'ENST00000497784'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000495858', 'rna': 'ENST00000469930'}],\n", " 'type_of_gene': 'protein_coding'},\n", " 'entrezgene': '673',\n", " 'exac': {'all': {'exp_lof': 38.7898242736,\n", " 'exp_mis': 222.804792623,\n", " 'exp_syn': 91.8960727685,\n", " 'lof_z': 5.85138231407808,\n", " 'mis_z': 3.99133872234548,\n", " 'mu_lof': 2.88380412169e-06,\n", " 'mu_mis': 2.2184090402e-05,\n", " 'mu_syn': 9.8889618129e-06,\n", " 'n_lof': 2.0,\n", " 'n_mis': 101.0,\n", " 'n_syn': 92.0,\n", " 'p_li': 0.999978196041997,\n", " 'p_null': 3.88216441101404e-14,\n", " 'p_rec': 2.18039579639691e-05,\n", " 'syn_z': -0.00672112442056413},\n", " 'bp': 2301,\n", " 'cds_end': 140624503,\n", " 'cds_start': 140434396,\n", " 'n_exons': 18,\n", " 'nonpsych': {'exp_lof': 34.7601572454,\n", " 'exp_mis': 201.311466134,\n", " 'exp_syn': 82.8264394585,\n", " 'lof_z': 5.62361517113138,\n", " 'mis_z': 4.02811051726418,\n", " 'mu_lof': 2.88380412169e-06,\n", " 'mu_mis': 2.2184090402e-05,\n", " 'mu_syn': 9.8889618129e-06,\n", " 'n_lof': 1.0,\n", " 'n_mis': 88.0,\n", " 'n_syn': 82.0,\n", " 'p_li': 0.999983482649624,\n", " 'p_null': 1.18961221524589e-13,\n", " 'p_rec': 1.65173502566583e-05,\n", " 'syn_z': 0.057172913417909},\n", " 'nontcga': {'exp_lof': 35.6526822996,\n", " 'exp_mis': 204.94646599,\n", " 'exp_syn': 84.5104358173,\n", " 'lof_z': 5.55974482036514,\n", " 'mis_z': 4.03503314525409,\n", " 'mu_lof': 2.88380412169e-06,\n", " 'mu_mis': 2.2184090402e-05,\n", " 'mu_syn': 9.8889618129e-06,\n", " 'n_lof': 2.0,\n", " 'n_mis': 89.0,\n", " 'n_syn': 81.0,\n", " 'p_li': 0.999932334264256,\n", " 'p_null': 6.11297736772402e-13,\n", " 'p_rec': 6.76657351324938e-05,\n", " 'syn_z': 0.241784586564238},\n", " 'transcript': 'ENST00000288602.6'},\n", " 'exons': [{'cdsend': 140924703,\n", " 'cdsstart': 140726493,\n", " 'chr': '7',\n", " 'position': [[140719326, 140726516],\n", " [140734616, 140734770],\n", " [140739811, 140739946],\n", " [140749286, 140749418],\n", " [140753274, 140753393],\n", " [140754186, 140754233],\n", " [140776911, 140777088],\n", " [140777990, 140778075],\n", " [140781575, 140781693],\n", " [140783020, 140783157],\n", " [140787547, 140787584],\n", " [140794307, 140794467],\n", " [140800361, 140800481],\n", " [140801411, 140801560],\n", " [140807959, 140808062],\n", " [140808891, 140808995],\n", " [140834608, 140834872],\n", " [140850110, 140850212],\n", " [140924565, 140924928]],\n", " 'strand': -1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_001354609',\n", " 'txend': 140924928,\n", " 'txstart': 140719326},\n", " {'cdsend': 140924703,\n", " 'cdsstart': 140734596,\n", " 'chr': '7',\n", " 'position': [[140732563, 140734770],\n", " [140739811, 140739946],\n", " [140749286, 140749418],\n", " [140753274, 140753393],\n", " [140754186, 140754233],\n", " [140776911, 140777088],\n", " [140777990, 140778075],\n", " [140781575, 140781693],\n", " [140783020, 140783157],\n", " [140787547, 140787584],\n", " [140794307, 140794467],\n", " [140800361, 140800481],\n", " [140801411, 140801560],\n", " [140807959, 140808062],\n", " [140808891, 140808995],\n", " [140834608, 140834872],\n", " [140850110, 140850212],\n", " [140924565, 140924928]],\n", " 'strand': -1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_004333',\n", " 'txend': 140924928,\n", " 'txstart': 140732563},\n", " {'cdsend': 140924928,\n", " 'cdsstart': 140924928,\n", " 'chr': '7',\n", " 'position': [[140732563, 140734770],\n", " [140739811, 140739946],\n", " [140749286, 140749418],\n", " [140753274, 140754233],\n", " [140776911, 140777088],\n", " [140777990, 140778075],\n", " [140781575, 140781693],\n", " [140783020, 140783157],\n", " [140787547, 140787584],\n", " [140794307, 140794467],\n", " [140800361, 140800481],\n", " [140801411, 140801560],\n", " [140807959, 140808062],\n", " [140808236, 140808316],\n", " [140808891, 140808995],\n", " [140834608, 140834872],\n", " [140850110, 140850212],\n", " [140924565, 140924928]],\n", " 'strand': -1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NR_148928',\n", " 'txend': 140924928,\n", " 'txstart': 140732563}],\n", " 'exons_hg19': [{'cdsend': 140624503,\n", " 'cdsstart': 140426293,\n", " 'chr': '7',\n", " 'position': [[140419126, 140426316],\n", " [140434416, 140434570],\n", " [140439611, 140439746],\n", " [140449086, 140449218],\n", " [140453074, 140453193],\n", " [140453986, 140454033],\n", " [140476711, 140476888],\n", " [140477790, 140477875],\n", " [140481375, 140481493],\n", " [140482820, 140482957],\n", " [140487347, 140487384],\n", " [140494107, 140494267],\n", " [140500161, 140500281],\n", " [140501211, 140501360],\n", " [140507759, 140507862],\n", " [140508691, 140508795],\n", " [140534408, 140534672],\n", " [140549910, 140550012],\n", " [140624365, 140624728]],\n", " 'strand': -1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_001354609',\n", " 'txend': 140624728,\n", " 'txstart': 140419126},\n", " {'cdsend': 140624503,\n", " 'cdsstart': 140434396,\n", " 'chr': '7',\n", " 'position': [[140432363, 140434570],\n", " [140439611, 140439746],\n", " [140449086, 140449218],\n", " [140453074, 140453193],\n", " [140453986, 140454033],\n", " [140476711, 140476888],\n", " [140477790, 140477875],\n", " [140481375, 140481493],\n", " [140482820, 140482957],\n", " [140487347, 140487384],\n", " [140494107, 140494267],\n", " [140500161, 140500281],\n", " [140501211, 140501360],\n", " [140507759, 140507862],\n", " [140508691, 140508795],\n", " [140534408, 140534672],\n", " [140549910, 140550012],\n", " [140624365, 140624728]],\n", " 'strand': -1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_004333',\n", " 'txend': 140624728,\n", " 'txstart': 140432363},\n", " {'cdsend': 140624728,\n", " 'cdsstart': 140624728,\n", " 'chr': '7',\n", " 'position': [[140432363, 140434570],\n", " [140439611, 140439746],\n", " [140449086, 140449218],\n", " [140453074, 140454033],\n", " [140476711, 140476888],\n", " [140477790, 140477875],\n", " [140481375, 140481493],\n", " [140482820, 140482957],\n", " [140487347, 140487384],\n", " [140494107, 140494267],\n", " [140500161, 140500281],\n", " [140501211, 140501360],\n", " [140507759, 140507862],\n", " [140508036, 140508116],\n", " [140508691, 140508795],\n", " [140534408, 140534672],\n", " [140549910, 140550012],\n", " [140624365, 140624728]],\n", " 'strand': -1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NR_148928',\n", " 'txend': 140624728,\n", " 'txstart': 140432363}],\n", " 'generif': [{'pubmed': 8621729, 'text': 'MEK1 interacts with B-Raf.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12068308,\n", " 'text': 'somatic missense mutations in 66% of malignant melanomas and at lower frequency in a wide range of human cancers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12198537,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations in colorectal cancers occur only in tumours that do not carry mutations in a RAS gene known as KRAS, and BRAF mutation is linked to the proficiency of these tumours in repairing mismatched bases in DNA'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12447372, 'text': 'High frequency of BRAF mutations in nevi'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12619120,\n", " 'text': 'The V599E BRAF mutation appears to be a somatic mutation associated with melanoma development and/or progression in a proportion of affected individuals.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12644542,\n", " 'text': 'results demonstrate that the mutational status of BRAF and KRAS is distinctly different among histologic types of ovarian serous carcinoma, occurring most frequently in invasive micropapillary serous carcinomas and its precursors, serous borderline tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12670889,\n", " 'text': 'High prevalence of BRAF mutations in thyroid cancer is genetic evidence for constitutive activation of the RET/PTC-RAS-BRAF signaling pathway in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12697856,\n", " 'text': 'activating BRAF mutations may be an important event in the development of papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12753285,\n", " 'text': 'cAMP activates ERK and increases proliferation of autosomal dominant polycystic kindey epithelial cells through the sequential phosphorylation of PKA, B-Raf and MAPK in a pathway separate from the classical receptor tyrosine kinase cascade'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12778069,\n", " 'text': 'gene is mutated in skin melanoma, but not in uveal melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12810628,\n", " 'text': '13 germline BRAF variants, 4 of which were silent mutations in coding regions & 9 nucleotide substitutions in introns, were found in melanoma patients and melanoma family, but none appeared statistically likely to be a melanoma susceptibility gene.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12821662,\n", " 'text': 'B-raf is involved in adhesion-independent ERK1/2 signaling in melanocytes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12824225,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that BRAF T1796A activating mutation is not common in primary uveal melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12855697,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf has a role in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in T cells and prevents antigen-presenting cell-induced anergy'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12879021,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF has a role in in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck through uncommon mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12881714,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V599E) mutation appears to be an alternative event to RET/PTC rearrangement rather than to RAS mutations, which are rare in PTC. BRAF(V599E) may represent an alternative pathway to oncogenic MAPK activation in PTCs without RET/PTC activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12893203,\n", " 'text': 'Mucinous ovarian cancers without a KRAS mutation have not sustained alternative activation of this signaling pathway through mutation of the BRAF oncogene.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12917419,\n", " 'text': '3 cell lines derived from human choroidal melanoma express B-Raf containing the V599E mutation and showed a 10-fold increase in endogenous B-RafV599E kinase activity and a constitutive activation of the MEK/ERK pathway that is independent of Ras'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12931219,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations are not detectable in plasma cell leukemia and multiple myeloma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12970315,\n", " 'text': 'mutation of BRAF gene could be a potentially useful marker of prognosis of patients with advanced thyroid cancers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14501284,\n", " 'text': 'Our findings of a high frequency of BRAF mutations at codon 599 in benign melanocytic lesions of the skin indicate that this mutation is not sufficient by itself for malignant transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14507635,\n", " 'text': 'Both BRAF and FBXW7 mutations functionally activate kinase effectors important in pancreatic cancer and extend potential options for therapeutic targeting of kinases in treatment of phenotypically distinct pancreatic adenocarcinoma subsets.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14513361,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations, which are present in a variety of other human cancers, do not seem to be involved in gastric cancer development'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14522897,\n", " 'text': 'Uceal melanomas arise independent of oncogenic BRAF and NRAS mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14534542,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations were seen in stomach neoplasms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14602780,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are restricted to papillary carcinomas and poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas arising from papillary carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14612909,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF is occasionally mutated in NHL, and BRAF mutation may contribute to tumor development in some NHLs'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14618633,\n", " 'text': 'None of the cases of gastric cancer showed braf mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14639609,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations of BRAF are associated with extensive hMLH1 promoter methylation in sporadic colorectal carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14668801,\n", " 'text': 'Missense mutation is marker of colonic but not gastric cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14688025,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations were found in exon 15 in colorectal adenocarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14691295,\n", " 'text': 'Our data indicate that BRAF gene mutations are rare to absent events in uveal melanoma of humans.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14695152,\n", " 'text': 'NRAS and BRAF mutations arise early during melanoma pathogenesis and are preserved throughout tumor progression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14695993,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are associated with proximal colon tumors with mismatch repair deficiency and MLH1 hypermethylation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14719068,\n", " 'text': 'New enriched PCR-RFLP assay for detecting mutations of BRAF codon 599 mutation in pleural mesotheliomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14722037,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genotype prevalence and gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14724583,\n", " 'text': \"RAS or BRAF mutations are detected in about 32% of all Barrett's adenocarcinomas; the disruption of the Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) kinase pathway is a frequent but also early event in the development of Barrett's adenocarcinoma\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 14734469,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are frequently present in sporadic colorectal cancer with methylated hMLH1'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14961576,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations in BRAF gene is associated with malignant melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14966563,\n", " 'text': 'These studies identify isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase as a potential target for reducing the growth of K-Ras- and B-Raf-induced malignancies.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15001635,\n", " 'text': 'The lack or low prevalence of BRAF mutation in other thyroid neoplasms is consistent with the notion that other previously defined genetic alterations on the same signaling pathway are sufficient to cause tumorigenesis in most thyroid neoplasms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15009714,\n", " 'text': 'possible cooperation between BRAF activation and PTEN loss in melanoma development.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15009715,\n", " 'text': 'mutations in the BRAF gene and to some extent in the N-ras gene represent early somatic events that occur in melanocytic nevi'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15014028,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation may be acquired during development of metastasis but is not a significant factor for primary melanoma development and disease outcome.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15077125,\n", " 'text': 'ovarian serous cystadenomas do not contain mutations in either BRAF or KRAS genes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15104286,\n", " 'text': 'These results suggest that the BRAF mutation is unlikely to be involved in gastric carcinogenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15126572,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V599E) is more common genetic alteration found to date in adult sporadic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). It is unique for this thyroid cancer histotype, and it might drive the development of PTCs of classic papillary subtype.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15140228,\n", " 'text': 'The finding of tandem mutations in thin melanomas makes it more likely that they arise as a simultaneous rather than sequential event.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15145515,\n", " 'text': 'Radiation-induced tumors have a low prevalence of BRAF point mutations and high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15150271,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf kinase activity regulation by tuberin and Rheb is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15161700,\n", " 'text': 'mucosal melanomas of the head and neck do not frequently harbor an activating mutation of BRAF'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15179189,\n", " 'text': 'in contrast to cutaneous melanoma, BRAF does not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of uveal melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15186612,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are rather rare in solitary cold adenomas and adenomatous nodules and do not explain the molecular etiology of ras mutation-negative cold thyroid nodules.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15191558,\n", " 'text': 'activation of this gene may be one of the early events in the pathogenesis of some melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15263001,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf and ERK are activated by cyclic AMP after calcium restriction'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15273715, 'text': 'mutated in papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15277467,\n", " 'text': 'In this study, this BRAF mutation was demonstrated in some conjunctival melanoma tissue samples, suggesting that some conjunctival melanomas may share biological features in common with cutaneous melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15313890,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that SPRY2, an inhibitor of ERK signaling, may be bypassed in melanoma cells either by down-regulation of its expression in WT BRAF cells, or by the presence of the BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15330192,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations within the BRAF gene are useful markers for the differential diagnosis between Spitz nevus and malignant melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15331929,\n", " 'text': 'we found 19 cases (38%) to harbor somatic B-raf exon 15 mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15339934,\n", " 'text': 'Data provide evidence that B-Raf is a positive regulator of T cell receptor-mediated sustained ERK activation, which is required for NFAT activation and the full production of IL-2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15373778,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V599E) mutation is seven times higher in lesions with structural changes and 13 times higher in growing lesions as compared with lesions without changes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15488754,\n", " 'text': 'REVIEW: our understanding of B-RAF as an oncogene and of its role in cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15489648,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations of BRAF or KRAS oncogenes are early events in the serrated polyp neoplasia pathway. CpG island methylation plays a role in serrated polyp progression to colorectal carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15538400,\n", " 'text': 'mutated in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15577314,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are associated with conjunctival neoplasms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15630448,\n", " 'text': 'AKAP9-BRAF fusion was preferentially found in radiation-induced papillary carcinomas developing after a short latency, whereas BRAF point mutations were absent in this group'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15632082,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that Rit is involved in a novel pathway of neuronal development and regeneration by coupling specific trophic factor signals to sustained activation of the B-Raf/ERK and p38 MAP kinase cascades.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15653554,\n", " 'text': 'a novel Ras-independent ERK1/2 activation system in which p110gamma/Raf-1/MEK1/2 and PKA/B-Raf/MEK1/2 cooperate to activate ERK1/2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15702478,\n", " 'text': 'We found mutations in p53, K-ras, and BRAF genes in 35%, 30%, and 4% of tumors, respectively, and observed a minimal or no co-presence of these gene alterations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15705790,\n", " 'text': 'KSHV-infected cell lines expressed higher levels of B-Raf and VEGF-A; B-Raf-induced VEGF-A expression was demonstrated to be sufficient to enhance tubule formation in endothelial cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15710605,\n", " 'text': 'autoinhibition was negatively regulated by acidic substitutions at phosphorylation sites within the activation loop'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15765445,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations in the BRAF protooncogene (V599E)may be an alternative pathway of tumorigenesis of familial colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15782118,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations proved to be absent in tumors from hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (HNPCC) families with germline mutations in the MMR genes MLH1 and MSH2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15791479,\n", " 'text': 'The data of this study suggest that activating mutations of B-RAF are not a frequent event in gliomas; nevertheless, when present they are associated with high-grade malignant lesions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15791648,\n", " 'text': 'B-raf mutations surrounding Thr439 found in human cancers are unlikely to contribute to increased oncogenic properties of B-raf'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15824163,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15842051,\n", " 'text': 'These results suggest that BRAF mutations do not have a role in tumorigenesis of neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15880523,\n", " 'text': 'Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas which are derived from papillary carcinomas are due to BRAF and p53 mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15904951,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15935100,\n", " 'text': 'B-raf V599E and V599K oncogenic mutations are likely to affect melanocyte-specific pathways controlling proliferation and differentiation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15968271,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15968271,\n", " 'text': 'The increasing frequency of BRAF mutations as a function of age could help account for the well documented but poorly understood observation that age is a relevant prognostic indicator for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15980887,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation occurs later in thyroid tumor progression and is restricted mainly to papillary thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15994075,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15998781,\n", " 'text': 'Role of BRAF mutation in facilitating metastasis and progression of papillary thyroid cancer in lymph nodes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16007166,\n", " 'text': 'determination of mutation specific gene expression profiles in papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16007203,\n", " 'text': 'Single-cell clones with efficient knockdown of (V 600 E)B-RAF could be propagated in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor but underwent apoptosis or senescence-like growth arrest upon withdrawal of this growth factor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16015629,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16024606,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16079850,\n", " 'text': 'sustained BRAF(V600E) expression in human melanocytes induces cell cycle arrest, which is accompanied by the induction of both p16(INK4a) and senescence-associated acidic beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) activity, a commonly used senescence marker'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16096377,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation in melanoma is most likely to occur prior to the development of metastatic disease'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16098042,\n", " 'text': 'Although BRAF and NRAS mutations are likely to be important for the initiation and maintenance of some melanomas, other factors might be more significant for proliferation and prognosis in subgroups of aggressive melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16098042,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16123397,\n", " 'text': 'The results showed that conjunctival nevi, similar to skin nevi, have a high frequency of oncogenic BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16129781,\n", " 'text': 'These data suggest that MITF is an anti-proliferation factor that is down-regulated by B-RAF signaling and that this is a crucial event for the progression of melanomas that harbor oncogenic B-RAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16143028,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16144912,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations of the BRAF gene are partly involved in the malignant transformation of the endometrium.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16144912,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16172610,\n", " 'text': 'selective reduction in catalytic activity and expression of B-Raf but not Raf-1 suggest that B-Raf may be playing an important role in altered ERK signaling in brain of suicide subjects, and thus in the pathophysiology of suicide'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16174717,\n", " 'text': 'In patients with papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF mutation is associated with poorer clinicopathological outcomes and independently predicts recurrence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16174717,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16179867,\n", " 'text': 'As the BRAF oncogene is frequently found to be mutated in human cutaneous melanomas, it may constitute a risk factor for melanoma formation within CMN and DMN.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16179870,\n", " 'text': 'The oncogenic B-raf mutations V599E and V599K, as early events in melanocyte transformation, persist throughout metastasis with important prognostic implications.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16181240,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16181547,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16199894,\n", " 'text': 'copy number gain may represent another mechanism of BRAF activation in thyroid tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16268813,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16354196,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16354196,\n", " 'text': 'The estimated proportion of attributable risk of melanoma due to variants in BRAF is 1.6%, but the burden of disease associated with this variant is greater than that associated with the major melanoma locus (CDKN2A) which has a risk of 0.2%.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16354586,\n", " 'text': 'Mutation and elevated expression of BRAF is associated with the development of testicular germ cell tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16361694,\n", " 'text': 'The authors have developed and run a high-throughput screen to find inhibitors of V600E BRAF using an enzyme cascade assay in which oncogenic BRAF activates MEK1, which in turn activates ERK2, which then phosphorylates the transcription factor ELK1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16364920,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that B-RAF activates C-RAF through a mechanism involving 14-3-3 mediated heterooligomerization and C-RAF transphosphorylation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16371460,\n", " 'text': 'V600E B-Raf requires the Hsp90 chaperone for stability and is degraded in response to Hsp90 inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16373964,\n", " 'text': 'activating mutations of PDGFR-alpha, c-kit and B-RAF are absent in gliosarcomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16376942,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16376942,\n", " 'text': 'V599E BRAF mutation was uncommon in Japanese lung cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16382052,\n", " 'text': 'aberrant B-Raf activity in angiomyolipomas leads to abnormal cellular differentiation and migration [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16397024,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genotype prevalence. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16413100,\n", " 'text': 'The most frequent B-RAF gene alterations are not involved in prostate carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16417232,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation does not seem to be sufficient to produce MAPK activation in melanocytic nevi.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16424035,\n", " 'text': 'gain-of-function BRAF signaling is strongly associated with in vivo tumorigenicity'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16439621,\n", " 'text': 'findings demonstrate that heterogeneous de novo missense mutations in three genes within the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2 cause cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16452469,\n", " 'text': 'wild-type B-Raf-mediated ERK1/2 activation plays a major role in proliferation and transformation of uveal melanocytes; Raf-1 is not involved in this activation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16452550,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16462768,\n", " 'text': 'NRAS and BRAF activating mutations can coexist in the same melanoma, but are mutually exclusive at the single-cell level'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16474404,\n", " 'text': 'Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome involves dysregulation of the RAS-RAF-ERK pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16487015,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16537381,\n", " 'text': 'Merlin and MLK3 can interact in situ and merlin can disrupt the interactions between B-Raf and Raf-1 or those between MLK3 and either B-Raf or Raf-1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16547495,\n", " 'text': 'Melanoma cells require either B-RAF or phosphoinositide-3 kinase activation for protection from anoikis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16601293,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E is associated with a high risk of recurrence and less differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma due to the impairment of Na+/I- targeting to the membrane'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16601293,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16618717,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-environment interaction and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16687919,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genotype prevalence. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16691193,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16691193,\n", " 'text': 'UV light is not necessarily required for the acquisition of the BRAF(V600E) mutation, and non-mutagenic effects of UV light to melanocytes may be more important in the nevogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16721785,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are as uncommon as KRAS mutations in prostate adenocarcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16728573,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF (V600E) was confirmed to be associated with the papillary growth pattern, but not with poorer differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma variants.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16728573,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16773193,\n", " 'text': 'among 23 melanomas located at body sites with chronic UV exposure, only a single tumour harboured the B-raf V599E mutation which was a significantly lower frequency in comparison to melanomas from sun-protected body sites'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16786134,\n", " 'text': 'a BRAFT1799A mutation may have a role in poor differentiation of thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16799476,\n", " 'text': 'A subset of Spitz nevi, some with atypical histologic features, possess BRAF mutations. The BRAF mutational status does not separate all Spitz nevi from spitzoid melanomas and non-Spitz types of melanocytic proliferations, contrary to previous reports.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16803888,\n", " 'text': 'Rheb has a central role in the regulation of the Ras/B-Raf/C-Raf/MEK signaling network'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16804544,\n", " 'text': 'CpG island methylator phenotype-positive colorectal tumors represent a distinct subset, encompassing almost all cases of tumors with BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16809487,\n", " 'text': 'findings show that MC1R variants are strongly associated with BRAF mutations in non-chronic sun-induced damage melanomas; in this subtype, risk for melanoma associated with MC1R is due to increase in risk of developing melanomas with BRAF mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16845322,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with melanoma and melanocytic nevi.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16858395,\n", " 'text': 'Thus, we propose that the hitherto unidentified function of the B-Raf amino-terminal region is to mediate calcium-dependent activation of B-Raf and the following MEK activation, which may occur in the absence of Ras activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16858683,\n", " 'text': 'Aberrant methylation and hence silencing of TIMP3, SLC5A8, DAPK and RARbeta2, in association with BRAF mutation, may be an important step in PTC tumorigenesis and progression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16879389,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation was frequent in hyperplastic polyps (67%) and sessile serrated adenomas (81%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16912199,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF has been identified as the most mutated gene in invasive cells and therefore an attractive therapeutic target in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16918136,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are associated with colorectal cancers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16918957,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16924241,\n", " 'text': 'Expression of p27Kip1 in melanoma is regulated by B-RAF at the mRNA level and via B-RAF control of Cks1/Skp2-mediated proteolysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16932278,\n", " 'text': 'Single nucleotide polymorphism found exclusively in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16937524,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 are expressed in colorectal polyps and stool'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16937524,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 are expressed in colorectal polyps and stool [BAT26]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16946010, 'text': 'Braf mutations in thyroid tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16953233,\n", " 'text': 'Concomitant KRAS and BRAF mutations increased along progression of MSS colorectal cancer, suggesting that activation of both genes is likely to harbour a synergistic effect'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16959844,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E activates not only MAPK but also NF-kappaB signaling pathway in human thyroid cancer cells, leading to an acquisition of apoptotic resistance and promotion of invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16960555,\n", " 'text': 'Expression of active mutants of B-Raf induces fibronectin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16964379,\n", " 'text': 'Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-3 (ERK3/MAPK6) is highly expressed in response to BRAF signaling.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16973828,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16987295,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF T1976A mutation is present at high frequency in benign naevi such as Spitz and Reed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17001349,\n", " 'text': 'data support a model in which mutational activation of BRAF in human melanomas contributes to constitutive induction of NF-kappaB activity and to increased survival of melanoma cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17018604,\n", " 'text': 'Normally, BRAF alone is responsible for signaling to MEK. However, when RAS is mutated in melanoma, melanocytes switch their signaling from BRAF to CRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17044028,\n", " 'text': 'Activating BRAF mutation is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17060774,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation remained a significant prognostic factor for lymph node metastasis (odds ratio = 10.8, 95% confidence interval, 3.5-34.0, P < 0.0001).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17074813,\n", " 'text': 'phosphorylation on both S365 and S429 participate in the differential regulation of B-Raf isoforms through distinct mechanisms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17097223,\n", " 'text': 'data provide evidence that oncogenic properties of BRAF contribute to the tumorigenesis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm/carcinoma (IPMN/IPMC), but at a lower frequency than KRAS'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17119056,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF-V600E mutations are mainly involved in colorectal cancer families characterized by an increased risk of other common malignancies'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17119447,\n", " 'text': 'Association with preexisting nevi and pronounced infiltration of lymphocytes was significantly higher in BRAF mutated melanoma tumours'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17148775,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17148775,\n", " 'text': 'Previously identified associations between smoking and colon cancer, whether microsatellite unstable or stable, appear to be explained by the association of smoking with BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17159915,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(T1799A) mutation is associated with a lower rate of tumor proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17159915,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17170014,\n", " 'text': 'RASSF1A methylation was observed in a high frequency in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma whereas K-ras and B-raf mutations were observed in a low frequency'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17179987,\n", " 'text': 'The role for BRAF activation in thyroid cancer development and establishing the potential therapeutic efficacy of BRAF-targeted agents in patients with thyroid cancerwill be reviewed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17186541,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with thyroid carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17186541,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17195912,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17195912,\n", " 'text': 'there is a subgroup of colorectal carcinomas which develop via the microsatellite instability pathway that carry an alteration of the BRAF gene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17199737,\n", " 'text': 'Absence of association between BRAF mutation and activation of MAPK pathway in papillary thyroid carcinoma suggests the presence of mechanisms that downregulate MAPK activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17227125,\n", " 'text': 'Copy gain of PDGFB occurs in a subset of tumors showing no evidence of mutated BRAF or rearranged ret, suggesting that copy gain of PDGFB may underlie the increased expression of platelet-derived growth factor described recently in the literature.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17270239,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17297294,\n", " 'text': 'characterization of the T1799-1801del and A1799-1816ins BRAF mutations in papillary thyroid cancer; the two new mutations resulted in constitutive activation of the BRAF kinase and caused NIH3T3 cell transformation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17302867,\n", " 'text': 'Overexpression of B-Raf mRNA and protein may be a feature of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, highlighting overactivity of the Ras-B-Raf-MAP kinase pathway in these tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17309670,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF gene plays a \"gatekeeper\" role but does not act as a predisposition gene in the development of low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17309670,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17312306,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17315191,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E represents a detectable marker in the plasma/serum from melanoma patients for monitoring but not diagnostic purposes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17318013,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF mutations are a rare event in pituitary tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17355635,\n", " 'text': 'The aim of this study was to identify the effect that BRAF oncogene has on post-transcriptional regulation in papillary thyroid carcinoma by using microRNA analysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17360030,\n", " 'text': 'findings show that RASSF1A hypermethylation and KRAS mutations and BRAF mutations are inversely correlated and play an important role in the development of cervical adenocarcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17366577,\n", " 'text': 'mutational analysis of KRAS, BRAF, and MAP2K1/2 in 56 patients with CFC syndrome; comparison of the genotype-phenotype correlation of CFC with that of Costello syndrome suggest a significant clinical overlap but not genotype overlap.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17387744,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is identified in a subset of cutaneous metastases from papillary thyroid carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17393356,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17393356,\n", " 'text': 'data suggest that BRAF mutations might be present less frequently than KRAS mutations in Greek patients with colorectal carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17440063,\n", " 'text': 'finding of a strong association between BRAF mutations and serrated histology in hyperplastic aberrant crypt foci supports the idea that these lesions are an early, sentinel, or a potentially initiating step on the serrated pathway to colorectal carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17453004,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation was occasionally observed in anaplastic carcinomas with papillary carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17453358,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17454879,\n", " 'text': 'MSI is rare in UC-related neoplasia as well as non-neoplastic lesions, and does not contribute to the development of dysplasia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17464312,\n", " 'text': 'prevalence of BRAF mutation and RET/PTC were determined in diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma; none of the cases showed a BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17483702,\n", " 'text': 'Molecular diagnosis and careful observations should be considered in children with Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome because they have germline mutations in BRAF and might develop malignancy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17487277,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17487504,\n", " 'text': 'c-kit expression is not alternative to BRAF and/or KRAS activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17488796,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation in PTCs is associated with reduced expression of key genes involved in iodine metabolism'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17507627,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17507627,\n", " 'text': 'data indicate that both early-life UV exposure and nevus propensity contribute to occurrence of BRAF+ melanoma, whereas nevus propensity and later-life sun exposure influence the occurrence of NRAS+ melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17516929,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of a BRAF mutation-associated gene expression signature in melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17518771,\n", " 'text': 'low rate of RAS-RAF mutations (2/22, 9.1%) observed in Spitz melanocytic nevi suggests that these lesions harbor as yet undetected activating mutations in other components of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK-MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17520704,\n", " 'text': 'Meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17520704,\n", " 'text': 'frequency of the BRAF mutation and the associations between BRAF mutation and clinicopathologic parameters in papillary thyroid carcinoma were evaluated by meta-analysis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17525723,\n", " 'text': 'T1790A BRAF mutation (L597Q) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a functional oncogene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17535994,\n", " 'text': 'The heterogeneous distribution of BRAF mutations suggests that discrete tumor foci in multifocal PTC may occur as independent tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17542667,\n", " 'text': 'Presence of BRAF V600E in very early stages of papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17548320,\n", " 'text': 'influence of B-RAF-specific RNA interference on the proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer BGC823 cell line'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17566669,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17566669,\n", " 'text': 'We conclude that screening for BRAF 15 exon mutation is an efficient tool in the diagnostic strategy for HNPCC'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17635919,\n", " 'text': 'In contrast to C-RAF that requires farnesylated H-Ras, cytosolic B-RAF associates effectively and with significantly higher affinity with both farnesylated and nonfarnesylated H-Ras.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17663506,\n", " 'text': 'KLF6 and p53 mutations are involved in the development of nonpolypoid colorectal carcinoma, whereas K-ras and B-raf mutations are not'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17671688,\n", " 'text': 'PPARbeta/delta has a role in growth of RAF-induced lung adenomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17685465,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid may facilitate tumor cell growth and progression once seeded in the lymph nodes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17693984,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genotype prevalence, gene-disease association, and genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17693984,\n", " 'text': 'There was no coexistence of BRAF (V600E) mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17696195,\n", " 'text': 'data showed differences in gene expression between nevi with and without the V600E BRAF mutation. Moreover, nevi with mutations showed over-expression of genes involved in melanocytic senescence and cell cycle inhibition'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17699719,\n", " 'text': 'RNA interference and pharmacologic approaches were used to assess the role of B-Raf activation in the growth of human melanomas and additionally determined if a similar role for mutant B-Raf is seen for colorectal carcinoma cell lines.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17704260,\n", " 'text': '5 unreported mutations (T241P, Q262R, G464R, E501V, N581K) were found in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. A hotspot in exon 6 at Q257 was found.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17714762,\n", " 'text': 'diffuse expression of wild-type and/or mutant B-Raf may be involved in the tumorigenic process'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17717450,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is primarily present in conventional papillary thyroid cancer; it is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype and higher risk of recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17717450,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17721188,\n", " 'text': 'Develompment of malignant strumo ovarii with papillary thyroid carcinoma features is associated with BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17727338,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation detected on fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens, more than RET/PTC rearrangements, is highly specific for papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17785355,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with high-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17785355,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17786355,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutations were found in 41.2% of the papillary thyroid carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17854396,\n", " 'text': 'Papillary thyroid cancers with no 131I uptake had a high frequency of BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17878251,\n", " 'text': 'MEK inhibition is cytostatic in papillary thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer cells bearing a BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17911174,\n", " 'text': 'effects of a MEK inhibitor, CI-1040, on thyroid cancer cells, some of which, particularly cell proliferation and tumor growth, seemed to be BRAF mutation or RAS mutation selective'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17914558,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated as early as the hyperplastic polyp stage followed by microsatellite instability at the carcinoma stage'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17924122,\n", " 'text': 'Examined associations between BRAF mutations, morphology, and apoptosis in early colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17940185,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation represents a novel indicator of the progression and aggressiveness of papillary thyroid cancer (Review)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17942568,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF interacts with PLCepsilon1 in nephrotic syndrome type 3. Both proteins are coexpressed and colocalize in developing and mature glomerular podocytes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17962436,\n", " 'text': 'In this small study, the T1799A BRAF mutation was identified in almost half of the iris melanoma tissues samples examined. This finding suggests that there may be genetic as well as clinical differences between iris and posterior uveal melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17972530,\n", " 'text': 'These results suggest that papillary thyroid carcinomas with BRAF (V600E) mutation are more aggressive than those with wildtype BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18000091,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18008004,\n", " 'text': 'mutation of N-RAS or B-RAF, signature genetic lesions present in most MMs, potently induced the expression of cell-surface CD200, a repressor of DC function.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18024410,\n", " 'text': 'no BRAF mutations identified in 65 screened JMML patients; this gene is unlikely to play a role in the pathogenesis of JMML.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18032947,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF mutation is common in melanomas, but variation in rates across melanoma subtypes points to a complex interplay between BRAF activation and other factors (eg, sun exposure).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18042262,\n", " 'text': 'the results of HRAS, BRAF and MAP2K1/2 mutation screening in a large cohort of patients with CS and CFC'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18045960,\n", " 'text': 'Detection of BRAF improves the diagnosis in fine-needle biopsy with cytological findings suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18045987,\n", " 'text': 'These results identify Rnd3 as a regulator of cross talk between the RAF/MEK/ERK and Rho/ROCK signaling pathways, and a key contributor to oncogene-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18060073,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and MEK1/2 mutations may be more common than anticipated in ovarian cancer which could have important implications for treatment of patients with this disease and suggests potential new therapeutic avenues'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18061181,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18070147,\n", " 'text': \"BRAF(V600E)'alone' does not represent a marker for poor outcome\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 18071315,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf(V600E) signaling deregulates the mitotic spindle checkpoint through stabilizing Mps1 levels in melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18098337,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF provides proliferation and survival signals in MSI colorectal carcinoma cells displaying BRAF(V600E) but not KRAS mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18172070,\n", " 'text': 'Because of the very sensitive pyrophosphorolysis-activated polymerization (PAP)technology, B-RAF mutations were found in cell lines and primary uveal melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18199160,\n", " 'text': 'A worse clinical outcome was found for CIMP-high, microsatellite stable colorectal cancer with KRAS/BRAF mutation but not for those lacking KRAS/BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18224685,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18226854,\n", " 'text': 'frequency of the occurrence of BRAF mutation and/or RET/PTC in H4-PTEN positive tumors was extremely high (75%) in papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18227705,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is not associated with cutaneous melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18228248,\n", " 'text': 'Important signalling role in T cell development.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18235983,\n", " 'text': 'Follicular histotypes of oncocytic thyroid carcinomas do not carry BRAF mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18246127,\n", " 'text': 'Mutant B-RAF mediates resistance to anoikis via Bad and Bim.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18267069,\n", " 'text': 'A genome-wide RNA-interference screening to identify genes required for an activated BRAF oncogene to block proliferation of fibroblasts and melanocytes revealed that a IGFBP7, has a central role in BRAF-mediated senescence and apoptosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18310286,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF T1799A mutation is associated with aggressive pathological outcomes of papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18310287,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is asscoiated with papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18310288,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF-V600E mutation is associated with familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18323787,\n", " 'text': 'Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity is subject to regulation even in BRAF/NRAS mutant melanoma cells and that high MAPK pathway signaling may be important only in distinct subsets of tumor cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18329792,\n", " 'text': 'RKIP could play an important role in the down-regulation of wild-type BRAF, serving thus as an endogenous inhibitor of the MAPK pathway in nasal polyps and their adjacent turbinate mucosa.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18337114,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation testing of papillary thyroid carcinoma might improve the diagnosis, prognostic stratification and treatment of these tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18343945,\n", " 'text': 'Our data provide evidence that PIK3CA and BRAF contribute to the tumorigenesis of IPMN/IPMC, but at a lower frequency than KRAS.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18368129,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18368129,\n", " 'text': 'This study confirms that the known MC1R-melanoma risk association is confined to subjects whose melanomas harbor BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18375819,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with disease stabilization in melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18381570,\n", " 'text': 'Thyroid cancers with BRAF mutation are preferentially sensitive to MEK inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18382358,\n", " 'text': 'Detecting BRAF mutation by pyrosequencing is more sensitive, faster, and less expensive than direct DNA sequencing.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18383861,\n", " 'text': 'K-RAS and BRAF mutations are a frequent genetic event in our samples of sporadic papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18383861,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18397470,\n", " 'text': 'is commonly activated by somatic point mutation, it may provide possible diagnostic and therapeutic targets in human malignant tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18398503,\n", " 'text': 'Results implicate aberrant activation of the MAPK pathway due to gene duplication or mutation of BRAF as a molecular mechanism of pathogenesis in low-grade astrocytomas and suggest inhibition of the MAPK pathway as a potential treatment.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18402768,\n", " 'text': 'Aberrant BRAF and INK4A functionally interact to promote growth and survival of melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18408659,\n", " 'text': 'in melanocytic lesions, BRAF(V600E) mutation can affect a subset of the cells and is associated with the type and quantity of sun exposure'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18413255,\n", " 'text': 'study describes the biochemical characterization of novel BRAF and MEK germline mutations in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18434602,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk1/cyclin B has a role in regulating B-raf activation at mitosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18435933,\n", " 'text': 'CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal neoplasms may result from activating mutations in either BRAF or KRAS.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18451171,\n", " 'text': 'Akt3 and mutant V600E B-Raf cooperate to promote early melanoma development.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18458053,\n", " 'text': 'oncogenic BRAF inhibition can have a different effect on cell fate depending on the cellular type'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18470905,\n", " 'text': 'aberrant methylation of the hMLH1 gene may play a role in BRAF mutation-promoted thyroid tumorigenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18509003,\n", " 'text': 'study revealed a significant correlation of BRAFV600E mutation with a lower expression of both sodium iodide symporter and thyroperoxidase in papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18509361,\n", " 'text': 'Shorter overall survival in primary melanoma was associated with the presence of ulceration and BRAF exon 15 mutations, as well as the absence of nuclear activation of Akt and of cytoplasmic activation of ERK.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18517279,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer microsatellite-stable cases are associated with high levels of chromosomal instability that are likely responsible for the adverse outcomes in these cases'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18519771,\n", " 'text': 'a significant relationship in overall survival in colon cancer patients with defective DNA mismatch repair and the presence of a specific mutation in BRAF (V600E)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18532874,\n", " 'text': 'Compared to melanomas without BRAF mutations, melanomas with BRAF mutations showed statistically significantly higher degrees of intraepidermal scatter of melanocytes, and a higher proportion of melanocytes arranged in nests.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18567582,\n", " 'text': 'the scaffold protein IQGAP1 couples Ca(2+) and calmodulin signaling to B-Raf function'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18592405,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18594528,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18602919,\n", " 'text': 'Rac1b and B-Raf(V600E) functionally cooperate to sustain colorectal cell viability and suggest they constitute an alternative survival pathway to oncogenic K-Ras'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18615679,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18615679,\n", " 'text': 'V600E BRAF mutation is associated with imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18615680,\n", " 'text': 'MLH1 methylation and BRAF mutations are associated with microsatellite unstable colon tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18615680,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18621636,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18628356,\n", " 'text': 'The frequencies of LOHs of 17q21, 17p13, 10q23, and 22q13 were higher in tumors with lymph node metastasis, suggesting that these LOHs may be important in increased lymph node metastasis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18628431,\n", " 'text': 'People of southern European origin had lower risk of colorectal cancers with CIMP and BRAF mutation than people of Anglo-Celtic origin, which may in part be due to genetic factors that are less common in people of southern European origin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18628967,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF regulates melanoma proliferation through the lineage specific factor MITF'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18632627,\n", " 'text': 'co-overexpression of KIT/CDK4 is a potential mechanism of oncogenic transformation in some BRAF/NRAS wild-type melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18636014,\n", " 'text': 'lung adenocarcinoma of mixed type with a high incidence of papillary and lepidic growth may be worthwhile investigating for BRAF-V600E mutation as more genetically oriented drug therapies emerge.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18650848,\n", " 'text': 'hyperactivation of the MAPK pathway following activation of an inducible form of oncogenic C-Raf induces a senescence-like proliferation arrest in B-Raf mutant melanoma cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18668139,\n", " 'text': \"N-RAS(Q61K) and B-RAF(V600E) contribute to melanoma's resistance to apoptosis in part by downregulating Bim expression\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 18669866,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18676742,\n", " 'text': 'CST6, CXCL14, DHRS3, and SPP1 are regulated by BRAF signaling and may play a role in papillary thyroid carcinoma pathogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18676756,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18682506,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18682506,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation was demonstrated to be a poor prognostic factor independent from other clinicopathological features.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18697864,\n", " 'text': 'Identification and functional characterization of a novel T599I-VKSR(600-603)del BRAF mutation in a patient with follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18710471,\n", " 'text': 'There is a higher frequency of the BRAF(V600E) mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas than in normal thyroid tissue.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18715233,\n", " 'text': 'These data suggest that regulation of BIM expression by BRAF-->MEK-->ERK signaling is one mechanism by which oncogenic BRAF(V600E) can influence the aberrant physiology of melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18716556,\n", " 'text': 'focal gains at chromosome 7q34 and increased BRAF-MEK-ERK signaling are common findings in sporadic pilocytic astrocytomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18718023,\n", " 'text': 'presence of the BRAF (V600E) mutation,the incidence of microsatellite instability high colorectal cancer in populations based study.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18757341,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS and BRAF mutations can impair response to anti-EGFR therapy for colorectal neoplasms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18757433,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18759827,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18778891,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with the CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer from young patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18778891,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18782444,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF, KRAS and PIK3CA mutations occur prior to malignant transformation demonstrating that these oncogenic alterations are primary genetic events in colorectal carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18782444,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18787396,\n", " 'text': 'These data implicates a mitotic role for B-Raf in regulating spindle formation and the spindle checkpoint in human somatic cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18794094,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18794803,\n", " 'text': 'study identified a group of melanomas with low-activity BRAF mutations (G469E- and D594G) that are reliant upon CRAF-mediated survival activity'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18798261,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation occurs independently of CpG island methylator phenotype and MSI in all types of serrated polyps and may serve as a marker of serrated pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18806830,\n", " 'text': 'study concludes a single endogenous BRAF(V600E) allele is sufficient to repress BIM & prevent death from growth factor withdrawal; colorectal cancer cells with V600E mutations are addicted to the ERK1/2 pathway for repression of BIM'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18832519,\n", " 'text': 'CIMP-high appears to be an independent predictor of a low colon cancer-specific mortality, while BRAF mutation is associated with a high colon cancer-specific mortality.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18834226,\n", " 'text': 'With at least 3 markers methylated, new CIMP-positive colorectal cancers were closely associated with proximal tumor location, low frequency of KRAS mutation, and high frequency of BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18840924,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation may play some roles in local carcinoma development, there is no evidence that BRAF(V600E) mutation significantly reflects the aggressive characteristics and poor prognosis of patients with papillary carcinoma in Japan.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18840924,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18945298,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E appeared to be the most commonly mutated gene in both the melanocytic aggregate (seven of 18, 39%) and the melanoma (four of 18, 22%)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18946221,\n", " 'text': 'Hereditary pancreatitis patients with PRSS1 mutations also had mutations in BRAF and KRAS2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18953432,\n", " 'text': 'study shows high expression of p16(INK4a) or the absence of activated B-RAF correlates with in vivo response of melanoma to cytotoxic drugs'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18974108,\n", " 'text': 'rearrangement, which was not observed in a series of 244 higher-grade astrocytomas, results in an in-frame fusion gene incorporating the kinase domain of the BRAF oncogene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18980976,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18985043,\n", " 'text': 'the T1799A BRAF mutation is present in a proportion of posterior uveal melanomas but within these tumours the distribution of the mutation is heterogeneous.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18987552,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations may not play an important role in the oncogenesis or therapy of prostate adenocarcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18992635,\n", " 'text': '8% of sporadic colorectal tumors in this study harbor mutation in the BRAF gene.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18992635,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19001320,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19001320,\n", " 'text': 'Wild-type BRAF is required for response to panitumumab or cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19003996,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF-V600E mutation is uncommon in endocrine tumors other than thyroid papillary carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19012001,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19012001,\n", " 'text': 'The result showed that the mutation rate of PIK3CA in nasopharyngeal carcinomas (n = 73) was 9.6%, whereas both BRAF (n = 65) and RAS (n = 45) were wild type in every specimen with adequate DNA for analysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19014278,\n", " 'text': 'In Korean patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, the BRAFV600E mutation is associated with a lower frequency of background Hashimoto thyroiditis and a high frequency of lymph node metastasis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19014278,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19016743,\n", " 'text': 'Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing revealed a fusion product between KIAA1549 and BRAF in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19018267,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19018267,\n", " 'text': 'ovarian cancer patients with KRAS or BRAF mutations may benefit from CI-1040 treatment'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19026650,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19033861,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19034577,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is assocciated with aggressive papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19034577,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19037234,\n", " 'text': 'NRAS and BRAF mutations increase from the radial to the vertical growth phase in cutaneous melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19064572,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study and meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19079609,\n", " 'text': 'Genetic extinction of BRAF(V600E) in established prostate tumors did not lead to tumor regression, indicating that while sufficient to initiate development of invasive prostate adenocarcinoma, BRAF(V600E) is not required for its maintenance.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19087308,\n", " 'text': 'G12D mutation may be more likely selected in a BRAF mutated context'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19098310,\n", " 'text': 'ERK activation was induced by PKD2 overexpression via B-Raf signaling, providing a possible molecular mechanism of cystogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19107232,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF pseudogene activation may play a role in thyroid tumor development.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19126563,\n", " 'text': 'Sessile serrated adenomas are encountered commonly in routine endoscopy practice and the histological diagnosis correlates strongly with the presence of BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19127559,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19133693,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19142971,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19147753,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and RET/PTC dual mutations are associated with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19147753,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19152441,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19159571,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19164452,\n", " 'text': 'MLH1-hypermethylated tumors harbor fewer APC and KRAS mutations and more BRAF mutations, suggesting that they develop distinctly from an MGMT methylator pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19178815,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations are absent or rare in the kinase domain of B-RAF in Japanese head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19178815,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19190079,\n", " 'text': 'Mutation in BRAF is associated with adrenocortical carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19190105,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19190129,\n", " 'text': 'Distinct BRAF (V600E) and KRAS mutations in high microsatellite instability sporadic colorectal cancer in African Americans.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19190129,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19194051,\n", " 'text': 'Expression levels of fibronectin, vimentin and CITED1 were positively correlated with those of BRAFV600E, suggesting pathophysiological links between activated BRAF and overexpression of these genes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19200582,\n", " 'text': '(novel) mutation in the activation kinase domain of the BRAF (A598V), this mutation led to the up-regulation of the BRAF kinase activity and its downstream signaling factors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19206169,\n", " 'text': 'Findings provide evidence for a wide phenotypic diversity associated with mutations affecting BRAF, and occurrence of a clinical continuum associated with these molecular lesions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19207009,\n", " 'text': 'the presence of the braf protein mutation increases prohibitin promoter activity and therefore potentially mediates effects of this mutation on the behavior of BRAF protein'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19208736,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFT1799A mutation or RET/PTC rearrangement, mainly corresponding to follicular variants, maintain a thyroid differentiation expression level close to that of normal tissue.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19226609,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF* melanomas appear to be associated with a specific profile of DNA copy number aberrations that is distinct from those found in NRAS* and BRAF/NRAS(wt/wt) tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19237633,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19240718,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19255327,\n", " 'text': 'Clinical trial of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19274086,\n", " 'text': 'oncogenic BRAF(V600E) induces the uncoupling of LKB1-AMPKalpha complexes providing at the same time a possible mechanism in cell proliferation that engages cell growth and cell division in response to mitogenic stimuli'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19276360,\n", " 'text': 'GDC-0879-mediated efficacy was associated strictly with BRAF(V600E) status, MEK inhibition also attenuated proliferation and tumor growth of cell lines expressing wild-type BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19282104,\n", " 'text': 'study of KRAS/BRAF mutation status in a large and well-documented cohort of primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19289622,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19289622,\n", " 'text': 'a correlation between a gene mutation--BRAF V600E--and cisplatin resistance in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19342899,\n", " 'text': 'Both BRAF and RKIP expression levels exhibit a decrease from normal skin tissue and actinic keratosis, going to squamous cell carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19344998,\n", " 'text': 'In BRAF mutated colorectal carcinoma cells quercetin, luteolin and ursolic acid decreased Akt phosphorylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19351817,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19355825,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) is associated some of the aggressive clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma including younger age at diagnosis, larger tumor size, and classic histological type, as well as also extrathyroidal invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19355825,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19358278,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19362540,\n", " 'text': 'Targets of phosphorylation by B-Raf signaling are investigated in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19369630,\n", " 'text': 'K-ras, EGFR, and BRAF mutations are disproportionately seen in adenocarcinomas of lung with a dominant micropapillary growth pattern compared with conventional adenocarcinoma in our institutional experience.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19369630,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19370505,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation was significantly found in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19370505,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19372556,\n", " 'text': 'Mutation in BRAF is associated with ERK1/2 activation and MEK1/2 inhibitor therapy in colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19378335,\n", " 'text': 'proliferation of cells harboring mutations in B-Raf, but not K-Ras, is exquisitely sensitive inhibition of the MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19383313,\n", " 'text': 'REVIEW summarizes the literature on NRAS and BRAF activating mutations in melanoma tumors with respect to available data on histogenetic classification as well as body site and presumed UV-exposure.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19383316,\n", " 'text': 'The genes whose expression is associated with BRAF mutations are not simply restricted to the MAPK/ERK signaling but also converge to enhanced immune responsiveness, cell motility and melanosomes processing involved in the adaptative UV response'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19389934,\n", " 'text': 'a subpopulation of melanocytes possesses the ability to survive BRAF(V600E)-induced senescence'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19393416,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF mutation was found to be significantly higher in papillary carcinomas when compared to follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas (55.6% vs 14.3%, P = 0.05).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19393416,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19398955,\n", " 'text': 'The murine model of mutant BRAF-induced melanoma formation provides an important tool for identifying further genetic alterations that cooperates with BRAF and that may be useful in enhancing susceptibility to BRAF-targeted therapeutics in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19404844,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19404844,\n", " 'text': 'elevated pERK expression occurs in urothelial carcinoma in the absence of B-Raf mutations and is not correlated with FGFR3 over-expression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19404918,\n", " 'text': 'Investigated BRAF mutations in 30 bladder tumors. Detected two tumor specimens bearing two different mutations, both of which were found in exon 15. One sample showed the T1799A (V600E) and the other the G1798T (V600L) mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19404918,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19414674,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19415957,\n", " 'text': 'The T1799A BRAF mutation does not appear to play a role in the tumorigenesis of the cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19416762,\n", " 'text': 'Novel BRAF mutation in a patient with LEOPARD syndrome and normal intelligence is reported.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19424571,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is not the target gene for abnormal DNA mismatch repair in patients with sporadic endometrial cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19424639,\n", " 'text': \"Report efficient molecular screening of Lynch syndrome by specific 3' promoter methylation of the MLH1 or BRAF mutation in colorectal cancer with high-frequency microsatellite instability.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 19430562,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations in BRAF were found 10% patients in the low-grade carcinoma group, however, they were not found in the high-grade carcinoma group. KRAS and BRAF mutations were mutually exclusive, and both mutations were observed in 40%.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19430562,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19440799,\n", " 'text': 'oncogenic properties of KRAS and BRAF but not NRAS, HRAS, and PIK3CA contribute to the tumorigenesis of periampullary and ampullary tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19461239,\n", " 'text': 'mismatch repair deficiency is not a crucial event for BRAF mutation in melanocytic tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19464601,\n", " 'text': 'The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway has emerged as a major player in the induction and maintenance of melanoma, particularly the protein kinase BRAF, mutated in approximately 44% of melanoma cases. Review.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19474002,\n", " 'text': 'data confirm that KRAS and BRAF mutations do occur in the same cell and that BRAF V600E mutation is associated with CIMP+ status.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19483722,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf/MKK/ERK provides a permissive environment for melanoma genesis by modulating plexin B1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19487299,\n", " 'text': 'If BRAF is mutated in the primary thyroid neoplasm, it is likely that the metastases will harbor the defect.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19487299,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19492075,\n", " 'text': 'Targeting NRAS alone or both BRAF and CRAF in combination or both BRAF and PIK3CA together showed delay in tumor growth.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19498322,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19498322,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that activating BRAF somatic mutations may be occasionally found in advanced adrenocortical carcinomas, while CTNNB1 activating mutations are early and common events in adrenal tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19504446,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19534622,\n", " 'text': 'CTNNB1 and BRAF mutations may have roles in the cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19534623,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E may have a role in development of papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19543740,\n", " 'text': 'Pilocytic astrocytomas had BRAF fusions in 70% of cases but not IDH1 or IDH2 mutations. Diffuse astrocytomas had IDH1 mutations in 76% of cases but not IDH2 mutations or BRAF fusions. Analysis of BRAF and IDH1 separates pilocytic from diffuse astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19547661,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19551857,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19561230,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations represent an alternative molecular pathway in the early tumorigenesis of a subset of KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GISTs and are per se not associated with a high risk of malignancy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19561230,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19571295,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19571295,\n", " 'text': 'study concludes that a BRAF mutation is a negative prognostic marker in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19571709,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutated tumors occurred with a much greater frequency in proximal colon tumors than in either distal colon or rectal tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19571821,\n", " 'text': 'We observed no association between germline MC1R status and somatic BRAF mutations in melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19574281,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation analysis can significantly improve FNAB diagnostic accuracy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19584155,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19584155,\n", " 'text': 'Results suggest that the mutations of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF between primary tumors and corresponding lymph node metastases should be considered whenever mutations are used for the selection of patients for EGFR-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19603018,\n", " 'text': 'Assessing KRAS and BRAF mutations might help optimising the selection of the candidate metastatic colorectal cancer patients to receive anti-EGFR moAbs.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19603018,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19603024,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (P=0.01) mutations predicted reduced progress free survival in response to cetuximab salvage therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer .'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19603024,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19624312,\n", " 'text': 'Mutated BRAF is a target in metastatic melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19626635,\n", " 'text': 'In this study, 28 matched tumor and serum samples obtained from patients with both benign and malignant thyroid disorders were analyzed for BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19626635,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19628078,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19633643,\n", " 'text': 'Characterization of candidate gene copy number alterations in the 11q13 region along with BRAF and NRAS mutations in human melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19637313,\n", " 'text': 'strong inter-relation between DR4 AND DR5 overexpression and presence of oncogenic KRAS/ BRAF mutations in colon cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19638574,\n", " 'text': 'Sorafenib inhibits NSCLC cell growth by targeting B-RAF in cells with wild-type KRAS and C-RAF in those with mutant KRAS.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19644722,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19652585,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19659611,\n", " 'text': 'simultaneous depletion of both MITF and BRAF(V600E) significantly inhibited melanoma growth even for the melanoma cell lines resistant to MITF depletion'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19667985,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that in pilocytic astrocytomas, the BRAF fusion gene has been identified as a specific and frequent event leading to potentially targetable mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19669908,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and DATA ERROR. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19679016,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that drugs are effective in targeting essential molecular pathways of BRAF, PTEN, Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19679059,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations in BRAF protein is associated with Colorectal Carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19679059,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19681119,\n", " 'text': 'Investigated the prevalence of PTPN11, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, MEK1, and MEK2 mutations in a relatively large cohort of primary embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) tumors. No mutation was observed in BRAF and MEK genes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19682280,\n", " 'text': 'This study provides a basis for understanding the molecular processes that are regulated by (V600E)BRAF/MEK signalling in melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19686742,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19690147,\n", " 'text': 'a dual mechanism that affects the Sprouty2/B-Raf interaction: Sprouty phosphorylation and B-Raf conformation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19693938,\n", " 'text': 'Whenever necessary BRAF testing may be performed on the residual samples of thyroid nodules, without interfering with routine cytology.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19704056,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19710001,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation can be used as a potential prognostic factor in PTMC patients in a BRAF(V600E)-prevalent area.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19710016,\n", " 'text': 'DGKeta acts as a novel critical regulatory component of the Ras/B-Raf/C-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade via a previously unidentified mechanism.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19718661,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of the effect on the Ras/Raf signaling pathway of post-translational modifications of neurofibromin'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19724843,\n", " 'text': 'This article focuses on reviewing the impact of the BRAFV600E mutation in the tumorigenesis of Papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19725049,\n", " 'text': 'EPAC-mediated cellular effects require activation of the B-Raf/ERK and mTOR signaling cascades'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19735675,\n", " 'text': 'Insights into the molecular function of the inactivating mutations of B-Raf involving the DFG motif.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19738388,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19738460,\n", " 'text': 'Papillary carcinomas of the thyroid with papillary growth and areas of follicular growth have a high frequency of BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19745699,\n", " 'text': 'Beta-catenin nuclear labeling is a common feature of sessile serrated adenomas and correlates with early neoplastic progression after BRAF activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19752400,\n", " 'text': 'The polyclonality of BRAF mutations in acquired melanocytic nevi suggests that mutation of BRAF may not be an initial event in melanocyte transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19759551,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of coexisting NRAS and BRAF mutations in primary familial melanomas with specific CDKN2A germline alterations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19765726,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19794125,\n", " 'text': 'As predicted from the genomic organization at this locus, 22 of 36 patients with sporadic pilocytic astrocytomas and B-Raf gene rearrangement also exhibit corresponding homeodomain interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) gene amplification.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19826477,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19829302,\n", " 'text': 'data argues against obligatory downregulation in IGFBP7 expression in BRAF mutated melanoma cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19850689,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(T1799A) can be detected in the blood of papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with residual or metastatic disease and may provide diagnostic information'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19850689,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19855373,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutations were seen in 83% of proximal and 74% of distal hyperplastic colonic polyps'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19861538,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E oncogene induces transforming growth factor beta secretion leading to sodium iodide symporter repression and increased malignancy in thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19861964,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19861964,\n", " 'text': 'These data demonstrate the feasibility of BRAF mutation detection in cfDNA of patients with advanced melanoma. Future studies should aim to incorporate BRAF mutation testing in cfDNA to further validate this biomarker for patient selection.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19878585,\n", " 'text': 'Suppression of BRAF gene expression inhibited cell proliferation in cells with BRAF(V600E) mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19880519,\n", " 'text': 'Hyperactivation of BRAF-MEK signaling activates MAP2 expression in melanoma cells by two independent mechanisms, promoter demethylation or down-regulation of neuronal transcription repressor HES1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19881948,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and KRAS oncogenes have different transforming capability in colon cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19883729,\n", " 'text': 'The knowledge of BRAF mutation status can facilitate more accurate risk stratification and better decision making at various steps in the management of papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19884549,\n", " 'text': 'Clinical trial of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19884549,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS and BRAF mutations in advanced colorectal cancer are associated with poor prognosis but do not preclude benefit from oxaliplatin or irinotecan.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19884556,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF status, EGFR amplification, and cytoplasmic expression of PTEN were associated with outcome measures in KRAS wild-type patients treated with a cetuximab-based regimen.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19884556,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19893451,\n", " 'text': 'Study identified the previously reported pathogenic mutation of NTRK3 in a KRAS/BRAF wild-type tumor and 2 somatic mutations in the Src family of kinases (YES1 and LYN) that would be expected to cause structural changes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19903786,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19908233,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF gene mutation is associated with colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19908233,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19913317,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are not relevant for rectal carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19913317,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19917255,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that melanoma cells expressing B-Raf(V600E) display a reduced C-Raf:B-Raf ratio, and further suppression of C-Raf increases MAPK activation and proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19919630,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutational status appears to be of limited diagnostic utility in distinguishing genital naevi that exhibit atypia from those that do not.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19919912,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19935791,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19955937,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19955937,\n", " 'text': 'v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene mutations are common in ovarian serous bordeline tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19956635,\n", " 'text': 'Uncategorized study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19958951,\n", " 'text': 'clinical, cytologic, and pathologic parameters of 106 consecutive surgically treated patients with BRAF-positive PTC were compared with a concurrent cohort of 100 patients with BRAF-negative PTC (papillary thyroid carcinoma)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19959686,\n", " 'text': '2-fold increased risk of BRAF V600E colonic tumor mutation was observed in current and former cigarette smokers homozygous for the OGG1 polymorphism'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19960590,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF T1796A mutation was identified in 27% of papillary thyroid cancer samples and its identification may be used to determine this risk factor of the development of papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19960590,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20008640,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20009493,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with high-risk clinicopathological characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma and worse prognosis of patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20009493,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20012784,\n", " 'text': 'Screening for BRAF, RET, KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS mutations, as well as RET-PTC1 and RET-PTC3 rearrangements, was performed on cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis with a dominant nodule'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20023270,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E detection in the tumor does not induce a higher expression of the B-raf protein or the preferential activation of the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway compared with GISTs without the BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20027224,\n", " 'text': 'CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-specific inactivation of BRAF(V600E)-induced senescence and apoptosis pathways by IGFBP7 DNA hypermethylation might create a favorable context for the acquisition of BRAF(V600E) in CIMP+ colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20043015,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20043015,\n", " 'text': 'no support for MC1R variants with BRAF mutation for melanoma risk'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20044755,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF gene rearrangements were more common in cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma than non-cerebellar tumors; clinical outcome was independent of BRAF status'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20049644,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations only in metastases is not associated with resistance to anti-EGFR treatment in primary colorectal tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20049644,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20051945,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20068183,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation seems to define a subset of malignant astrocytomas in children, in which there is frequent concomitant homozygous deletion of CDKN2A (five of seven cases).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20098682,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20118768,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20140953,\n", " 'text': 'Formalin-fixed primary melanomas from relapsed and nonrelapsed patients were sequenced for common BRAF and NRAS mutations. BRAF/NRAS mutations were detected in 77% of relapsers and 58% of nonrelapsers and did not predict ulceration or mitotic rate.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20146801,\n", " 'text': 'Data demonstrate a signaling loop between B-Raf activation and p73 function, and suggest that low expression of TAp73 in colorectal cancer cell lines with mutated B-Raf may lead to lack of response to oxaliplatin/cetuximab.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20156809,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF activating mutations are a major genetic alteration in this histologic group of pediatric low-grade brain tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20162668,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20162668,\n", " 'text': 'With MSI, specific KRAS and BRAF mutations, 3 distinct prognostic subgroups were observed: patients with (i) KRAS mutation G12D, G12V or BRAFmutation, (ii) KRAS/BRAFwild-type or KRAS G13D mutations in MSS/MSI-L and (iii) MSI-H and KRAS G13D mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20177422,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20182446,\n", " 'text': 'High oncogenic BRAF levels trigger autophagy, which may have a role in melanoma tumor progression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20186801,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20187782,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20200438,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20200438,\n", " 'text': 'we measured the prevalence and epidemiologic correlates of the BRAF V600E somatic mutation in cases collected as a part of a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer in northern Israel.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20230995,\n", " 'text': 'pathogenesis of papillary thyroid cancer , and the clinical implications of BRAF(V600E) mutation in the diagnosis, prognosis and potential targeted therapeutic strategies for thyroid cancer [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20233436,\n", " 'text': 'data support the model of BRAF and K-ras mutations arising in distinct colorectal cancer subsets associated with different clinicopathological and dietary factors, acting as mutually exclusive mechanisms of activation of the same signalling pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20234366,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20300843,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is not associated with interval cancers but is a marker of poor prognosis, particularly in microsatellite stable cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20300843,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20302979,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20303012,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20303012,\n", " 'text': 'Our study suggests that mutations of KRAS, not BRAF, may play a role in the pathogenesis of prostate carcinoma in Chinese patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20305537,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20332228,\n", " 'text': 'Studies show FOXD3 is suppressed by B-RAF, uncover a novel role and mechanism for FOXD3 as a negative cell cycle regulator, and have implications for the repression of melanocytic lineage cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20351680, 'text': 'Mutated in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20379614,\n", " 'text': 'Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20381121,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20406109,\n", " 'text': 'The miR-146b expression levels in papillary thyroid carcinoma with BRAF mutation were significantly higher than those without this mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20407018,\n", " 'text': 'Activated Raf-1 induces focal adhesion kinase expression and regulates neuroendocrine and metastatic phenotypes in gastrointestinal carcinoid cell line BON.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20410389,\n", " 'text': 'thyroid carcinoma with the BRAF(V600E) mutation tends to be taller than wide and is not associated with the presence of calcifications on ultrasound.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20413299,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20444249,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20445557,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF(V600E) can protect melanocytes from anoikis independently of cell cycle inhibition'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20453000,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20454969,\n", " 'text': 'This study identified an exceptionally high frequency of KIAA1549-BRAF fusions in pilocytic astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20460314,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20460314,\n", " 'text': 'These data demonstrate a high prevalence of B-RAF mutations in the present study population, underscoring the possibility of strong regional differences.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20473281,\n", " 'text': 'Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha is expressed in papillary thyroid carcinomas and is regulated not only by hypoxia but also by BRAF(V600E)-mediated signaling pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20473281,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20478260,\n", " 'text': 'Study concludes that the secreted protein IGFBP7 is dispensable for B-RAF(V600E)-induced senescence in human melanocytes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20485284,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutations are associated with MSI-H status and cyclin D1 overexpression and characterize a subgroup of patients with poor prognosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20485284,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20489114,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20495538,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20496269,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20498063,\n", " 'text': 'Knockdown of B-Raf(V600E) resulted in thrombospondin-1 down-regulation and a reduction of adhesion and migration/invasion of human thyroid cancer cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20501503,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20501503,\n", " 'text': 'The V600E BRAF mutation confers a worse prognosis to stage II and stage III colon cancer patients independently of disease stage and therapy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20501689,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20514492,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation may be used a biomarker for the selection of patients with colorectal cancer patients who might benefit from anti-egf receptor monoclonal antibodies.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20514492,\n", " 'text': 'Meta-analysis of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20519626,\n", " 'text': 'Studies identified the oncogenic BRAF V600E mutation in 35 of 61 archived specimens (57%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20526288,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20526288,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF 1799T>A mutation was found in 5 of 19 (26%) of infiltrative follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas and in none of the encapsulated carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20543023,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20563851,\n", " 'text': 'HER2, but not EGFR gene amplification, is frequently observed in KRAS and BRAF wild type colorectal cancer patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20563851,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20569675,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20569675,\n", " 'text': 'reports the low frequency of PIK3CA and B-RAF mutations in astrocytomas, despite the presence of activated ERK and AKT proteins'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20570909,\n", " 'text': 'Incidence of cancer in FDRs of index CRC patients with the p.V600E BRAF mutation may be explained by a genetic predisposition to develop cancer through the serrated pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20570909,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20571907,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20571907,\n", " 'text': 'PIK3CA mutations may have a role in KRAS and BRAF wild type colorectal cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20573852,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutational status of metastases is not required when the primary tumour is BRAF wild type.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20576522,\n", " 'text': 'allele specific Taqman-based real-time PCR assay allows the sensitive, accurate and reliable measurement of BRAF(V600E) mutated DNA in plasma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20591910,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20605766,\n", " 'text': 'in melanomas activation of the MAPK pathway can occur through signaling pathways operating independently of BRAF T1799A'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20607849,\n", " 'text': 'V600E BRAF mutation is not associated with seminoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20616366,\n", " 'text': 'Using traditional PCR and direct sequencing, we found KRAS mutations in 47 (40%) patients and BRAF(V600E) in 10 (8.5%)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20619739,\n", " 'text': 'if KRAS is not mutated, assessing BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA exon 20 mutations (in that order) gives additional information about the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20627194,\n", " 'text': 'PCR is practically applicable to KRAS/BRAF genotyping using small amounts of biopsied colorectal tumor cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20631031,\n", " 'text': 'No significant difference in BRAF alterations was found between pT1 tumors and thyroid capsule invasion and pT3 tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20631031,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20635392,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20640859,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20645028,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20645028,\n", " 'text': 'samples of metastatic colorectal cancer were tested for the presence of the seven most common mutations in the KRAS gene and the V600E mutation in the BRAF gene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20647301,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20647317,\n", " 'text': 'Findings delineate how mutant B-RAF protects melanoma cells from apoptosis and provide insight into possible resistance mechanisms to B-RAF inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20652941,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20670148,\n", " 'text': 'Traditional DNA sequencing and the somewhat more-sensitive pyrosequencing method can detect multiple alternative BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20679909,\n", " 'text': 'Mutant Braf can be detected in RNA from mixed populations with as few as 0.1% Braf(V600E) mutant cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20689758,\n", " 'text': 'PLX4032 has robust activity in BRAF mutated melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20702649,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20703476,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20720566,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20720566,\n", " 'text': 'association between MC1 receptor germline variation and BRAF/NRAS mutations in melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20736745,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20802181,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is rare in advanced-stage low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20802181,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20807807,\n", " 'text': 'Mutant protein kinase elicits significant therapeutic responses in mutant BRAF-driven human melanoma xenografts.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20813562,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20813562,\n", " 'text': 'first report implicating BRAF mutation in OSCC. study supports that mutations in the BRAF gene makes at least a minor contribution to OSCC tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20837233,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation detection in fine needle biopsy may be an adjunct tool for preoperative didagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20840674,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20840674,\n", " 'text': 'RET rearrangements and BRAF mutation in undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas having papillary carcinoma components'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20843808,\n", " 'text': 'A BRAF aberrant splice variant with an intact kinase domain and partial loss of the N-terminal autoinhibitory domain was identified in fibroblasts from an additional patient, and fibroblast proliferation was inhibited by BRAF-specific siRNA.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20853079,\n", " 'text': 'reduced RKIP mRNA levels and the elevated levels of B-RAF in pT1, grade III tumors vs. normal tissue, corroborate that these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of urinary bladder cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20857202,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with lack of response in wild-type KRAS metastatic colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20860430,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20881644,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20944096,\n", " 'text': 'Determination of the BRAF mutation and the growth fraction of melanomas may add a prognostic value.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20944096,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20945104,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is associated with thyroid nodules.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20945104,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20947270,\n", " 'text': 'In the present series, no BRAF mutation was detected. The presence of KRAS mutations and loss of PTEN expression were not associated with impaired response to cetuximab-based chemoradiotherapy and 3-year disease free survival.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20947270,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20950194,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF is mutated in a low percentage of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and most of these mutated cases are suspicious or positive on fine-needle aspiration.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20953721,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20955560,\n", " 'text': 'Anti-BRAF autoantibodies from RA patients preferentially recognize one BRAF peptide: P2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20959481,\n", " 'text': 'Braf mutation is associated with basal and treatment-induced regulation of the PI3K-AKT pathway as a critical regulator of AZD6244 sensitivity in cutaneous melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20962618,\n", " 'text': 'Describe benign serrated colorectal fibroblastic polyps/intramucosal perineuriomas are true mixed epithelial-stromal polyps (hybrid hyperplastic polyp/mucosal perineurioma) with frequent BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20975100,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20979647,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21048031,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21049459,\n", " 'text': 'Although many studies document BRAF mutation as a prognostic factor in PTC our results underline that it is too early to consider it as a routine clinical predictive factor.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21049459,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21051183,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21051183,\n", " 'text': 'findings indicate that somatic mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA but not BRAF oncogenes are closely associated with the development of cholangiocarcinoma in Chinese population'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21068756,\n", " 'text': 'The dermoscopical and histopathological patterns of nevi correlate with the frequency of BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21076620,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that BRAF knockdown led to suppression of the expression of the GABPbeta, which involved in regulating HPR1 promoter activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21098728,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF gene amplification can promote acquired resistance to MEK inhibitors in cancer cells harboring the BRAF V600E mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21102258,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations of EGFR, BRAF, and KRAS in adenocarcinoma were mutually exclusive and inversely correlated with RASSF1A methylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21102416,\n", " 'text': 'We show a strong association between concordant methylation of >/= 3 of five 3p22 genes with the CpG island methylator phenotype and the BRAF V600E mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21103049,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that among 181 CRC patients, stratified by microsatellite instability status, DNA sequence changes were identified in KRAS (32%), BRAF (16%), PIK3CA (4%), PTEN (14%) and TP53 (51%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21107320,\n", " 'text': 'identification of MAP3K8 (the gene encoding COT/Tpl2) as a MAPK pathway agonist that drives resistance to RAF inhibition in B-RAF(V600E) cell lines'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21107323,\n", " 'text': 'melanomas escape B-RAF(V600E) targeting not through secondary B-RAF(V600E) mutations but via receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated activation of alternative survival pathway(s) or activated RAS-mediated reactivation of the MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21129611,\n", " 'text': 'It therefore appears that BRAF mutations may play a strong negative prognostic role and only a slight role in resistance to anti-EGFR Abs.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21131919,\n", " 'text': 'Primary esophageal melanomas of Caucasian patients harbor mutations of c-Kit, KRAS and BRAF in varied frequencies.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21134544,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma is associated with an increased risk of palpable nodal recurrence and the need for reoperative surgery.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21134562,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and confer an aggressive thyroid cancer phenotype.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21161938,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS mutations arise more frequently than BRAF mutations in Moroccan patients with colorectal carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21166657,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF mutation was frequently detected in patients with superficial spreading melanoma (OR=2.021; P<0.001) and in melanomas arising in nonchronic sun-damaged skin (OR=2.043; P=0.001).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21167555,\n", " 'text': 'concluded that follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma differs from conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma in the rate of BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21176117,\n", " 'text': 'These results show that melanoma cell phenotype is an important factor in MAPK pathway inhibition response, as invasive phenotype cell response is dependent on BRAF mutation status.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21185263,\n", " 'text': 'this study has confirmed that the BRAF(T1799A) mutation confers cancer cells sensitivity to PLX4032 and demonstrated its specific potential as an effective and BRAF(T1799A) mutation-selective therapeutic agent for thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21190184,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf(insT) and B-Raf(V600E) , but not B-Raf(wt) , provoke drastic morphological alterations in human astrocytes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21203559,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF alternative splicing is differentially regulated in human and mouse. BRAF exon 9b is required for learning and memory associated with the hippocampus.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21215707,\n", " 'text': 'In melanoma cells, oncogenic (V600E) BRAF signaling downregulates PDE5A through the transcription factor BRN2, leading to increased cGMP and Ca2+ and the induction of invasion through increased cell contractility.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21223556,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf signaling has a key function in the altered expression of contractile receptors in the cerebrovasculature.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21223812,\n", " 'text': 'The high expression of activated ERK is not caused by BRAF gene mutation in nasal mucosa malignant melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21224857,\n", " 'text': 'Acquisition of a BRAF mutation is not a founder event, but may be one of the multiple clonal events in melanoma development, which is selected for during the progression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21239517,\n", " 'text': 'We found that performing BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis on the fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens was of great help to make a therapeutic decision for thyroid nodules when the fine-needle aspiration biopsy results were equivocal'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21249150,\n", " 'text': 'the oncogenic effect of BRAF(V600E) is associated with the inhibition of MST1 tumor suppressor pathways, and the activity of RASSF1A-MST1-FoxO3 pathways determines the phenotypes of BRAF(V600E) tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21263251,\n", " 'text': 'These findings suggest that BRAF mutations may be associated with the pathogenesis of sessile serrated colorectal adenomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21270111,\n", " 'text': 'Findings suggest inhibition of autophagy in combination with ER stress-inducing agents may represent a means by which to harness autophagy for the therapeutic benefit of B-RAF wild-type melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21274671,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf mutations, microsatellite instability and p53 protein expression is not associated with sporadic basal cell carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21274720,\n", " 'text': 'The analysis of BRAF V600E mutation in 1,320 nervous system tumors reveals high mutation frequencies in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, ganglioglioma and extra-cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21285991,\n", " 'text': 'Presence of mutated BRAF is one of the most powerful prognostic factors for advanced and recurrent CRC'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21289333,\n", " 'text': '803 metastatic colorectal cancer samples studied for KRAS exon 2 and BRAF exon 15 mutations; BRAF mutated samples were characterized for mismatch repair function; 344 tumours were mutated -34 involving BRAF mutations (8 of microsatellite instability type)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21303778,\n", " 'text': 'Ras/Raf/MAPK and RhoA/ROCKII signalling pathways are abnormally activated in eutopic endometrial stromal cells of patients with endometriosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21305640,\n", " 'text': '78 colorectal tumor samples were mutant for BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21307665,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of gallbladder carcinomas, gallbladder adenomas, and high-grade dysplastic lesions for the BRAF and the KRAS mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21317202,\n", " 'text': 'Findings suggest that inhibition of Raf-MEK-Erk pathway might offer a novel therapeutic strategy in neuroendocrine tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21317224,\n", " 'text': 'Studies showed that siRNA knockdown of BIM significantly blunted the apoptotic response in PTEN+ melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21317286,\n", " 'text': 'identified BAD serine 134 to be strongly involved in survival signaling of B-RAF-V600E-containing tumor cells and found that phosphorylation of BAD at this residue is critical for efficient proliferation in these cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21321384,\n", " 'text': 'identifying downstream events from the BRAFV600E/ERK1/2 pathway will eventually identify novel biomarkers that can be used to correlate with disease outcome and overall survival.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21324100,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that BRAF-mutated melanomas occur in a younger age group on skin without marked solar elastosis and less frequently affect the head and neck area, compared to melanomas without BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21326296,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations have a smaller role in the carcinogenesis of malignant melanoma in Chinese Han than in Western patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21332555,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations were rare in colorectal laterally-spreading tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21343559,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of mutant BRAF had no impact on the disease-free interval from diagnosis of first-ever melanoma to first distant metastasis; however, it may have impacted survival thereafter.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21345796,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf associates with and stimulates NHE1 activity and that B-Raf(V600E) also increases NHE1 activity that raises intracellular pH.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21351275,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with selective inhibition of thyroid cancer cells by the novel MEK inhibitor RDEA119 and genetic-potentiated synergism with the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21356389,\n", " 'text': 'IDH1 mutation works with other oncogenic mutations and could contribute to the metastasis in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21362156,\n", " 'text': 'Regulation of NR4A nuclear receptor expression by oncogenic BRAF in melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21383284,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutational status yielded no useful prognostic information in predicting recurrence and benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21383288,\n", " 'text': 'Thus, MEK1(C121S) or functionally similar mutations are predicted to confer drug resistance of neoplasms to combined MEK/RAF inhibition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21383698,\n", " 'text': 'tumor initiation by oncogenic BRAF renders thyroid cells susceptible to TGFbeta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, through a MAPK-dependent process'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21390154,\n", " 'text': 'K-ras gene mutation is a common event in Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, but may not be a prognostic factor in CRC , while BRAF is rarely mutated in Chinese CRC patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21408138,\n", " 'text': 'Allele-specific qPCR assays for the most frequent activating mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA in tumor-positive fine needle cytological aspirates were compared against histological material of primary tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21412762,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21424126,\n", " 'text': 'study suggested that both KRAS and BRAF mutations are exclusive, but KRAS and PIK3CA mutations are coexistent'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21424530,\n", " 'text': 'This study demonistrated that the role of RAF kinase fusions as a central oncogenic mechanism in the development of pilocytic astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21426297,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations at the position V600 of BRAF were described in approximately 8% of all solid tumors, including 50% of melanomas, 30 to 70% of papillary thyroid carcinomas and 5 to 8% of colorectal adenocarcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21427714,\n", " 'text': 'There were no significant differences in the frequency of BRAF mutations among lesions exhibiting the hyperplastic, adenomatous, or mixed patterns.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21430505,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation may play different roles between medium and giant CMNs in melanocytic tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21431280,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF T1799A mutation may be an early and essential carcinogenic event in nearly all Korean papillary thyroid carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21441079,\n", " 'text': 'In papilary thyroid carcinoma, the BRAFT1799A mutation is associated with age over 60 & a tumor size of 1cm or greater, but not with other clinicopathological characteristics, tumor recurrence or persistence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21441910,\n", " 'text': \"KSR interacts with a regulatory Raf molecule in cis to induce a conformational switch of MEK, facilitating MEK's phosphorylation by a separate catalytic Raf molecule in trans\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 21447798,\n", " 'text': 'Amplification of the driving oncogene, KRAS or BRAF, underpins acquired resistance to MEK1/2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21451543,\n", " 'text': 'Activated BRAF promotes melanoma cell growth by matrix metalloproteinase-1'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21455633,\n", " 'text': 'No V600E mutation was identified in the BRAF gene in any sample.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21456008,\n", " 'text': 'the impact of BRAF mutation and microsatellite instability on prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21457162,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are specific for serrated adenocarcinoma and identify a subset of serrated adenocarcinomas with gene methylation and a tendency for MSI-H'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21479234,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutations are common in the majority of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21483104,\n", " 'text': 'Heterogeneity of KRAS and BRAF mutation status intra-tumorally in colorectal cancer was assessed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21498916,\n", " 'text': 'findings support the notion that BRAF(V600E), which can be detected preoperatively in papillary thyroid carcinoma fine-needle aspiration biopsy material, has a potential to contribute to patients stratification into high- and low-risk groups.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21512141,\n", " 'text': 'Mutated BRAF is detected in approximately 45% of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21514245,\n", " 'text': 'Ablation of B-Raf had no significant effect on development of K-Ras oncogene-driven non-small cell lung carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21553007,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations, but not KRAS mutations, were associated with a worse outcome in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21557216,\n", " 'text': 'MSS/BRAF mutant cancers were more commonly proximal (38/54, 70.3%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21570823,\n", " 'text': 'Analysis showed that blood samples with PCR evidence for CMC were heterogeneous for BRAF status under limiting-dilution conditions, suggestive of heterogeneity of CMC'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21577205,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that Raf kinases are excellent molecular targets for anticancer therapy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21587258,\n", " 'text': 'Wnt5a methylation was strongly associated with tumour microsatellite instability tumours after adjustment for age, sex, and tumour location and with BRAF V600E mutation, a marker of CpG island methylator phenotype'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21594703,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with recurrent papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21636552,\n", " 'text': 'introduction of constitutively active BRAF V600E into human cortical stem and progenitor cells initially promotes clonogenic growth in soft agar but ultimately results in dramatically reduced proliferation and arrested growth of the culture.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21653734,\n", " 'text': 'Compared with BRAF-wt papillary thyroid cancer, those harboring BRAF(V600E) exhibit downregulated VEGFA, VEGFR, and PDGFRbeta expression, suggesting presence of BRAF mutation does not imply stronger response to drugs targeting VEGF and PDGFB signal pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21663470,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutation was present in all patients with hairy-cell leukemia who were evaluated.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21681432,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutation did not show association with clinical or molecular characteristics of colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21693616,\n", " 'text': 'Eight of 16 primary tumor samples and 4 of 6 metastatic samples showed BRAF V600E gene mutations and no copy number changes were associated exclusively with metastatic cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21696415,\n", " 'text': 'The frequency of BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion transcripts is significantly lower in adult patients with pilocytic astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21705440,\n", " 'text': 'MEK1(F129L) mutation also strengthened binding to c-Raf, suggesting an underlying mechanism of higher intrinsic kinase activity'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21707687,\n", " 'text': 'The application of BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in US-guided FNAB can improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid nodules.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21716161,\n", " 'text': 'We describe a new mutation of BRAF, T599dup, in a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with tall cell papillary thyroid carcinomas component.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21725359,\n", " 'text': 'identified concurrent mutational inactivation of the PTEN and RB1 tumor suppressors as a mechanism for loss of BRAF/MEK dependence in melanomas harboring (V600E)BRAF mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21750338,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation of papillary thyroid carcinoma may have differential predictive values for LN metastasis, according to tumor size.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21774961,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis using residual liquid-based preparation cytologic samples is, therefore, a powerful additional diagnostic tool for diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21788131,\n", " 'text': 'Patients with mutations in BRAF or NRAS gene are frequently present with ulceration, and mutation in BRAF or NRAS gene is indicator for poor prognosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21796448,\n", " 'text': 'Importance of infiltrative growth pattern and invasiveness over presence of BRAF mutation in classic and follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma for development of nodal metastases.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21803329,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is not indicative for predicting papillary thyroid cancer prognosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21825258,\n", " 'text': 'study reports that V600E and non-V600E BRAF mutations affect different patients with non-small-cell lung cancer; V600E mutations are significantly associated with female sex and represent a negative prognostic factor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21826673,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations and llelic loss of susceptibility loci are associated with familial non-medullary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21835307,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway is upregulated in progressive retinal arterial macroaneurysm patients, caused by mutation in IGFBP7.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21863388,\n", " 'text': 'Braf mutation in metastatic melanoma treated with BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21871821,\n", " 'text': 'Genetic analysis revealed individual heterozygous mutations in the KRAS (phenotype of CFC/Noonan syndrome) and BRAF genes (phenotype of CFC syndrome)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21875464,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation has a significant correlation with papillary thyroid carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21882184,\n", " 'text': 'the BRAF(V600E) mutation should be considered as a poor prognostic marker in papillary thyroid cancer (Meta-Analysis)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21900390,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that BRAF V600E mutation initiates follicular cell transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21901162,\n", " 'text': 'In sporadic colorectal tumourspatients, the most frequently mutated gene was APC (68.9% of tumours), followed by KRAS (31.1%), TP53 (27.2%), BRAF (8.7%) and CTNNB1 (1.9%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21903858,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) causes upregulation of TIMP-1 via NF-kappaB. TIMP-1 binds then its surface receptor CD63, leading eventually to Akt activation, which in turn confers antiapoptotic behavior and promotion of cell invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21906875,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are of pathogenetic significance in wild type gastrointestinal stromal tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21909080,\n", " 'text': \"CXCR4 expression and BRAF mutation status could cooperatively induce and promote a more aggressive phenotype in papillary thyroid carcinoma through several pathways and specifically increase the tumors' spread outside of the thyroid gland.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 21915661,\n", " 'text': 'Aberrant CIMP was detected in 16% of chromosomal instable tumors and in 44% of both microsatellite instable and microsatellite and chromosomally stable carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21936566,\n", " 'text': 'this novel B-Raf fusion protein (SND-1 was identified as the B-Raf fusion partner) presents a novel target with potential clinical implications in the treatment of patients resistant to c-Met inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21937738,\n", " 'text': 'A prominent epigenetic mechanism through which BRAF V600E can promote papillary thyroid cancer tumorigenesis by altering the methylation and hence the expression of numerous important genes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21943101,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation V600E significantly induces cell migration and invasion properties in vitro in colon cancer cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21948220,\n", " 'text': 'In malignant FNABs in papillary thyroid carcinoma, BRAF(V600E) mutation was significantly associated with presence of extra-thyroidal extension and metastases after surgery.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22006538,\n", " 'text': 'DNA methylation of each marker was quantified using combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) and analyzed along with various genetic factors associated with CRC [the BRAF and KRAS mutations, MLH1 methylation and microsatellite instability'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22012135,\n", " 'text': 'An integrated approach combining both VE1 mutant protein immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis may increase the diagnostic accuracy of BRAF mutation analysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22027477,\n", " 'text': 'Postmenopausal hormone therapy was associated with borderline statistically significant risk reductions for BRAF-wildtype tumours among women with prolonged exposure to Postmenopausal hormone therapy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22028477,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with hairy cell leukemia and B-cell neoplasms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22033631,\n", " 'text': 'high prevalence of BRAF (V600E) mutation is associated with synchronous bilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22038996,\n", " 'text': 'Results support evaluation of BRAF(V600E)-specific inhibitors for treating BRAF(V600E) malignant astrocytomas (MA) patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22039425,\n", " 'text': 'study examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with mutant BRAF advanced cancer; conclude that BRAF appears to be a druggable mutation that also defines subgroups of patients with phenotypic overlap, albeit with differences that correlate with histology or site of mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22043994,\n", " 'text': 'This article reviewes the spectrum of KRAS/BRAF genotype and the impact of KRAS/BRAF mutations on the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22065586,\n", " 'text': 'Ras induces DR5 expression through co-activation of ERK/RSK and JNK signaling pathways'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22072557,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with hairy cell leukemia and other mature B-cell neoplasms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22072743,\n", " 'text': 'BAG3 protein sustains anaplastic thyroid tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. The underlying molecular mechanism appears to rely on BAG3 binding to BRAF, thus protecting it from proteasome-dependent degradation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22105174,\n", " 'text': 'Murine thyroid tumors carrying the human BRAF(V600E) mutations are exquisitely dependent on the oncoprotein for viability.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22105775,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600E) is a prevalent genetic alteration in adult sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma in Indian cohort and it may be responsible for the progression of its classic variant.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22114137,\n", " 'text': 'Overall, no difference existed in microsatellite instability or BRAF mutation frequencies between African Americans and Caucasians with colorectal neoplasms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22133769,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are associated with hairy cell leukemia and related lymphoproliferative disorders.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22136270,\n", " 'text': 'Case Report: describe case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22137342,\n", " 'text': 'thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines are B-Raf inhibitors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22145942,\n", " 'text': 'Pyrosequencing of BRAF V600E in routine samples of hairy cell leukaemia identifies CD5+ variant hairy cell leukaemia that lacks V600E.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22147429,\n", " 'text': 'V600E mutation of the BRAF gene reported to be associated with poor prognosis of germ cell tumors in adults prognostic biomarkers cannot necessarily be transferred from one age group to the other.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22147942,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with inferior survival in stage III colon cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22150560,\n", " 'text': 'papillary thyroid cancers in young patients display a low prevalence of the already identified oncogenic alterations; the increasing prevalence with age is mainly due to V600E BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22156467,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutation is associated with a higher pathological stage at surgery and a higher rate of recurrence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22156468,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations enhance the predictability of malignancy in thyroid follicular lesions of undetermined significance.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22157687,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and KRAS mutations were observed in six (46.2%) and four (30.3%) filiform serrated adenomaS, respectively.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22170714,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma is a later subclonal event, its intratumoral heterogeneity may hamper the efficacy of targeted pharmacotherapy, and its association with a more aggressive disease should be reevaluated.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22174938,\n", " 'text': 'The antibody response against the catalytic domain of BRAF is not specific for rheumatoid arthritis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22178589,\n", " 'text': 'Report mutations in KRAS, EGFR, and BRAF in cholangiocarcinoma and identify therapeutic targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22180495,\n", " 'text': 'Findings suggest that the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib in combination with standard-of-care or novel targeted therapies may lead to enhanced and sustained clinical antitumor efficacy in CRCs harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22189819,\n", " 'text': 'Aberrant gene methylation driven by BRAF(V600E) altered expression of the DNA methyltransferase 1 and histone methyltransferase EZH2 profoundly.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22190222,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation was associated with high-risk clinicopathologic characteristics in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The BRAF(V600E) mutation may be a potential prognostic factor in PTC patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22190283,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf gene mutation primarily occurs at two loci--the exon 11 glycine loop and the activation area of exon 15--in surgically resected specimens of hepatocellular carcinoma patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22194995,\n", " 'text': 'These data support a model where the continuous regenerative process initiated by oncogenic B-RAF-driven alveolar disruption provides a tumor-promoting environment associated with chronic inflammation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22199277,\n", " 'text': 'RET mutations may have a role in medullary thyroid carcinoma, while BRAF, AKT1, and CTNNB1 do not; the role of HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS mutations are not determined'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22199339,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of BRAF gene mutations in non-small cell lung cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22203991,\n", " 'text': 'These results provide a functional link between oncogenic BRAF and angiogenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22210186,\n", " 'text': 'Patients with microsatellite instability tumor phenotype had favorable prognosis, but in those with the V600E BRAF mutation higher recurrence rate was observed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22210875,\n", " 'text': 'Our results suggest that HCLv and IGHV4-34(+) HCLs have a different pathogenesis than HCLc and that a significant minority of other HCLc are also wild-type for BRAF V600.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22214007,\n", " 'text': 'Although it constitutes a poor prognostic factor in colorectal cancer, it is not conclusive if it interferes with a poor therapeutic effect when cetuximab is used.[review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22227015,\n", " 'text': 'The findings show mutant BRAF-induced oncogenic stress manifests itself by DNA damage and growth arrest by activating the pCHK2-p53-p21 pathway.It also confers tumor-promoting phenotypes such as the up-regulation of GLUT1 and enhances glucose metabolism.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22228154,\n", " 'text': 'In patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma, there were significant differences between BRAF wild-type and mutant tumors in age, female sex, proximal tumor location, frequency of microsatellite instability, and survival.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22230299,\n", " 'text': 'One chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patient and one patient with B-prolymphocytic leukaemia were found to harbour the BRAF V600E mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22233696,\n", " 'text': 'Sessile serrated adenomas are precursors of sporadic colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability.Identified a novel surface microstructure, the Type II open-shape pit pattern (Type II-O), which was specific to SSAs with BRAF mutation and CIMP.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22235286,\n", " 'text': 'evidence for heterogeneity of the BRAF(V600E) mutation within individual melanoma tumor specimens'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22245873,\n", " 'text': 'No BRAF mutations were found in colon adenocarcinomas from renal transplant recipients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22246856,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation in low and intermediate grade lymphomas is associated with frequent occurrence in hairy cell leukaemia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22249628,\n", " 'text': 'None of the molecular marker mutations that were analyzed in this study, including the BRAF mutation, predicted lymph node metastasis in classic papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22250191,\n", " 'text': 'During therapy with selective BRAF inhibitors, panniculitis with arthralgia represents a new adverse effect that can require dose reduction.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22258409,\n", " 'text': 'Mutational activation of both BRAF and PIK3CA genes does contribute to hepatocellular tumorigenesis at somatic level in Southern Italian population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22282465,\n", " 'text': 'In naive GISTs carrying activating mutations in KIT or PDGFRA a concomitant activating mutation was detected in KRAS (5%) or BRAF (about 2%) genes. I'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22287190,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with colorectal serrated adenocarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22294102,\n", " 'text': 'No hotspot mutations in Braf were found in oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Greek population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22314188,\n", " 'text': 'Colon adenocarcinomas with BRAF mutations have morphologic characteristics distinct from those with KRAS mutations and BRAF-mutated proximal colonic adenocarcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair have an aggressive clinical course.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22317764,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that 266 (76.2%) tumors harbored EGFR mutations, 16 (4.6%) HER2 mutations, 15 (4.3%) EML4-ALK fusions, 7 (2.0%) KRAS mutations, and 2 (0.6%) BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22317887,\n", " 'text': 'Report of oncogenic BRAF/KRAS mutations in sporadic glomus tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22331186,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFmut as a useful marker in hairy cell leukemia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22331825,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is an independent prognostic biomarker for colorectal liver metastasectomy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22335197,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation-positive papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) displayed infiltrative growth, stromal fibrosis, psammoma bodies, plump eosinophilic tumour cells, and classic fully developed nuclear features of PTC.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22339435,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that the BRAF V600E mutation does not seem to play a role in myeloid malignant transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22358007,\n", " 'text': '(BRAF(V600E))detected in 141/170 malignant thyroid nodules (82.9%) (140 PTCs and one follicular variant of PTC). BRAF status not associated with US features with the exception of a negative relation between BRAF(V600E) and an irregular shape (p = 0.004).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22361037,\n", " 'text': 'This is the first reported study of the relationship between CK20/CK7 immunophenotype, BRAF mutations and microsatellite status in colorectal carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22367297,\n", " 'text': 'A distinct subset of atypical Spitz tumors is characterized by BRAF mutation and loss of BAP1 expression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22368298,\n", " 'text': \"review demonstrates that tumour BRAF V600E mutation, and MLH1 promoter 'C region' methylation specifically, are strong predictors of negative MMR mutation status[review]\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 22374786,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of activating GNAS mutations, in association with KRAS or BRAF mutations, is a characteristic genetic feature of colorectal villous adenoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22376079,\n", " 'text': 'evidence presented that ERK activation occurs in a K-ras or B-raf -independent manner in the majority of primary colon cancer cases; B-raf mutations are not associated with mismatch-repair deficiency through loss of hMLH1 or hMSH2 expression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22376167,\n", " 'text': 'The V600E BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas may contribute to the initiation of the glycolytic phenotype and confers growth advantages in cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22382362,\n", " 'text': 'Eleven patients displayed Durable Disease Control (DDC) of which 55% had BRAF-V600E mutation positive tumors and 45% did not.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22393095,\n", " 'text': 'Patient diagnosed with colon cancer shows poor prognosis with BRAF genetic mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22395615,\n", " 'text': 'findings show (V600E)B-RAF copy-number gain as a mechanism of acquired B-RAF inhibitor resistance in 4 out of 20 patients treated with B-RAF inhibitor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22398042,\n", " 'text': 'In a cohort of Indian patients with ulcerative colitis, with or without neoplasia, none showed the BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22417847,\n", " 'text': 'we have analyzed the prevalence of somatic mutations in the FGFR3, PIK3CA, AKT1, KRAS, HRAS, and BRAF genes in bladder cancers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22426079,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that TaqMan(R) Mutation Detection assay is an important technology to consider in the field of mutation detection for KRAS, BRAF and EGFR point mutation screening.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22426956,\n", " 'text': 'genetic association studies in population in Turkey: Data suggest that a mutation in BRAF (V600E; found in 39.45% of patients) is associated with aggressiveness of papillary thyroid neoplasms; lymph node metastasis increases when mutation is present.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22427190,\n", " 'text': 'Investigation the prevalence of mutations in the BRAF gene and its correlation with demographic characteristics, tumor location and stage in 100 colorectal carcinoma patients from India.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22429583,\n", " 'text': 'Article reviews the current understanding of BRAF gene, its structure, expression, and signal pathway in non-small cell lung cancer. [Review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22430133,\n", " 'text': 'The prevalence of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA somatic mutations in 861 randomly selected Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22430208,\n", " 'text': 'We propose that , and that persistent phosphorylation of Mps1 through BRAF(V600E) signaling is a key event in disrupting the control of centrosome duplication and chromosome stability that may contribute to tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22430215,\n", " 'text': 'expression of these oncogenes markedly stimulated ERK1/2 activities and morphologically transformed IECs. Importantly however'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22431777,\n", " 'text': 'Effective use of PDT in the treatment of BRAF inhibitor-associated KAs and SCCs.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22431868,\n", " 'text': 'EFVPTC 1 patient BRAFV600E mutation, NVPTC 2 patients, FVPTC 2 patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22435913,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of a patient with pancreatic metastasis arising from a BRAF(V600E)-positive papillary thyroid cancer [case report]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22451557,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis from FNA specimens for calcified thyroid nodules may be performed for a greater negative predictive value and unveil the malignancy in 25% of indeterminate or nondiagnostic cytology.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22456166,\n", " 'text': 'Report marked differences in the genetic pattern of the BRAF or NRAS mutated and wild-type melanoma subgroups.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22459936,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations play a limited role in the development of sinonasal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22471241,\n", " 'text': 'Out of 1041 Korean patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, 0.4% had rare types of BRAF mutation and three new somatic mutations were identified'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22471666,\n", " 'text': 'An update on malignancies displaying high frequencies of BRAF mutations and the mechanisms underlying the side effects and drug resistance phenomena associated with Raf inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22488961,\n", " 'text': 'prevalence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation increased with increased tumor size'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22492957, 'text': 'BRAF V600E is associated with gliomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22498935,\n", " 'text': 'No BRAF V600E mutations were indentified in this study of patients with endometrial cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22500044,\n", " 'text': 'Highly sensitive and specific molecular assays such as MEMO sequencing are optimal for detecting the BRAF mutations in thyroid FNAC because these techniques can detect PTC that might be missed by cytology or less sensitive molecular assays.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22506009,\n", " 'text': 'The (600DLAT)B-RAF and (V600E)B-RAF mutations were found enriched in DNA and mRNA from the CD1a+ fraction of granuloma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22508706,\n", " 'text': 'The analysis of BRAF mutations by pyrosequencing is useful to refine the risk stratification of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22510757,\n", " 'text': 'Patients with serrated polyposis syndrome referred to genetics clinics had a pan-colonic disease with a high polyp burden and a high rate of BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22510884,\n", " 'text': 'It was shown that the dimer interface within the kinase domain plays a pivotal role for the activity of B-Raf and several of its gain-of-function mutants.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22514085,\n", " 'text': 'The tumor with T1799A BRAF mutation and tumor sizes of 2 cm or more were clinicopathologic parameters associated with lower STAT1 activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22515292,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E is common in patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma but does not predict recurrence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22515520,\n", " 'text': 'Mutation BRAF transforms cells through cross talk with developmental pathways Hedgehog and Wnt, as well as by deregulation of colorectal cancer related kinase pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22516966,\n", " 'text': 'Report upregulation of Bim and the splicing factor SRp55 in melanoma cells from patients treated with selective BRAF inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22522845,\n", " 'text': 'In signet ring cell carcinoma, BRAF V600E mutation adversely affects survival in microsatellite-stable tumors, but not in high-level microsatellite-unstable tumor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22531127,\n", " 'text': 'study concludes that generally, overweight increases the risk of colorectal cancer; taller individuals have an increased risk of developing a tumour with a BRAF mutation or microsatellite instability'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22531170,\n", " 'text': 'Demonstrate that BRAF V600E mutation-specific antibody can be used in immunohistochemical diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22534474,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and KIT mutations have been found in Japanese melanoma patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22535154,\n", " 'text': 'study shows there are clinically and biologically distinct subtypes of BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma, defined by genotype, with distinct etiology and behavior; cumulative sun-induced damage in primary cutaneous melanoma and older age are associated with V600K BRAF mutations;it establishes prevalence of the BRAF mutation by age-decade'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22535974,\n", " 'text': 'The diagnostic sensitivity for thyroid cancer is significantly increased by BRAF V600E mutation analysis, indicating that the screening for BRAF mutation in FNAB samples has a relevant diagnostic potential.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22549559,\n", " 'text': 'Recurrent/persistent PTC in the central compartment typically harbors the BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22549727,\n", " 'text': 'abrogation of BRAFV600E-induced senescence contributes to melanomagenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22549934,\n", " 'text': 'The mTOR pathway could be a good target to enhance therapy effects in certain types of thyroid carcinoma, namely in those harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22568401,\n", " 'text': 'These results suggest that low-grade diffuse gliomas with 1p/19q loss have frequent BRAF gains'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22579930,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations in colorectal cancer have sustained prevalence rate in the Taiwanese population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22581800,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF regulates expression of long noncoding RNAs in melanocytes and melanoma cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22586484,\n", " 'text': 'In the present study, we did not find any significant correlations between KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations and the loss of PTEN expression and various clinicopathological features in Chinese patients with colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22591444,\n", " 'text': 'Our results suggest that in a small fraction of diffuse gliomas, KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene and BRAF(v600E) mutation may be responsible for deregulation of the Ras-RAF-ERK signaling pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22592144,\n", " 'text': 'Immunohistochemical detection of the mutated V600E BRAF protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma may facilitate mutational analysis in the clinical setting.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22614711,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF p.Val600Lys mutations were present at a relatively high frequency in the cohort of metastatic melanoma patients (27/183, 15%)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22614978,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF/NRAS mutations were identified in 58% of primary melanomas (43% BRAF; 15% NRAS)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22628551,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that RNF149 (RING finger protein 149) interacts with wild-type BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22639828,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that BRAF V600E mutation may not be widespread in hematologic malignancies, excluding hairy-cell leukemia (HCL).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22649091,\n", " 'text': \"Patient's BRAF mutation was likely responsible for his tumor's marked response to dasatinib, suggesting that tumors bearing kinase-impaired BRAF mutations may be exquisitely sensitive to dasatinib.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 22681706,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with lymph node metastasis in multiple papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22684223,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of BRAF mutations in these adenomatous precursors to colon cancer suggests that they represent sessile serrated adenomas with complete cytologic dysplasia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22694820,\n", " 'text': 'In papillary thyroid cancer, significant correlations between the methylation status of four genes (TIMP3, RASSF1A, RARbeta2 and DCC) and the V600E BRAF mutation were found.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22699145,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that 14% with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) and 7% ampullary adenocarcinomas (A-ACs) had mutations in both KRAS and BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22702340,\n", " 'text': 'In papillary thyroid carcinoma BRAFV600E is associated with increased expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator and its cognate receptor, but not with disease-free interval.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22705994,\n", " 'text': 'Hairy cell leukemia cell lines expressing annexin A1 and displaying B-cell receptor signals characteristic of primary tumor cells lack the signature BRAF mutation to reveal unrepresentative origins.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22706026,\n", " 'text': 'The combined effects of EGFR downregulation, ligand competition, and immune effector function conspire to inhibit tumor growth in xenograft models of cetuximab-resistant BRAF and KRAS mutant cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22727996,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutations are present in approximately 90% of all kidney metanephric adenoma cases, serving as a potential valuable diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22730329,\n", " 'text': 'Reactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3)/Ras mediates resistance to vemurafenib in human B-RAF V600E mutant melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22732794,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation revealed a strong association with specific histological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22740704,\n", " 'text': 'These results clearly prove that the BRAFV600E mutation is not associated with the development of distant metastases or fatal outcome in papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22742884,\n", " 'text': 'Vemurafenib is effective for advanced melanomas expressing the BRAF V600E mutations [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22743296,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with response to vemurafenib in lung adenocarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22751131,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf/MKK/ERK controls key aspects of cancer cell behavior and gene expression by modulating a network of miRNAs with cross-regulatory functions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22752848,\n", " 'text': 'study reports a novel complex BRAF mutation identified in 4/492 Japanese papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC) cases; findings suggest the BRAF(V600delinsYM)mutation, is a gain-of-function mutation and plays an important role in PTC development'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22767446,\n", " 'text': 'study found a relatively higher B-Raf serine/threonine-protein kinase (BRAF)(V600E) mutation rate in classical type papillary thyroid carcinomas than in other similar studies'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22770943,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mRNA expression may help to identify PTC among thyroid nodules independently of the presence of BRAFV600E mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22772867,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600) mutations are are associated with melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22773810,\n", " 'text': 'Lung cancers with acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors occasionally harbor BRAF gene mutations but lack mutations in KRAS, NRAS, or MEK1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22797077,\n", " 'text': 'RSK regulates activated BRAF signalling to mTORC1 and promotes melanoma growth'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22798288,\n", " 'text': 'Data show clinical significance to BRAF(L597) mutations in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22798500,\n", " 'text': 'In CRC patients treated with cetuximab, activating mutation signatures for BRAF (58 genes) were developed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22799316,\n", " 'text': 'Preoperative BRAF mutation was a predictive factor for occult contralateral papillary thyroid microcarcinoma presence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22809251,\n", " 'text': 'As has been reported in other common types of melanoma, V600 BRAF mutation is the most common mutation of those tested in spindle cell melanoma. NRAS or KIT mutation appears to be rare, if not completely absent.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22814862,\n", " 'text': 'we found no cases of Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors of the fourth ventricle showing KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusion or BRAF (V600E) mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22820187,\n", " 'text': 'these results link epigenetic genes to methylation and suppression of tumor suppressor genes as a mechanism involved in BRAFV600E-promoted melanoma tumorigenesis and uncover a novel molecular signature that predicts a poor prognosis of melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22820660,\n", " 'text': 'No BRAF V600E mutations were detected in nonserous epithelial ovarian tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22824468,\n", " 'text': 'Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in BRAF gene is associated with diseases.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22826122,\n", " 'text': 'It was concluded that extracellular kinase-mediated up-regulation of c-myc by K-Ras or B-Raf oncogenes disrupts the establishment of apical/basolateral polarity in colon epithelial cells independently of its effect on proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22826437,\n", " 'text': 'RAF1(D486N), as well as other kinase-impaired RAF1 mutants, showed increased heterodimerization with BRAF, which was necessary and sufficient to promote increased MEK/ERK activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22833462,\n", " 'text': 'Investigated BRAF and RAF1 alterations in Chinese prostate cancer.Found BRAF truncated in five of 200 informative Chinese cases & RAF1 was truncated in three of 204 informative cases and genomic rearrangements were correlated w/high Gleason scores.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22850568,\n", " 'text': 'This study reveals a novel mechanism of immune suppression sensitive to BRAF(V600E) inhibition, and indicates that clinical blockade of IL-1 may benefit patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22858857,\n", " 'text': 'A review summarizes the role of the BRAF V600E mutation in the development and progression of thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22859608,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22863493,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAFV600E occurs exclusively in papillary thyroid carcinoma and papillary carcinoma-derived anaplastic cancer, rising as a specific diagnostic marker for this tumor when identified in cytological / histological exams'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22870241,\n", " 'text': 'High-throughput genotyping in metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma identifies phosphoinositide-3-kinase and BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22876591,\n", " 'text': 'Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome is caused by heterogeneous mutations in BRAF gene.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22879539,\n", " 'text': 'High prevalence of BRAF V600E mutations is associated with Erdheim-Chester disease but not in other non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22880048,\n", " 'text': 'This study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22887810,\n", " 'text': 'A K601E BRAF mutation is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22892521,\n", " 'text': 'The results of this study supported an important role for BRAF duplication and MAPK pathway activation in gliomas of the optic nerve proper.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22898351,\n", " 'text': 'MSI status, KRAS and BRAF mutation rates varied remarkably among the colonic carcinoma subsites irrespective of right- and left-sided origin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22899730,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of a BRAF c.1799T>A (p.V600E) mutation is associated with significantly poorer prognosis after colorectal cancer diagnosis among subgroups of patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22912864,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that mutation frequency in malanoma patients was found witih BRAF(V600) in 51%, NRAS in 19%, PI3K pathway in 41% and PTEN in 22%.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22918165,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is an early event in thyroid carcinogenesis, and is associated with distinctive morphology and aggressive features even in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22926515,\n", " 'text': 'ARAF seems to stabilize BRAF:CRAF complexes in cells treated with RAF inhibitors and thereby regulate cell signaling in a subtle manner to ensure signaling efficiency'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22930283,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with early stage disease and improved outcome in patients with low-grade serous ovarian cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22931913,\n", " 'text': 'We conclude that the presence of BRAF mutation, NRAS mutation, and the absence of an immune-related expressed gene profile predict poor outcome in melanoma patients with macroscopic stage III disease.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22932786,\n", " 'text': 'Thus, in this meta-analysis, the BRAF mutation in PTC was significantly associated with PTC recurrence, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension, and advanced stage AJCC III/IV.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22938585,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and AKT1 mutations can be rapidly and accurately detected for cancer diagnosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22941165,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutation is the only independent predictor of compartment lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22946697,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that of the 32 cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) patients, 28 (88%) had a known mutation in a gene that is causative for CFC, including BRAF (n = 21), MEK1 (n = 2), MEK2 (n = 4), and KRAS (n = 1).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22972589,\n", " 'text': 'Higher response rates and longer time to progression were observed with selumetinib-containing regimens in patients who had melanoma that harbored a BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22973979,\n", " 'text': 'found a significantly increased risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma attributed to the SNP variants rs17161747, rs1042179, and rs3748093 for those with a family history of cancer, for smokers, and for both those of age <45 years and nondrinkers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22996177,\n", " 'text': 'This report is the first to identify the rare, variant BRAF V600D mutation in LCH, and provides support for constitutively activated BRAF oncogene-induced cell senescence as a mechanism of regression in congenital, benign LCH.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23009221,\n", " 'text': 'consistent with previous studies, it was concluded that the incidence of BRAF V600E mutation in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, if any, is extremely infrequent'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23010278,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF upregulates SGLT1 activity, an effect requiring vesicle insertion into the cell membrane.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23010994,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is suggested to be poor prognostic factors in CRLM.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23014346,\n", " 'text': 'Braf mutation status is not significantly associated with poor survival for melanoma in Koreans.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23021375,\n", " 'text': 'EGFR and downstream genetic alterations in KRAS/BRAF and PI3K/AKT pathways have roles in colorectal cancer and treatment [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23026937,\n", " 'text': 'Immunohistochemistry is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of V600E BRAF mutation in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23033302,\n", " 'text': 'the spectrum and frequency distribution of the identified KRAS and BRAF mutations in Serbian patient with colorectal cancer are in good accordance with literature data.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23036672,\n", " 'text': 'We describe 3 patients with BRAF V600E mutation metastatic melanoma in whom treatment with vemurafenib resulted in prompt extracranial disease response but progression of metastatic disease in the brain.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23039341,\n", " 'text': 'Studied the cytotoxicity and anti-tumour activity of novel MEK inhibitor, E6201, in a panel of melanoma cell lines. Most melanoma cell lines were sensitive or hypersensitive to E6201; the sensitivity correlated with wildtype PTEN and mutant BRAF status.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23041829,\n", " 'text': 'Findings support the potential use of immunohistochemistry as an ancillary screening tool to assess the BRAFV600E mutation status in primary cutaneous melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23051629,\n", " 'text': 'Increased BRAF mutation with age along with the lack of a UVR magnitude-BRAF mutation association suggests that duration of exposure rather than UVR exposure dose is the more likely link to acquiring mutations in melanocytic nevi.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23055340,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS and BRAF mutations are infrequent or absent, respectively in Intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23055546,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation was associated with lymph node metastases (LNM), advanced stage, extrathyroidal extension, tumor size, male gender, multifocality, absence of capsule, classic PTC, and tall-cell variant papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23056577,\n", " 'text': 'A systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that BRAF mutation is an absolute risk factor for patient survival in colorectal cancer and melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23062653,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation was not found to be significantly associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23066120,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation was demonstrated to be a poor prognostic factor for the persistence of the disease independent from other clinical-pathological features in low-risk intrathyroid papillary thyroid carcinoma patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23069257,\n", " 'text': 'Histopathologic changes suggesting prolapsed rectal mucosa should take precedence over BRAF results in diagnosing sessile serrated adenomas in the rectum.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23088640,\n", " 'text': 'analysis suggests that BRAF mutations occur at a low frequency in chronic lymphocytic leukemia'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23095503,\n", " 'text': 'Desmoplastic malignant melanoma: a study of ten cases and status of BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23096133,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas with anaplastic features.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23096702,\n", " 'text': 'We found that NRAS-mutant melanomas were significantly more likely from older patients and BRAF-mutant melanomas were more frequent in melanomas from the trunk.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23098991,\n", " 'text': 'Studied differential miRNA expression in metastatic colorectal cancer by microarrays from primary tumors of 33 patients who had wild-type KRAS/BRAF and third- to sixth-line anti-EGFRmAb treatment, with/without irinotecan.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23110075,\n", " 'text': 'Study demonstrates that chromosomal instability commonly occurs in advanced BRAF mutant/MSS colorectal cancers where it may contribute to poorer survival, and further highlights molecular similarities occurring between these and BRAF wild type cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23125007,\n", " 'text': 'One hundred and ten patients (51%) were identified who were potentially nonresponders to anti-EGFR therapy: 13/117 (11.1%) had the V600E BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23132792,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with cervical lymph node metastasis and recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23138171,\n", " 'text': 'Clinical characteristics of colorectal cancer with the V600E BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23153455,\n", " 'text': 'These findings indicate that ABCG2 confers resistance to vemurafenib in A375 cells, suggesting involvement of this transporter in acquired resistance to vemurafenib.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23157614,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation was more frequent in women, but this gender difference was not statistically significant.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23157823,\n", " 'text': 'In Chinese colorectal carcinoma patients, BRAF mutation is associated with tumor differentiation and primary tumor sites.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23157824,\n", " 'text': 'Codon 12, 13 in KRAS gene and codon 600 in BRAF gene are the most common mutation points in Chinese colorectal cancer. KRAS and BRAF mutations are mutually exclusive. KRAS and BRAF gene mutation is higher in females than that in males.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23158172,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutational status is predictive of papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23159116,\n", " 'text': 'V600E point mutation was identified in the BRAF gene in 3 intramucosal nevi and in 2 melanomas. Only 1 blue nevus harbored the GNAQ209 mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23161556,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation as a new serum marker for papillary thyroid carcinomas were not detectable in patientts diagnosed with thyroid neoplasms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23161722,\n", " 'text': 'data confirm that among lymphoproliferative disorders, BRAF V600E mutation is restricted to hairy cell leukemia (HCL); no mutations were identified in variant HCL, NMZL, ENMZL, PTLD, PTCL, ALCL, or LGL proliferations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23163107,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation might be associated with a more aggressive phenotype and a poor prognosis in classic variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23179992,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600E) mutation is associated with papillary thyroid carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23188063,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations were correlated with poor overall survival in the full patient cohort'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23190154,\n", " 'text': 'Our findings suggest that RAS pathway activation due to BRAF V600E and KRAS mutations is an important event in a subset of peripheral nerve sheath tumours not related to neurofibromatosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23190890,\n", " 'text': 'Oncogenic B-RAF(V600E) signaling induces the T-Box3 transcriptional repressor to repress E-cadherin and enhance melanoma cell invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23192464,\n", " 'text': 'Aim of this work is to provide a detailed comparison of clinical-pathologic features between well-differentiated and poorly differentiated tumors according to their BRAF and RASSF1A status.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23192956,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600E) mutation is associated with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23203004,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600E) is non-associated with Gal-3 expression, whereas it is associated with cytoplasmatic localization of p27kip1 and higher CK19 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23207070,\n", " 'text': 'The present study revealed that ESCC of Brazilian patients do not present mutations in hot spots of EGFR, K-RAS and BRAF and only a minor proportion present overexpression of EGFR or HER2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23208503,\n", " 'text': 'results suggest that mutant B-RAF signaling downregulates Tiam1/Rac activity resulting in an increase in N-cadherin levels and a decrease in E-cadherin levels and ultimately enhanced invasion'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23224067,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations affecting BRAF, EGFR, PIK3CA, and KRAS are not associated with sporadic vestibular schwannomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23235345,\n", " 'text': 'the BRAF V600E mutation is not pathobiologically relevant in primary central nervous system lymphoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23237741,\n", " 'text': 'Patients with V600R BRAF mutations can be treated successfully with oral BRAF inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23242808,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that BRAF and EGF receptor or SRC family kinase inhibition blocked proliferation and invasion of the resistant tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23246082,\n", " 'text': 'the role of BRAF mutations in melanoma and colorectal cancer, focusing on similarities and differences of BRAF mutations (Review)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23253715,\n", " 'text': 'The status of BRAF(V600E) mutation was more frequent in multifocal PTC patients with lymph node metastasis and diagnosis at later age.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23263826,\n", " 'text': 'we deduce that in the absence of mutation activation, B-Raf overexpression or downregulation is a protective event, since it delays the development of both malignant and benign thyroid tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23274581,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23280049,\n", " 'text': 'Preoperative mutation screening for BRAF(V600E) does not meaningfully improve risk stratification and is unlikely to alter the initial management of patients with indeterminate nodules.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23287985,\n", " 'text': 'Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis appears to be a clonal proliferation that may or may not have BRAF V600E mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23290787,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that BRAF mutations are identified in 40-50% of patients with melanoma, and treatment with either of two BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib, dabrafenib) or the MEK inhibitor trametinib is associated with improved clinical benefit.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23297805,\n", " 'text': 'No point mutations were identified in BRAF codon Val600Glu in the studied colorectal adenocarcinomas in the Turkish population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23307859,\n", " 'text': 'High BRAF is associated with metastatic melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23310942,\n", " 'text': 'This study shows that BRAF mutation occurs in Nigerian colorectal cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23317446,\n", " 'text': 'Results demonstrated the action of Dabrafenib and the inhibition of MAPK pathway in melanoma cell lines carrying BRAFV600D/R mutations; these results could be helpful to enlarge the number of patients who may benefit of a more effective targeted treatment'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23324583,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations is associated with colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23334329,\n", " 'text': 'Human neural crest progenitor cells are susceptible to BRAF(V600E)-induced transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23343956,\n", " 'text': 'no association with BRAF-V600E mutation in gastroeosophageal tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23349307,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that besides confirming the constant presence of BRAF-V600E in all patients with hairy cell leukemia, phospho-ERK1/ERK2 expression was observed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23352452,\n", " 'text': 'Ras pathway activation via EGF treatment induced strong binding between B-Raf and C-Raf and a low level of binding between B-Raf and A-Raf.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23354951,\n", " 'text': 'Alternative splicing of exons 14, 15, 15b, 16b and 16c occurs in a considerable fraction of BRAF mRNA in normal colon and colorectal cancer cells and is independent of the V600E mutational status of the parental allele.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23355004,\n", " 'text': 'The detected Merkel cell polyomavirus prevalence in non-small cell lung cancer in combination with the deregulated expression of BRAF and Bcl-2 genes suggests that these events are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23359496,\n", " 'text': 'Kidins220 is a novel T-cell receptor (TCR)-interacting protein that couples B-Raf to the TCR. Kidins220 is mandatory for sustained Erk signaling and is crucial for TCR-mediated T cell activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23370429,\n", " 'text': 'This is the first report of BRAF V600E mutation in endometrial cancer, indicating that it may contribute to tumorigenesis of endometrial cancer, although at a low frequency compared with KRAS mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23370668,\n", " 'text': 'study suggests that highly aggressive papillary thyroid microcarcinoma may arise in a subset of patients with BRAF(V600E) mutation and tumors greater than 5 mm; multivariate analysis showed that tumor recurrence was not associated with BRAF(V600E)mutation'},\n", " ...],\n", " 'genomic_pos': {'chr': '7',\n", " 'end': 140924928,\n", " 'ensemblgene': 'ENSG00000157764',\n", " 'start': 140719327,\n", " 'strand': -1},\n", " 'genomic_pos_hg19': {'chr': '7',\n", " 'end': 140624564,\n", " 'start': 140419127,\n", " 'strand': -1},\n", " 'go': {'BP': [{'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000165',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'MAPK cascade'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000165',\n", " 'term': 'MAPK cascade'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000186',\n", " 'term': 'activation of MAPKK activity'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0002318',\n", " 'term': 'myeloid progenitor cell differentiation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006468',\n", " 'pubmed': 17563371,\n", " 'term': 'protein phosphorylation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0008542',\n", " 'term': 'visual learning'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0009887',\n", " 'pubmed': 9207797,\n", " 'term': 'animal organ morphogenesis'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IMP',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0010628',\n", " 'pubmed': 22065586,\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of gene expression'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0010764',\n", " 'term': 'negative regulation of fibroblast migration'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0010828',\n", " 'pubmed': 23010278,\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of glucose transmembrane transport'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0030878',\n", " 'term': 'thyroid gland development'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0033138',\n", " 'pubmed': 19667065,\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of peptidyl-serine phosphorylation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0035019',\n", " 'term': 'somatic stem cell population maintenance'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0035690',\n", " 'term': 'cellular response to drug'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0042127',\n", " 'term': 'regulation of cell proliferation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043066',\n", " 'pubmed': 19667065,\n", " 'term': 'negative regulation of apoptotic process'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043367',\n", " 'term': 'CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell differentiation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043369',\n", " 'term': 'CD4-positive or CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell lineage commitment'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043434',\n", " 'term': 'response to peptide hormone'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043524',\n", " 'term': 'negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0045580',\n", " 'term': 'regulation of T cell differentiation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0048538',\n", " 'term': 'thymus development'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0048680',\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of axon regeneration'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0050772',\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of axonogenesis'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0050852',\n", " 'term': 'T cell receptor signaling pathway'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0051291',\n", " 'term': 'protein heterooligomerization'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0051496',\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of stress fiber assembly'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0051591',\n", " 'term': 'response to cAMP'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0060291',\n", " 'term': 'long-term synaptic potentiation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0060323',\n", " 'term': 'head morphogenesis'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0060324',\n", " 'term': 'face development'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0070374',\n", " 'pubmed': 22065586,\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IMP',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0070413',\n", " 'pubmed': 9837904,\n", " 'term': 'trehalose metabolism in response to stress'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0071277',\n", " 'pubmed': 18567582,\n", " 'term': 'cellular response to calcium ion'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0090150',\n", " 'pubmed': 23010278,\n", " 'term': 'establishment of protein localization to membrane'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:1900026',\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:1990090',\n", " 'term': 'cellular response to nerve growth factor stimulus'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:2000301',\n", " 'term': 'negative regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:2000352',\n", " 'term': 'negative regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process'}],\n", " 'CC': [{'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005634',\n", " 'term': 'nucleus'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005739',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'mitochondrion'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005829',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'cytosol'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005829',\n", " 'term': 'cytosol'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005829',\n", " 'term': 'cytosol'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005886',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'plasma membrane'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005886',\n", " 'term': 'plasma membrane'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043005',\n", " 'term': 'neuron projection'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0043231',\n", " 'term': 'intracellular membrane-bounded organelle'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0044297',\n", " 'term': 'cell body'}],\n", " 'MF': [{'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0004672',\n", " 'pubmed': 17563371,\n", " 'term': 'protein kinase activity'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0004674',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'protein serine/threonine kinase activity'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0004674',\n", " 'pubmed': 19667065,\n", " 'term': 'protein serine/threonine kinase activity'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0004709',\n", " 'term': 'MAP kinase kinase kinase activity'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005509',\n", " 'pubmed': 18567582,\n", " 'term': 'calcium ion binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IPI',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005515',\n", " 'pubmed': [12620389,\n", " 15161933,\n", " 16810323,\n", " 16888650,\n", " 17380122,\n", " 17563371,\n", " 17979178,\n", " 18567582,\n", " 20130576,\n", " 20141835,\n", " 21441910,\n", " 21478863,\n", " 22169110,\n", " 22510884,\n", " 22939624,\n", " 23153539,\n", " 23680146,\n", " 23934108,\n", " 24255178,\n", " 24441586,\n", " 24746704,\n", " 25155755,\n", " 25241761,\n", " 25437913,\n", " 25600339,\n", " 26165597,\n", " 26466569,\n", " 26496610,\n", " 27353360],\n", " 'term': 'protein binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005524',\n", " 'term': 'ATP binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IPI',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0031267',\n", " 'pubmed': 12194967,\n", " 'qualifier': 'NOT',\n", " 'term': 'small GTPase binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0031434',\n", " 'term': 'mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IPI',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0042802',\n", " 'pubmed': [16858395, 19727074, 22169110, 22510884, 25155755, 25437913],\n", " 'term': 'identical protein binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0046982',\n", " 'term': 'protein heterodimerization activity'}]},\n", " 'homologene': {'genes': [[6239, 177436],\n", " [7165, 1278538],\n", " [7227, 31221],\n", " [7955, 403065],\n", " [8364, 779570],\n", " [9031, 396239],\n", " [9544, 693554],\n", " [9598, 463781],\n", " [9606, 673],\n", " [9615, 475526],\n", " [9913, 536051],\n", " [10090, 109880],\n", " [10116, 114486]],\n", " 'id': 3197},\n", " 'interpro': [{'desc': 'Protein kinase domain',\n", " 'id': 'IPR000719',\n", " 'short_desc': 'Prot_kinase_dom'},\n", " {'desc': 'Serine-threonine/tyrosine-protein kinase, catalytic domain',\n", " 'id': 'IPR001245',\n", " 'short_desc': 'Ser-Thr/Tyr_kinase_cat_dom'},\n", " {'desc': 'Protein kinase C-like, phorbol ester/diacylglycerol-binding domain',\n", " 'id': 'IPR002219',\n", " 'short_desc': 'PE/DAG-bd'},\n", " {'desc': 'Raf-like Ras-binding',\n", " 'id': 'IPR003116',\n", " 'short_desc': 'RBD_dom'},\n", " {'desc': 'Serine/threonine-protein kinase, active site',\n", " 'id': 'IPR008271',\n", " 'short_desc': 'Ser/Thr_kinase_AS'},\n", " {'desc': 'Protein kinase-like domain superfamily',\n", " 'id': 'IPR011009',\n", " 'short_desc': 'Kinase-like_dom_sf'},\n", " {'desc': 'Protein kinase, ATP binding site',\n", " 'id': 'IPR017441',\n", " 'short_desc': 'Protein_kinase_ATP_BS'},\n", " {'desc': 'Diacylglycerol/phorbol-ester binding',\n", " 'id': 'IPR020454',\n", " 'short_desc': 'DAG/PE-bd'},\n", " {'desc': 'Ubiquitin-like domain superfamily',\n", " 'id': 'IPR029071',\n", " 'short_desc': 'Ubiquitin-like_domsf'}],\n", " 'ipi': 'IPI00303797',\n", " 'map_location': '7q34',\n", " 'name': 'B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase',\n", " 'other_names': ['94 kDa B-raf protein',\n", " 'B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (p94)',\n", " 'B-Raf serine/threonine-protein',\n", " 'murine sarcoma viral (v-raf) oncogene homolog B1',\n", " 'proto-oncogene B-Raf',\n", " 'serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf',\n", " 'v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B',\n", " 'v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1'],\n", " 'pantherdb': {'HGNC': '1097',\n", " 'ortholog': [{'MGI': '88190',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 10090,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'P28028'},\n", " {'RGD': '619908',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 10116,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'F1M9C3'},\n", " {'Ensembl': 'ENSGALG00000012865',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9031,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q04982'},\n", " {'ZFIN': 'ZDB-GENE-040805-1',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 7955,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q1LYG2'},\n", " {'WormBase': 'WBGene00003030',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 6239,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q07292'},\n", " {'FlyBase': 'FBgn0003079',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 7227,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'P11346'},\n", " {'HGNC': '42952',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'V9GXZ4'},\n", " {'HGNC': '26617',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q8NB16'},\n", " {'HGNC': '6850',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q16584'},\n", " {'HGNC': '10019',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q13546'},\n", " {'HGNC': '10020',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'O43353'},\n", " {'HGNC': '6851',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q12852'},\n", " {'HGNC': '6849',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q02779'},\n", " {'HGNC': '6852',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'O43283'},\n", " {'HGNC': '6861',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'P',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'P80192'},\n", " {'dictyBase': 'DDB_G0273445',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'LDO',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 352472,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q86AT8'},\n", " {'dictyBase': 'DDB_G0278909',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'O',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 352472,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q54XI9'},\n", " {'dictyBase': 'DDB_G0289555',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'O',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 352472,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q54HC6'},\n", " {'dictyBase': 'DDB_G0278535',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'O',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 352472,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q54XX5'},\n", " {'TAIR': 'AT4G24480',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'O',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 3702,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'F4JQX7'},\n", " {'TAIR': 'AT5G03730',\n", " 'ortholog_type': 'O',\n", " 'panther_family': 'PTHR44329',\n", " 'taxid': 3702,\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'Q05609'}],\n", " 'uniprot_kb': 'P15056'},\n", " 'pathway': {'kegg': [{'id': 'hsa04010',\n", " 'name': 'MAPK signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04012',\n", " 'name': 'ErbB signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04015',\n", " 'name': 'Rap1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04024',\n", " 'name': 'cAMP signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04062',\n", " 'name': 'Chemokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04068',\n", " 'name': 'FoxO signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04150',\n", " 'name': 'mTOR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04270',\n", " 'name': 'Vascular smooth muscle contraction - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04510', 'name': 'Focal adhesion - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04650',\n", " 'name': 'Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04720',\n", " 'name': 'Long-term potentiation - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04722',\n", " 'name': 'Neurotrophin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04726', 'name': 'Serotonergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04730', 'name': 'Long-term depression - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04810',\n", " 'name': 'Regulation of actin cytoskeleton - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04910',\n", " 'name': 'Insulin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04914',\n", " 'name': 'Progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa04934', 'name': 'Cushing,s syndrome - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05034', 'name': 'Alcoholism - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05160', 'name': 'Hepatitis C - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05200', 'name': 'Pathways in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05205',\n", " 'name': 'Proteoglycans in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05210', 'name': 'Colorectal cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05211', 'name': 'Renal cell carcinoma - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05212', 'name': 'Pancreatic cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05213', 'name': 'Endometrial cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05214', 'name': 'Glioma - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05215', 'name': 'Prostate cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05216', 'name': 'Thyroid cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05218', 'name': 'Melanoma - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05219', 'name': 'Bladder cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05220',\n", " 'name': 'Chronic myeloid leukemia - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05221',\n", " 'name': 'Acute myeloid leukemia - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05223',\n", " 'name': 'Non-small cell lung cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05224', 'name': 'Breast cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05225',\n", " 'name': 'Hepatocellular carcinoma - Homo sapiens (human)'},\n", " {'id': 'hsa05226', 'name': 'Gastric cancer - Homo sapiens (human)'}],\n", " 'netpath': {'id': 'Pathway_EGFR1', 'name': 'EGFR1'},\n", " 'pharmgkb': [{'id': 'PA165959425', 'name': 'Pathway_PA165959425'},\n", " {'id': 'PA165959584', 'name': 'Sorafenib Pharmacodynamics'},\n", " {'id': 'PA165980050', 'name': 'Vemurafenib Pathway, Pharmacodynamics'},\n", " {'id': 'PA165980050', 'name': 'update your name in edit mode'}],\n", " 'pid': [{'id': 'cd8tcrdownstreampathway',\n", " 'name': 'Downstream signaling in naïve CD8+ T cells'},\n", " {'id': 'cdc42_pathway', 'name': 'CDC42 signaling events'},\n", " {'id': 'erbb1_downstream_pathway', 'name': 'ErbB1 downstream signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'fak_pathway',\n", " 'name': 'Signaling events mediated by focal adhesion kinase'},\n", " {'id': 'mapktrkpathway',\n", " 'name': 'Trk receptor signaling mediated by the MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'mtor_4pathway', 'name': 'mTOR signaling pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'pdgfrbpathway', 'name': 'PDGFR-beta signaling pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'tcrraspathway', 'name': 'Ras signaling in the CD4+ TCR pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'vegfr1_2_pathway',\n", " 'name': 'Signaling events mediated by VEGFR1 and VEGFR2'}],\n", " 'reactome': [{'id': 'R-HSA-112314',\n", " 'name': 'Neurotransmitter receptors and postsynaptic signal transmission'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-112315', 'name': 'Transmission across Chemical Synapses'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-112316', 'name': 'Neuronal System'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-1295596', 'name': 'Spry regulation of FGF signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-162582', 'name': 'Signal Transduction'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-162582', 'name': 'Signal Transduction'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-1643685', 'name': 'Disease'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-166520', 'name': 'Signaling by NTRKs'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-169893', 'name': 'Prolonged ERK activation events'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-170968', 'name': 'Frs2-mediated activation'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-170984', 'name': 'ARMS-mediated activation'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-187037', 'name': 'Signaling by NTRK1 (TRKA)'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-187687', 'name': 'Signalling to ERKs'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-187706', 'name': 'Signalling to p38 via RIT and RIN'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-190236', 'name': 'Signaling by FGFR'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-438064', 'name': 'Post NMDA receptor activation events'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-442742',\n", " 'name': 'CREB phosphorylation through the activation of Ras'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-442755',\n", " 'name': 'Activation of NMDA receptors and postsynaptic events'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654726', 'name': 'Negative regulation of FGFR1 signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654727', 'name': 'Negative regulation of FGFR2 signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654732', 'name': 'Negative regulation of FGFR3 signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654733', 'name': 'Negative regulation of FGFR4 signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654736', 'name': 'Signaling by FGFR1'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654738', 'name': 'Signaling by FGFR2'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654741', 'name': 'Signaling by FGFR3'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5654743', 'name': 'Signaling by FGFR4'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5663202', 'name': 'Diseases of signal transduction'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5673000', 'name': 'RAF activation'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5673001', 'name': 'RAF/MAP kinase cascade'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5674135', 'name': 'MAP2K and MAPK activation'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5674499',\n", " 'name': 'Negative feedback regulation of MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5675221', 'name': 'Negative regulation of MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5683057', 'name': 'MAPK family signaling cascades'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-5684996', 'name': 'MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-6802946',\n", " 'name': 'Signaling by moderate kinase activity BRAF mutants'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-6802948',\n", " 'name': 'Signaling by high-kinase activity BRAF mutants'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-6802949', 'name': 'Signaling by RAS mutants'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-6802952', 'name': 'Signaling by BRAF and RAF fusions'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-6802955',\n", " 'name': 'Paradoxical activation of RAF signaling by kinase inactive BRAF'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-6802957', 'name': 'Oncogenic MAPK signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-9006934', 'name': 'Signaling by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases'},\n", " {'id': 'R-HSA-9006934', 'name': 'Signaling by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases'}],\n", " 'smpdb': [{'id': 'SMP00320',\n", " 'name': 'Intracellular Signalling Through Adenosine Receptor A2a and Adenosine'},\n", " {'id': 'SMP00321',\n", " 'name': 'Intracellular Signalling Through Adenosine Receptor A2b and Adenosine'}],\n", " 'wikipathways': [{'id': 'WP185', 'name': 'Integrin-mediated Cell Adhesion'},\n", " {'id': 'WP2032',\n", " 'name': 'Human Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) signaling pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP2261', 'name': 'Signaling Pathways in Glioblastoma'},\n", " {'id': 'WP23', 'name': 'B Cell Receptor Signaling Pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP2355',\n", " 'name': 'Corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP2512', 'name': 'Integrated Lung Cancer Pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP2571', 'name': 'Polycystic Kidney Disease Pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP2828', 'name': 'Bladder Cancer'},\n", " {'id': 'WP306', 'name': 'Focal Adhesion'},\n", " {'id': 'WP3676', 'name': 'BDNF-TrkB Signaling'},\n", " {'id': 'WP382', 'name': 'MAPK Signaling Pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP3929', 'name': 'Chemokine signaling pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP3931', 'name': 'ESC Pluripotency Pathways'},\n", " {'id': 'WP4155', 'name': 'Endometrial cancer'},\n", " {'id': 'WP4205', 'name': 'MET in type 1 papillary renal cell carcinoma'},\n", " {'id': 'WP4216',\n", " 'name': 'Chromosomal and microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer'},\n", " {'id': 'WP422', 'name': 'MAPK Cascade'},\n", " {'id': 'WP437', 'name': 'EGF-EGFR Signaling Pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP51', 'name': 'Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton'},\n", " {'id': 'WP615', 'name': 'Senescence and Autophagy in Cancer'},\n", " {'id': 'WP712', 'name': 'Estrogen signaling pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP722', 'name': 'Serotonin HTR1 Group and FOS Pathway'},\n", " {'id': 'WP734', 'name': 'Serotonin Receptor 4-6-7 and NR3C Signaling'}]},\n", " 'pdb': ['1UWH',\n", " '1UWJ',\n", " '2FB8',\n", " '2L05',\n", " '3C4C',\n", " '3D4Q',\n", " '3IDP',\n", " '3II5',\n", " '3NY5',\n", " '3OG7',\n", " '3PPJ',\n", " '3PPK',\n", " '3PRF',\n", " '3PRI',\n", " '3PSB',\n", " '3PSD',\n", " '3Q4C',\n", " '3Q96',\n", " '3SKC',\n", " '3TV4',\n", " '3TV6',\n", " '4CQE',\n", " '4DBN',\n", " '4E26',\n", " '4E4X',\n", " '4EHE',\n", " '4EHG',\n", " '4FC0',\n", " '4FK3',\n", " '4G9C',\n", " '4G9R',\n", " '4H58',\n", " '4JVG',\n", " '4KSP',\n", " '4KSQ',\n", " '4MBJ',\n", " '4MNE',\n", " '4MNF',\n", " '4PP7',\n", " '4R5Y',\n", " '4RZV',\n", " '4RZW',\n", " '4WO5',\n", " '4XV1',\n", " '4XV2',\n", " '4XV3',\n", " '4XV9',\n", " '4YHT',\n", " '5C9C',\n", " '5CSW',\n", " '5CSX',\n", " '5CT7',\n", " '5FD2',\n", " '5HI2',\n", " '5HID',\n", " '5HIE',\n", " '5ITA',\n", " '5J17',\n", " '5J18',\n", " '5J2R',\n", " '5JRQ',\n", " '5JSM',\n", " '5JT2',\n", " '5VAL',\n", " '5VAM',\n", " '5VR3',\n", " '5VYK',\n", " '6B8U',\n", " '6CAD'],\n", " 'pfam': ['PF00130', 'PF02196', 'PF07714'],\n", " 'pharmgkb': 'PA25408',\n", " 'pharos': {'target_id': 1932},\n", " 'pir': 'A57977',\n", " 'prosite': ['PS50011', 'PS50081', 'PS50898'],\n", " 'reagent': {'GNF_Qia_hs-genome_v1_siRNA': [{'id': 'GNF246467',\n", " 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF246468', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF246469', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF246470', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-Origene': [{'id': 'GNF033097', 'relationship': 'similar to'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF036220', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF046927', 'relationship': 'weakly similar to'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-druggable_lenti-shRNA': [{'id': 'GNF092340', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF092341', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF092342', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-druggable_plasmid-shRNA': [{'id': 'GNF051312',\n", " 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF056078', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF060793', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-druggable_siRNA': [{'id': 'GNF067889', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF067890', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-pkinase_IDT-siRNA': [{'id': 'GNF165248', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF165249', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF165250', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF165251', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_mm+hs-MGC': {'id': 'GNF279495', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " 'Invitrogen_IVTHSSIPKv2': [{'id': 'GNF324655', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF324656', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'NIBRI_hs-Secretome_pDEST': {'id': 'GNF339157', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " 'NOVART_hs-genome_siRNA': [{'id': 'GNF092847', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF132545', 'relationship': 'is'}]},\n", " 'refseq': {'genomic': ['NC_000007.14', 'NG_007873.3'],\n", " 'protein': ['NP_001341538.1',\n", " 'NP_004324.2',\n", " 'XP_016868047.1',\n", " 'XP_016868048.1'],\n", " 'rna': ['NM_001354609.1',\n", " 'NM_004333.5',\n", " 'NR_148928.1',\n", " 'XM_017012558.1',\n", " 'XM_017012559.1',\n", " 'XR_001744857.1',\n", " 'XR_001744858.1'],\n", " 'translation': [{'protein': 'XP_016868047.1', 'rna': 'XM_017012558.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'XP_016868048.1', 'rna': 'XM_017012559.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_001341538.1', 'rna': 'NM_001354609.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_004324.2', 'rna': 'NM_004333.5'}]},\n", " 'reporter': {'HG-U133_Plus_2': ['206044_s_at',\n", " '226391_at',\n", " '236402_at',\n", " '243829_at'],\n", " 'HG-U95Av2': ['1654_at', '40306_at'],\n", " 'HG-U95B': '55694_at',\n", " 'HTA-2_0': ['TC07001926.hg.1', 'TC07001927.hg.1', 'TC07003197.hg.1'],\n", " 'HuEx-1_0': ['2320411', '3076340', '3982172'],\n", " 'HuGene-1_1': ['7897745', '8143417'],\n", " 'HuGene-2_1': ['16659054', '17063631']},\n", " 'summary': 'This gene encodes a protein belonging to the RAF family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERK signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene, most commonly the V600E mutation, are the most frequently identified cancer-causing mutations in melanoma, and have been identified in various other cancers as well, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colorectal cancer, thyroid carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, hairy cell leukemia and adenocarcinoma of lung. Mutations in this gene are also associated with cardiofaciocutaneous, Noonan, and Costello syndromes, which exhibit overlapping phenotypes. A pseudogene of this gene has been identified on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017].',\n", " 'symbol': 'BRAF',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'type_of_gene': 'protein-coding',\n", " 'umls': {'cui': 'C0812241'},\n", " 'unigene': ['Hs.550061', 'Hs.324250', 'Hs.600998', 'Hs.659507', 'Hs.684552'],\n", " 'uniprot': {'Swiss-Prot': 'P15056',\n", " 'TrEMBL': ['H7C4S5',\n", " 'A0A2R8Y8E0',\n", " 'A0A2U3TZI2',\n", " 'A0A2R8Y492',\n", " 'A0A2R8Y467',\n", " 'H7C560',\n", " 'A0A2R8Y679',\n", " 'A0A2R8YES9',\n", " 'H7C5K3',\n", " 'A0A2R8YDP5']},\n", " 'wikipedia': {'url_stub': 'BRAF (gene)'}},\n", " {'query': '1017',\n", " 'HGNC': '1771',\n", " 'MIM': '116953',\n", " 'Vega': 'OTTHUMG00000170575',\n", " '_id': '1017',\n", " '_score': 20.411018,\n", " 'accession': {'genomic': ['AC025162.48',\n", " 'AC034102.32',\n", " 'AF512553.1',\n", " 'AJ223951.1',\n", " 'CH471054.1',\n", " 'KT584459.1',\n", " 'NC_000012.12',\n", " 'NG_034014.1',\n", " 'U50730.2'],\n", " 'protein': ['AAA35667.1',\n", " 'AAH03065.1',\n", " 'AAM34794.1',\n", " 'AAP35467.1',\n", " 'BAA32794.1',\n", " 'BAF84630.1',\n", " 'BAG56780.1',\n", " 'CAA43807.1',\n", " 'CAA43985.1',\n", " 'EAW96856.1',\n", " 'EAW96857.1',\n", " 'EAW96858.1',\n", " 'EAW96859.1',\n", " 'EAW96860.1',\n", " 'NP_001277159.1',\n", " 'NP_001789.2',\n", " 'NP_439892.2',\n", " 'P24941.2',\n", " 'XP_011536034.1'],\n", " 'rna': ['AA789250.1',\n", " 'AA810989.1',\n", " 'AB012305.1',\n", " 'AK291941.1',\n", " 'AK293246.1',\n", " 'BC003065.2',\n", " 'BJ991087.1',\n", " 'BT006821.1',\n", " 'DA814453.1',\n", " 'M68520.1',\n", " 'NM_001290230.1',\n", " 'NM_001798.4',\n", " 'NM_052827.3',\n", " 'X61622.1',\n", " 'X62071.1',\n", " 'XM_011537732.2'],\n", " 'translation': [{'protein': 'BAA32794.1', 'rna': 'AB012305.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'BAF84630.1', 'rna': 'AK291941.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'BAG56780.1', 'rna': 'AK293246.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'AAA35667.1', 'rna': 'M68520.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'AAP35467.1', 'rna': 'BT006821.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'CAA43985.1', 'rna': 'X62071.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'AAH03065.1', 'rna': 'BC003065.2'},\n", " {'protein': 'XP_011536034.1', 'rna': 'XM_011537732.2'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_001277159.1', 'rna': 'NM_001290230.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_001789.2', 'rna': 'NM_001798.4'},\n", " {'protein': 'CAA43807.1', 'rna': 'X61622.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_439892.2', 'rna': 'NM_052827.3'}]},\n", " 'alias': ['CDKN2', 'p33(CDK2)'],\n", " 'ec': '2.7.11.22',\n", " 'ensembl': {'gene': 'ENSG00000123374',\n", " 'protein': ['ENSP00000243067',\n", " 'ENSP00000266970',\n", " 'ENSP00000393605',\n", " 'ENSP00000450983',\n", " 'ENSP00000452138',\n", " 'ENSP00000452514'],\n", " 'transcript': ['ENST00000266970',\n", " 'ENST00000354056',\n", " 'ENST00000440311',\n", " 'ENST00000553376',\n", " 'ENST00000554545',\n", " 'ENST00000554619',\n", " 'ENST00000555357',\n", " 'ENST00000555408',\n", " 'ENST00000556146',\n", " 'ENST00000556276',\n", " 'ENST00000556464',\n", " 'ENST00000556656'],\n", " 'translation': [{'protein': 'ENSP00000266970', 'rna': 'ENST00000266970'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000450983', 'rna': 'ENST00000555408'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000452514', 'rna': 'ENST00000553376'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000393605', 'rna': 'ENST00000440311'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000452138', 'rna': 'ENST00000555357'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000243067', 'rna': 'ENST00000354056'}],\n", " 'type_of_gene': 'protein_coding'},\n", " 'entrezgene': '1017',\n", " 'exac': {'all': {'exp_lof': 14.064243652,\n", " 'exp_mis': 103.582926056,\n", " 'exp_syn': 40.3209373824,\n", " 'lof_z': 3.45076866809409,\n", " 'mis_z': 3.05571457340068,\n", " 'mu_lof': 1.02721752647e-06,\n", " 'mu_mis': 9.19091133625e-06,\n", " 'mu_syn': 3.45583178284e-06,\n", " 'n_lof': 1.0,\n", " 'n_mis': 40.0,\n", " 'n_syn': 40.0,\n", " 'p_li': 0.958299189494179,\n", " 'p_null': 2.00659367791929e-05,\n", " 'p_rec': 0.041680744569042,\n", " 'syn_z': 0.0313334362386},\n", " 'bp': 897,\n", " 'cds_end': 56365409,\n", " 'cds_start': 56360792,\n", " 'n_exons': 7,\n", " 'nonpsych': {'exp_lof': 12.5888844843,\n", " 'exp_mis': 93.611933068,\n", " 'exp_syn': 36.3537267212,\n", " 'lof_z': 3.48454051513261,\n", " 'mis_z': 2.89910545322279,\n", " 'mu_lof': 1.02721752647e-06,\n", " 'mu_mis': 9.19091133625e-06,\n", " 'mu_syn': 3.45583178284e-06,\n", " 'n_lof': 0.0,\n", " 'n_mis': 38.0,\n", " 'n_syn': 36.0,\n", " 'p_li': 0.987477460052364,\n", " 'p_null': 6.18333159581444e-06,\n", " 'p_rec': 0.0125163566160399,\n", " 'syn_z': 0.0369369403215127},\n", " 'nontcga': {'exp_lof': 12.9253985908,\n", " 'exp_mis': 95.282592769,\n", " 'exp_syn': 37.0815586845,\n", " 'lof_z': 3.27214293719079,\n", " 'mis_z': 3.02573046413952,\n", " 'mu_lof': 1.02721752647e-06,\n", " 'mu_mis': 9.19091133625e-06,\n", " 'mu_syn': 3.45583178284e-06,\n", " 'n_lof': 1.0,\n", " 'n_mis': 36.0,\n", " 'n_syn': 38.0,\n", " 'p_li': 0.939863326722736,\n", " 'p_null': 5.01892923357667e-05,\n", " 'p_rec': 0.0600864839849285,\n", " 'syn_z': -0.0954979610569747},\n", " 'transcript': 'ENST00000266970.4'},\n", " 'exons': [{'cdsend': 55971625,\n", " 'cdsstart': 55967008,\n", " 'chr': '12',\n", " 'position': [[55966768, 55967124],\n", " [55968048, 55968169],\n", " [55968777, 55968948],\n", " [55971043, 55971247],\n", " [55971520, 55972789]],\n", " 'strand': 1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_001290230',\n", " 'txend': 55972789,\n", " 'txstart': 55966768},\n", " {'cdsend': 55971625,\n", " 'cdsstart': 55967008,\n", " 'chr': '12',\n", " 'position': [[55966768, 55967124],\n", " [55967856, 55967934],\n", " [55968048, 55968169],\n", " [55968777, 55968948],\n", " [55969474, 55969576],\n", " [55971043, 55971247],\n", " [55971520, 55972789]],\n", " 'strand': 1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_001798',\n", " 'txend': 55972789,\n", " 'txstart': 55966768},\n", " {'cdsend': 55971625,\n", " 'cdsstart': 55967008,\n", " 'chr': '12',\n", " 'position': [[55966768, 55967124],\n", " [55967856, 55967934],\n", " [55968048, 55968169],\n", " [55968777, 55968948],\n", " [55971043, 55971247],\n", " [55971520, 55972789]],\n", " 'strand': 1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_052827',\n", " 'txend': 55972789,\n", " 'txstart': 55966768}],\n", " 'exons_hg19': [{'cdsend': 56365409,\n", " 'cdsstart': 56360792,\n", " 'chr': '12',\n", " 'position': [[56360552, 56360908],\n", " [56361832, 56361953],\n", " [56362561, 56362732],\n", " [56364827, 56365031],\n", " [56365304, 56366573]],\n", " 'strand': 1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_001290230',\n", " 'txend': 56366573,\n", " 'txstart': 56360552},\n", " {'cdsend': 56365409,\n", " 'cdsstart': 56360792,\n", " 'chr': '12',\n", " 'position': [[56360552, 56360908],\n", " [56361640, 56361718],\n", " [56361832, 56361953],\n", " [56362561, 56362732],\n", " [56363258, 56363360],\n", " [56364827, 56365031],\n", " [56365304, 56366573]],\n", " 'strand': 1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_001798',\n", " 'txend': 56366573,\n", " 'txstart': 56360552},\n", " {'cdsend': 56365409,\n", " 'cdsstart': 56360792,\n", " 'chr': '12',\n", " 'position': [[56360552, 56360908],\n", " [56361640, 56361718],\n", " [56361832, 56361953],\n", " [56362561, 56362732],\n", " [56364827, 56365031],\n", " [56365304, 56366573]],\n", " 'strand': 1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_052827',\n", " 'txend': 56366573,\n", " 'txstart': 56360552}],\n", " 'generif': [{'pubmed': 11907280,\n", " 'text': 'Cyclin A/Cdk2 and cyclin E/cdk2 continuously shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12049628,\n", " 'text': 'results argue that TTK-associated CDK2 may function to maintain target-specific phosphorylation of RNA Pol II that is essential for Tat transactivation of HIV-1 promoter'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12081504,\n", " 'text': 'Activation mechanism role of cyclin binding versus phosphorylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12114499,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2/cyclin E is required for Tat-dependent transcription in vitro.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12149264,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 binding to cyclin E is required to drive cells from G(1) into S phase'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12531694,\n", " 'text': 'Interferon gamma reduces the activity of Cdk4 and Cdk2, inhibiting he G1 cell cycle in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12676582,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 is not required for sustained cell division.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12729791,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that the interaction between PKCeta and cyclin E is carefully regulated, and is correlated with the inactivated form of the cyclin E/Cdk2 complex.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12732645,\n", " 'text': 'IRF1 represses CDK2 gene expression by interfering with SP1-dependent transcriptional activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12801928, 'text': 'role in regulating Cdc25A half life'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12810668,\n", " 'text': 'TGF-beta 1 inhibition requires early G(1) induction and stabilization of p21 protein, which binds to & inhibits cyclin E-CDK2 and cyclin A-CDK2 kinase activity rather than direct modulation of cyclin or CDK protein levels as seen in other systems.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12857729,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 has a role in phosphorylation of the NF-Y transcription factor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12912980,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 has a role in the G2 DNA damage checkpoint'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12915577,\n", " 'text': \"Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K-bZIP physically associates with cyclin-CDK2 and downmodulates its kinase activity.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 12947099,\n", " 'text': 'it is evident that B-Myb protein may promote cell proliferation by a non-transcriptional mechanism that involves release of active cyclin/cyclin dependent kinase 2 from cyclin-dependent inhibitor 1C p57(KIP2)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12954644,\n", " 'text': 'Inhibition of Cdk2 by 1,25-(OH)2D3 may thus involve two mechanisms: 1) reduced nuclear Cdk2 available for cyclin binding and activation and 2) impairment of cyclin E-Cdk2-dependent p27 degradation through cytoplasmic mislocalization of Cdk2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14506259,\n", " 'text': 'kinetic insight into the basis for selecting suboptimal specificity determinants for the phosphorylation of cellular substrates'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14536078,\n", " 'text': 'multisite phosphorylation by Cdk2 and GSK3 controls cyclin E degradation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14550307, 'text': 'CDK2 binds to SU9516 at Leu83 and Glu81'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14551212,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 activation process through phosphorylation is examined using 2D PAGE'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14562046,\n", " 'text': 'Epstein-Barr virus can inhibit genotoxin-induced G1 arrest downstream of p53 by preventing the inactivation of CDK2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14612403,\n", " 'text': 'p220 is an essential downstream component of the cyclin E/Cdk2 signaling pathway and functions to coordinate multiple elements of the G1/S transition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14645251,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2-cyclin E, without prior CDK4-cyclin D activity, can phosphorylate and inactivate pRb, activate E2F, and induce DNA synthesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14646596,\n", " 'text': 'significant difference in their biochemical properties between CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A affecting regulation of cellular RB function'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14694185,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, -4, and -6 were down-regulated from the myelocytes/metamyelocytes stages and onward'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14701826,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 complexes have roles in G(1)/S deregulation and tumor progression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14985333,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 regulates beta-catenin phosphorylation/ degradation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15004027,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 and Cdk4 phosphorylate human Cdt1 and induce its degradation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15024385,\n", " 'text': 'Binding to Cdk2-cyclin A is accompanied by p27 folding, and kinetic data suggest a sequential mechanism that is initiated by binding to cyclin A'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15063782,\n", " 'text': 'We also found that cyclin A/CDK2 phosphorylates Axin, thereby enhancing its association with beta-catenin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15159402,\n", " 'text': 'study provides evidence that the cyclin A1-cyclin dependent kinase 2 complex plays a role in several signaling pathways important for cell cycle control and meiosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15178429, 'text': 'interacts with dephosphorylated NIRF'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15199159,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin A-cdk2 plays an ancillary noncatalytic role in the ubiquitination of p27(KIP1) by the SCF(skp2) complex'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15226429,\n", " 'text': 'Results identify an important role for CDK2 in the maintenance of genomic stability, acting via an ATM- and ATR-dependent pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15309028,\n", " 'text': 'after CDK4/6 inactivation, the fate of pancreatic tumor cells depends on the ability to modulate CDK2 activity'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15355984,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that cyclin D1-Cdk2 complexes mediate some of the transforming effects of cyclin D1 and demonstrate that the cyclin D1-Cdk2 fusion protein is a useful model to investigate the biological functions of cyclin D1-Cdk2 complexes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15456866,\n", " 'text': 'These findings establish a novel function for cyclin A1 and CDK2 in DNA double strand break repair following radiation damage.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15572662,\n", " 'text': 'Phosphborylation of progesterone receptor serine 400 mediates ligand-independent transcriptional activity in response to activation of CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15601848,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin A/Cdk2 has a role as a progesterone receptor coactivator'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15607961,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 depletion suppressed growth and cell cycle progression in melanoma and may be a suitable drug target in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15611077,\n", " 'text': 'Inhibition of CDK2 kinase by indole-3-carbinol is accompanied by selective alterations in cyclin E composition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15632290,\n", " 'text': 'molecular dynamics study on the complex CDK2 with the peptide substrate HHASPRK'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15649889,\n", " 'text': 'Results demonstrate that a peptide derived from the alpha5 helix of cyclin A significantly inhibits kinase activity of complexes harboring CDK2, and forms stable complexes with CDK2-cyclin A.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15660127,\n", " 'text': 'crystal structure of phospho-CDK2 in complex with a truncated cyclin E1 (residues 81-363) at 2.25 A resolution'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15665273,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2-BRCA1-Nucleophosmin pathway coordinately functions in cell growth and tumor progression pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15671017,\n", " 'text': 'HTm4 binding to KAP.Cdk2.cyclin A complex enhances the phosphatase activity of KAP, dissociates cyclin A, and facilitates KAP dephosphorylation of Cdk2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15695825,\n", " 'text': 'Results present a comprehensive description of the dynamic behavior of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in complex with cyclin A.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15707957,\n", " 'text': 'Puralpha has been shown to colocalize with cyclin A/Cdk2 and to coimmunoprecipitate with cyclin A during S-phase and we show that this interaction is mediated by a specific affinity of Puralpha for Cdk2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15890360,\n", " 'text': 'Rapid binding of p27 domain 1 to cyclin A tethers the inhibitor to the binary Cdk2/cyclin A complex'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15922732,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 translational down-regulation may be a key regulatory event in replicative senescence of endothelial cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15944161,\n", " 'text': 'origin recognition complex 2 has an unexpected role in CDK2 activation, a linkage that could be important for maintaining genomic stability'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15964852,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 destabilizes p21 via the cy2 cyclin-binding motif and p21 phosphorylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16036217,\n", " 'text': 'Our results demonstrate that differential regulation of Cdc2 and Cdk2 activity by different doses of doxorubicin may contribute to the induction of two modes of cell death in hepatoma cells, either apoptosis or cell death through mitotic catastrophe.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16082200,\n", " 'text': 'CINP is part of the Cdc7-dependent mechanism of origin firing and a functional and physical link between Cdk2 and Cdc7 complexes at the origins'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16082227,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 inhibition modifies the dynamics of chromatin-bound minichromosome maintenance complex and replication protein A'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16085226,\n", " 'text': 'results indicate that CDK2 participates in Tat-mediated HIV-1 transcription and may serve as a potential therapeutic target'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16150942,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 inhibition decreases the efficiency of chemical induction of KSHV lytic transcripts ORF 50 and 26. Importantly, Cdk2 activity is also essential for replication in other human herpesviruses'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16258277,\n", " 'text': 'A new concept indicates in this review that both Cdk2 and/or Cdc2 can drive cells through G1/S phase in parallel.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16262700,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 dependent phosphorylation(s) cannot be a critical trigger of replicon initiation in response to reoxygenation after several hours of hypoxia, at least in the T24 cells studied'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16343435,\n", " 'text': 'We propose that during TNFalpha-induced apoptosis, PKCdelta-mediated phosphorylation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) at (146)Ser attenuates the Cdk2 binding of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and thereby upregulates Cdk2 activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16407256,\n", " 'text': 'molecular analysis of the CDK5/p25 and CDK2/cyclin A systems'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16504183,\n", " 'text': 'Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate the transcriptional activity of FOXM1c; a combination of three phosphorylation sites mediates the Cyclin E and Cyclin A/CDK2 effects.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16540140,\n", " 'text': 'Here, we show that human papillomavirus type 16 16E1--E4 is also able to associate with cyclin A and Cdk2 during the G2 phase of the cell cycle.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16575928,\n", " 'text': 'The interaction between roscovitine and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) was investigated by performing correlated ab initio quantum-chemical calculations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16707497,\n", " 'text': 'the phospho-CDK2/cyclin A recruitment site has a role in substrate recognition'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16762841,\n", " 'text': 'Phosphorylation of the linker histone H1 by CDK regulates its binding to HP1alpha'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16765349,\n", " 'text': 'suggest a novel retinoic acid (RA)-signaling, by which RA-induced p21 induction and complex formation with cyclin E/CDK2 diverts CDK2 function from normally driving proliferation to alternatively promoting apoptosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16824683,\n", " 'text': 'Membrane depolarization may stimulate cellular proliferation by augmenting the expression of cyclin E leading to increases in Cdk2 activity and RB phosphorylation in a neuroblastoma cell line.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16912045,\n", " 'text': 'the Chk1-mediated S-phase checkpoint targets initiation factor Cdc45 via a Cdc25A/Cdk2-independent mechanism'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16912201,\n", " 'text': 'Breast cancer cells lacking cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 are more sensitive to CDK2 inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17001081,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of the NBI1-binding site on cyclin A which inhibits the catalytic activity of the complex cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin A'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17013093,\n", " 'text': 'progression of melanoma is associated with changes in CDK-2 expression level'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17038621,\n", " 'text': 'functional interaction between CDK2 and FOXO1 provides a mechanism that regulates apoptotic cell death after DNA strand breakage'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17095507,\n", " 'text': 'Kinetic and crystallographic analyses of CDK2-cyclin A complexes reveal that this inhibitory mechanism operates through steric blockade of peptide substrate binding.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17207508,\n", " 'text': 'Review highlights an alternative role for CDK2 in the regulation of progesterone receptor signaling.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17293600,\n", " 'text': 'TopBP1 necessary for the G(1)/S transition: one for activating cyclin E/CDK2 kinase and the other for loading replication components onto chromatin to initiate DNA synthesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17361108,\n", " 'text': 'Our results demonstrate that CDK2 is capable of autophosphorylation at Thr160.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17371838,\n", " 'text': 'results argue that Mdm2 is needed for full inhibition of Cdk2 activity by p21, thereby positively contributing to p53-dependent cell cycle arrest'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17386261,\n", " 'text': 'Both Cdk1 and -2 require cyclin binding and T loop phosphorylation for full activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17409409,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17495531,\n", " 'text': 'The structure of phospho-CDK2/cyclin B is reported. pCDK2/cyclin B is less discriminatory in substrate recognition than CDK2/cyclin A & has properties of both an S-phase & an M-phase kinase. CDK2/cyclin B is effective against S phase substrates.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17638878,\n", " 'text': 'ATRIP is a CDK2 substrate, and CDK2-dependent phosphorylation of S224 regulates the ability of ATR-ATRIP to promote cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17713927,\n", " 'text': 'Phosphorylation on a conserved Thr14 can inhibit activities of both the kinases, but phosphorylating another conserved Tyr15, however, can lead to totally opposite inhibition and stimulation consequences in CDK2 and CDK5.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18042686,\n", " 'text': 'The conserved rigid regions are important for nucleotide binding, catalysis, and substrate recognition; most flexible regions correlate with those where large conformational changes occur during CDK2 regulation processes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18156799,\n", " 'text': 'cdk2 activity is necessary for the survival of human DLBCL.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18174243,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18199752,\n", " 'text': 'major Cdk2-dependent multiple gene regulatory events are present in pemphigus vulgar'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18202766,\n", " 'text': 'serum starvation induces G1 arrest through suppression of Skp2-dependent CDK2 activity and Skp2-independent CDK4 activity in human SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18208561,\n", " 'text': 'growth arrest by SmE directly correlates with the reduction of cyclin E, CDK2, CDC25C and CDC2 expression, and up-regulation of p27Kip'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18236071,\n", " 'text': 'Findings strongly demonstrate that retinoblastoma (RB) and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) on one side and cytokeratin 8 (CK8) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) on the other may affect the clinical course of the disease in 56% of patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18276582,\n", " 'text': 'Cyclin E and SV40 small T antigen cooperate to bypass quiescence and contribute to transformation by activating CDK2 in human fibroblasts'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18281541,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18345036,\n", " 'text': 'Bim-mediated apoptosis following actin damage due to deregulation of Cdk2 and the cell cycle by the absence of functional p53.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18372919,\n", " 'text': 'G2 phase cyclin A/cdk2 controls the timing of entry into mitosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/cdk1, but also has an unexpected role in coordinating the activation of cyclin B/cdk1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18400748,\n", " 'text': 'disruption of the spindle-assembly checkpoint does not directly influence p53 activation, but the shortening of the mitotic arrest allows cyclin E-CDK2 to be activated before the accumulation of p21(CIP1/WAF1).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18408738,\n", " 'text': 'Results suggest that GSK-3 regulates nuclear p27 Kip1 expression through downregulation of Skp2 expression and regulates p27 Kip1 assembly with CDK2, playing a critical role in the G0/G1 arrest associated with intestinal cell differentiation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18470542,\n", " 'text': 'The structures of fully active cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2)complexed with ATP and peptide substrate, CDK2 after the catalytic reaction, and CDK2 inhibited by phosphorylation at Thr14/Tyr15 were studied using molecular dynamics simulations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18507837,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18617527,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2-associated complexes, by targeting SHP-1 for proteolysis, counteract the ability of SHP-1 to block cell cycle progression of intestinal epithelial cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18635963,\n", " 'text': 'Cyclin A-CDK activity during G(1) would result in an inhibition of progression into the S phase.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18667424,\n", " 'text': 'the cyclin A-CDK2 complex may be a potential effector of NFATs, specifically NFATc1, in mediating SMC multiplication leading to neointima formation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18784074,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 negatively regulates the activity of hPXR, and suggest an important role for Cdk2 in regulating hPXR activity and CYP3A4 expression in hepatocytes passing through the cell cycle'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18806832,\n", " 'text': 'This suggests an important role for CDK2 in cell cycle regulation in hESCs that are likely to bear significant impacts on the maintenance of their pluripotent phenotype.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18941885,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19061641,\n", " 'text': 'Cyclin A assembles with Cdk1 only after complex formation with Cdk2 reaches a plateau during late S and G2 phases.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19066288,\n", " 'text': 'These findings establish phosphorylation events by CDKs 1 and 2 as key regulators of Discs Large 1 localisation and function.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19091404,\n", " 'text': 'Notch-1 may be mediated through regulating the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin D1, CDK2 and p21 and the activity of Akt signaling'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19101503,\n", " 'text': 'These results demonstrate that double phosphorylation of CDK2 peptides increases the stoichiometry of metal ion binding, and hence may contribute to the previously observed regulation of CDK2 activity by metal ions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19103742,\n", " 'text': 'the pathway of apoptin-induced apoptosis and show that it essentially depends on abnormal phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/Akt activation, resulting in the activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19124506,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19166026,\n", " 'text': 'Overexpression of CDK2 was strongly correlated with abnormal proliferation in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19197163,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that human Cdk2 is a functional homolog for most of Ime2 functions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19201832,\n", " 'text': 'disruption of Smad2 function by CDK2 phosphorylation acts as a mechanism for TGF-beta resistance in multiple myeloma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19258477,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19258477,\n", " 'text': 'Strengthened signals in imputation-based analysis at CDK2 SNPs rs2069391, rs2069414 and rs17528736 lend evidence to the role of cell cycle genes in ovarian cancer etiology.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19321444,\n", " 'text': 'The combination of st and deregulated cyclin E result in cooperative and coordinated activation of both an essential origin licensing factor, CDC6, and an activity required for origin firing, CDK2, resulting in progression from quiescence to S phase.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19440053,\n", " 'text': 'Co-depletion of Cdc6 and p53 in normal cells restored Cdk2 activation and Rb phosphorylation, permitting them to enter S phase with a reduced rate of replication.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19594747,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19596857,\n", " 'text': 'resistance of oral squamous carcinoma to IFNgamma is not due to deficiency in STAT1-dependent signaling but from a defect in the signaling component that mediates IFNgamma-induced down-regulation of CcnA2 and Cdk2 expression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19609547,\n", " 'text': 'Four genes previously not examined in that respect in laryngeal carcinoma, occurred to be good markers of the neoplasm. They are: metal-proteinase ADAM12, cyclin-dependent kinase 2-CDK2, kinesin 14-KIF14, suppressor 1 of checkpoint-CHES1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19631451,\n", " 'text': 'Data demonstrate that the novel anticancer mechanism of hinokitiol involves accumulation of p27, down-regulation of pRb, Skp2, and impairment of Cdk2 function.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19703905,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin A/cdk2-dependent phosphorylation of APC affects astral microtubule attachment to the cortical surface in mitosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19706521,\n", " 'text': 'Results suggest that simple but robust rules encoded in the CDK2 structure play a dominant role in predefining the mechanisms of ligand binding, which may be advantageously exploited in designing inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19723060,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that roscovitine arrests the cell cycle is direct inhibition of CDK1, a mitotic regulator, and CDK2, involved in G1/S transition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19724860,\n", " 'text': 'Overexpression of Notch1 in laryngeal carcinoma cell line was coupled with the downregulation of cdk2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19738611,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19797611,\n", " 'text': 'results show that the expression of UGT1A1 and CYP2B6 is negatively regulated through a CDK2 signaling pathway linked to cell cycle progression in HepG2 and SW480 cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19822658,\n", " 'text': 'Results underscore the crucial role of cyclin A2-CDK2 in regulating the PLK1-SCF(beta-TrCP1)-EMI1-APC/C axis and CDC6 to trigger genome reduplication after the activity of CDK1 is suppressed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19829063,\n", " 'text': 'Since CAC1 interacts with CDK2 and promotes the kinase activity of CDK2 protein, we propose that CAC1 is a novel cell cycle associated protein capable of promoting cell proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19838212,\n", " 'text': 'Chk1 signalling causes centrosome amplification after ionizing radiation by upregulating Cdk2 activity through activating phosphorylation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19838216,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that SHP-1 knockdown increases p27stability, decreases the CDK6 levels, inducing retinoblastoma protein hypophosphorylation, downregulation of cyclin E and thereby a decrease in the CDK2 activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19854217,\n", " 'text': 'expression upregulation is critical for TLR9-stimulated proliferation of kung cancer cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19858290,\n", " 'text': 'Export was also reduced by Cdk inhibition or cyclin A RNA interference, suggesting that cyclin A/Cdk complexes contribute to Wee1 export.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19885547,\n", " 'text': 'aberrant regulation of S100P in HCC might activate cyclin D1 and CDK expression and contribute to the mitogenic potential of tumor cells during Hepatocellular carcinoma carcinogenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19960406,\n", " 'text': 'Cellular production of IGFBP-3 leads to G1 cell cycle arrest with inhibition of CDK2 and CDK4.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19966300,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that Myc repressed Ras-induced senescence, and that Cdk2 interacted with Myc at promoters, where it affected Myc-dependent regulation of genes, including those of proteins known to control senescence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20017906, 'text': 'FUS-DDIT3 and the normal DDIT3 bind CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20062077,\n", " 'text': 'Results directly show that the inhibition of Cdk1 activity and the persistence of Cdk2 activity in G2 cells induces endoreplication without mitosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20068231,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that most of the up-regulated sites phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent CDK1 or CDK2 were almost fully phosphorylated in mitotic cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20079829,\n", " 'text': 'the nitric oxide-mediated biphasic effect was dependent on Cdk2 nitrosylation/activation and the loss of mitochondrial potential'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20147522,\n", " 'text': 'central roles for CDK2 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking and cyclin E in the mechanism of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated growth inhibition in prostate cancer cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20195506,\n", " 'text': 'These findings demonstrate that Cdk2 maintains a balance of S-phase regulatory proteins and thereby coordinates subsequent p53-independent G(2)/M checkpoint activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20399812,\n", " 'text': 'Data describe the properties of a mutant form of Cdk2 identified during large-scale sequencing of protein kinases from cancerous tissue.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20422243,\n", " 'text': 'Triticum aestivum-5B2 (( Ta ) 5B2) is suggested to be a wheat analogue of human CDK2 enzyme.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20444741,\n", " 'text': 'Conclude that cisplatin likely activates both caspase-dependent and -independent cell death, and Cdk2 is required for both pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20465575,\n", " 'text': 'In addition to having a pivotal role in the up-regulation of IL-2 and IL-2RA gene expression, IKK controls the expression of cyclin D3, cyclin E and CDK2, and the stability SKP2 and its co-factor CKS1B, through mechanisms independent of IL-2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20508983,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20512928,\n", " 'text': 'Hr and VDR interact via multiple protein-protein interfaces, catalyzing histone demethylation to effect chromatin remodeling and repress the transcription of VDR target genes that control the hair cycle.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20694007,\n", " 'text': 'protein phosphatase 1 competition with Cdk-cyclins for retinoblastoma protein(Rb) binding is sufficient to retain Rb activity and block cell-cycle advancement.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20711190,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), especially Cdk1 and Cdk2, promote interphase nuclear pore complex formation in human dividing cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20844047,\n", " 'text': 'Nuclear export of HPV31 E1 is inhibited by Cdk2 phosphorylation at two serines residues, S92 and S106.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20935635,\n", " 'text': 'The results demonstrate that CDK2-mediated phosphorylation is a key mechanism governing EZH2 function and that there is a link between the cell-cycle machinery and epigenetic gene silencing.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21048031,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21062975,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that miR-302 simultaneously suppressed both the cyclin E-CDK2 and cyclin D-CDK4/6 pathways to block>70% of the G1-S cell cycle transition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21099355,\n", " 'text': 'Overexpression of human Cdk2 resulted in a defect in the G1 to S transition and a reduction in viability.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21233845,\n", " 'text': 'MicroRNA miR-885-5p targets CDK2 and MCM5, activates p53 and inhibits proliferation and survival.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21262353,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 functions via a Cdk2/SHP-1/beta-catenin/CEACAM1 axis, and show that Cdk2 has the capacity to regulate insulin internalization.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21264535,\n", " 'text': 'XPD may play an important role in cell apoptosis of hepatoma by inducing an over-expression of p53, but suppressing expressions of c-myc and cdk2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21319273,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 downregulation causes high apoptosis at the early time points'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21325496,\n", " 'text': 'Conclude that in cisplatin induced-kidney injury phosphorylation of p21 by Cdk2 limits the effectiveness of p21 to inhibit Cdk2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21454540,\n", " 'text': 'the ability of Emi1 to inhibit APC/C is negatively regulated by CDKs'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21515670,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin E and CDK2 genes are key physiological effectors of the c-ETS1 proto-oncogene. Furthermore, c-ETS1 is indispensable for the hepatotropic action of HBx in cell cycle deregulation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21565702,\n", " 'text': 'Transient binding of a second catalytic magnesium activates the structure and dynamics of CDK2 kinase for catalysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21596315,\n", " 'text': 'The deubiquitinase USP37 binds CDH1 and removes degradative polyubiquitin from cyclin A. USP37 was induced by E2F factors in G1, peaked at G1/S, and was degraded in late mitosis. Phosphorylation of USP37 by CDK2 stimulated its full activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21646351,\n", " 'text': 'anti-oncogenic role of miR-372 may be through control of cell growth and cell cycle progression by down-regulating the cell cycle genes CDK2 and cyclin A1'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21658603, 'text': 'Cdk2 is required for cell proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21769424,\n", " 'text': 'RT-PCR and Western blotting results revealed that both mRNA and protein levels of CDK2 were significantly higher in tumor tissues.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21871181,\n", " 'text': 'NF-Y binds to CCAAT sequences in the Cyclin A promoter, as well as to those in the promoters of cell cycle G2 regulators such as CDC2, Cyclin B and CDC25C.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21918011,\n", " 'text': 'Epstein-Barr virus Rta-mediated transactivation of p21 and 14-3-3sigma arrests cells at the G1/S transition by reducing cyclin E/CDK2 activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21941773,\n", " 'text': 'The expression level of CDK2 protein did not change significantly in silica-induced human embryo lung fibroblasts.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21965652,\n", " 'text': 'excess of MCM3 up-regulates the phosphorylation of CHK1 Ser-345 and CDK2 Thr-14.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22084169,\n", " 'text': 'The S-phase-specific cyclin-dependent kinase 2 was required for robust activation of ATR in response to diverse chemotherapeutic agents.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22231403,\n", " 'text': 'The authors show that, in human and mouse, Mre11 controls these events through a direct interaction with CDK2 that is required for CtIP phosphorylation and BRCA1 interaction in normally dividing cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22467868,\n", " 'text': 'Lin-28 homologue A (LIN28A) promotes cell cycle progression via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin D1 (CCND1), and cell division cycle 25 homolog A (CDC25A) expression in cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22474407,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 inhibition drastically diminishes anchorage-independent growth of human cancer cells and cells transformed with various oncogenes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22479189,\n", " 'text': 'low molecular weight cyclin E (LMW-E) requires CDK2-associated kinase activity to induce mammary tumor formation by disrupting acinar development'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22673765,\n", " 'text': 'The activation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) was significantly up-regulated over time, but there was no change in the level of CDK2 expression by treatment of HEK293 cells with various concentrations of veterinary antibiotics.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22718829,\n", " 'text': 'Human cytomegalovirus IE1/2 expression was downregulated by cyclin A2, CDK1 and CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22819841,\n", " 'text': 'exposure of cancer cells (such as HeLa and MCF7 cells) to H2O2 increased CDK2 activity with no accompanying change in the PCNA level, leading to cell proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22927831,\n", " 'text': 'By a chemical-genetic approach study identified Nbs1 as a target of Cdk2, and mapped the phosphorylation to a conserved CDK consensus recognition site.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22951823,\n", " 'text': 'cellular CDK2 phosphorylates the functionally critical S/T-P sites of the hepadnavirus core CTD and is incorporated into viral capsids'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23028682,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin A-Cdk2 regulates apoptosis through a mechanism that involves Rad9phosphorylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23065011,\n", " 'text': 'human papillomavirus E4 proteins can interact with cyclin A and cdk2, which may contribute to viral manipulation of the host cell cycle.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23082202,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 also binds the N-terminal domain of Fbw7-gamma as well as SLP-1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23140174,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 phosphorylates CDK9 on Ser 90 and thereby contributes to HIV-1 transcription.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23184662,\n", " 'text': 'EEF2 phosphorylation by cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) on a novel site, serine 595 (S595), directly regulates T56 phosphorylation by eEF2K.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23185313,\n", " 'text': 'This study aimed to explore the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CDK2 and CCNE1 on breast cancer risk, progression and survival in a Chinese Han population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23230143,\n", " 'text': 'Findings revealed a novel function of simultaneous p27 and CDK2 cytoplasmic mislocalization in mediating growth-factor-regulated cell proliferation, migration and invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23300027,\n", " 'text': 'possible relationship between the CDK2 deleterious variants and the drug-binding ability'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23321641,\n", " 'text': 'Constitutive Cdk2 activity promotes aneuploidy while altering the spindle assembly and tetraploidy checkpoints.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23390492,\n", " 'text': 'Constitutive CCND1/CDK2 expression contributes to neoplastic mammary epithelial cell transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23390529,\n", " 'text': 'The prolyl isomerase Pin1 acts synergistically with CDK2 to regulate the basal activity of estrogen receptor alpha in breast cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23446853,\n", " 'text': 'Aurora-A kinase-induced centrosome amplification was mediated by Cdk2 kinase.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23479742,\n", " 'text': 'the up-regulation of CDK2 by CUL4B is achieved via the repression of miR-372 and miR-373, which target CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23532886,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that TG02 blocked signaling by CDKs 1, 2, 7, and 9 and ERK5, leading to potent and highly consistent antimyeloma activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23643165,\n", " 'text': 'The expression of CDK2 mRNA significantly decreased in P(CDK2-siRNA).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23671119,\n", " 'text': 'A specific and essential roles for Cdk2 inhibitory phosphorylation in the successful execution of the replication stress checkpoint response and in maintaining genome integrity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23720738,\n", " 'text': 'MCM7 is a substrate of cyclin E/Cdk2 and can be phosphorylated on Ser-121.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23727278,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that different binding sites of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2) contributing towards the binding of inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23737759,\n", " 'text': 'CDK7 involved in phosphorylation/activation of CDK4 and CDK6; existence of CDK4-activating kinase(s) other than CDK7; and novel CDK7-dependent positive feedbacks mediated by p21 phosphorylation by CDK4 and CDK2 to sustain CDK4 activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23776131,\n", " 'text': 'FBXO28 activity and stability are regulated during the cell cycle by CDK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of FBXO28, which is required for its efficient ubiquitylation of MYC.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23781148,\n", " 'text': 'antitumor effects of DOC-1R may be mediated by negatively regulating G1 phase progression and G1/S transition through inhibiting CDK2 expression and activation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23787073,\n", " 'text': 'This study indicates that genetic polymorphisms of AURKA, BRCA1 and CCNE1 may affect ovarian cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han women.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24075009,\n", " 'text': 'Cells decide at the end of mitosis to either start the next cell cycle by immediately building up CDK2 activity or to enter a transient G0-like state by suppressing CDK2 activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24204256,\n", " 'text': 'PKC activation then triggered activation of cdk-2, which became further activated by caspase-3.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24216307,\n", " 'text': 'Two nuclear export signals of Cdc6 work cooperatively and distinctly for the cytoplasmic translocation of Cdc6 phosphorylated by cyclin A/Cdk2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24240190,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 knockdown alters the profile of Rb phosphorylation in coronary artery smooth muscle cells, as well as the proliferative response of these cells to mitogenic stimulation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24386425,\n", " 'text': 'Of the total, the deregulation of several genes (CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, MCM2, MCM3, MCM4, EIF3a and RPN2) were potentially associated with disease development and progression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24444383,\n", " 'text': 'MYC-dependent breast cancer cells possess high MYC expression and high level of MYC phosphorylation, but are not sensitive to inhibition of CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24520316,\n", " 'text': 'CRIF1 may play a regulatory role in the BM microenvironment-induced leukemia cell cycle arrest possibly through interacting with CDK2 and acting as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24623419,\n", " 'text': 'Authors identified and validated two additional host proteins interacting with human SAMHD1, namely, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24671051,\n", " 'text': 'Expression of Notch1, -2, and -3, CDK2, and CCNE1 was significantly decreased by upregulation of ALDH1A1 in A549 cells, but increased by its interruption in A549s cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24700371,\n", " 'text': 'In the subsequent molecular experiments, western blot analysis and kinase activity detection demonstrated that TAMs can significantly boost the expression levels and activities of CDK2 and CDK4 in SKOV3 cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24820417,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that CDK2 phosphorylates Thr-156 in GATA3.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24911186,\n", " 'text': 'Report structure-based discovery of allosteric inhibitors of CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24922574,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 Supports HIV-1 Reverse Transcription in CD4+ T Cells.HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Is a Substrate for CDK2-Dependent Phosphorylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24935000,\n", " 'text': 'It is concluded that non-response to everolimus is characterized by increased cdk2/cyclin A, driving RCC cells into the G2/M-phase. VPA hinders everolimus non-response by diminishing cdk2/cyclin A.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24947816,\n", " 'text': 'More effective packing and interactions between CDK2 and LMW cyclin E isoforms, however, produce more efficient protein-protein complexes that accelerate the cell division processes in cancer cells, where these cyclin E isoforms are overexpressed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25015816,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 was strongly linked to cell cycle progression and coordinated SAMHD1 phosphorylation and inactivation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25071185,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk1 activity blocks lysosomal degradation of HIF-1alpha and increases HIF-1alpha protein stability and transcriptional activity. By contrast, Cdk2 activity promotes lysosomal degradation of HIF-1alpha at the G1/S phase transition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25136960,\n", " 'text': 'A positive correlation between cdk2/cyclin A expression level and tumor growth. Amygdalin, therefore, may block tumor growth.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25149358,\n", " 'text': 'for both oncogene- and DNA damage-induced cellular senescence, CDK2 transcript and protein are decreased in a p53- and RB-dependent manner, and this repression is necessary for cell-cycle exit during senescence'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25154617,\n", " 'text': 'Which is mutated at the CDK2 phosphorylation site.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25218592,\n", " 'text': 'The Cell Cycle Profiling - Risk Score (C2P-RS) based on CDK1 and CDK2 specific activities was significantly associated with relapse in breast cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25218637,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that tumour suppressor RASSF1A triggers large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS)-CDK2 interaction and restricts CDK2 kinase activity towards BRCA2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25220500,\n", " 'text': 'Cyclin A2 and its associated kinase (CDK2) activity are required for optimal induction of progesterone receptor target genes in breast cancer cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25265349,\n", " 'text': 'High CDK2 expression is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25271736,\n", " 'text': 'observations suggested that androgen suppresses the proliferation of CRPC cells partially through inhibition of Cyclin A, Cdk2, and Skp2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25303791,\n", " 'text': 'TPPII, MYBBP1A and CDK2 form a protein-protein interaction network.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25410660,\n", " 'text': 'Inhibition of CDK2 phosphorylation blocked phosphorylation of hnRNP K, preventing its incorporation into stress granules (SGs). Due to interaction between hnRNP K with TDP-43, the loss of hnRNP K from SGs prevented accumulation of TDP-43.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25443276,\n", " 'text': 'At a median follow-up of 36 months (1-109M), tumor with low CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio showed significantly better 5-year recurrence-free survival than those with high CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio (88.7% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.00141).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25451924,\n", " 'text': 'miR-638 regulates proliferation and myeloid differentiation by targeting CDK2 and may serve as a novel target for leukemia therapy or marker for AML diagnosis and prognosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25463638,\n", " 'text': 'No association of CDK2 polymorphisms with risk of endometrial carcinoma found in Chinese Han women.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25501982,\n", " 'text': 'HOXA7 promotes cell proliferation, and these changes are mediated by cyclin E1/CDK2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25541464,\n", " 'text': 'Using the fact that deletion of the yeast CDC28 gene is functionally complemented by human CDK1 or CDK2, we set up an in vivo screen system to evaluate the inhibitory potency of purine derivatives against these two human Cdks.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25728284,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 up-regulates the protein level of KLF10 through reducing its association with SIAH1, a KLF10 E3-ubiqutin ligase involved in proteasomal degradation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25744732,\n", " 'text': 'Diclofenac and curcumin overcome these carcinogenic effects by downregulating telomerase activity, diminishing the expression of TERT, CDK4, CDK2, cyclin D1, and cyclin E.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25754137,\n", " 'text': 'The docking and molecular dynamics investigation performed here led to the identification of the interactions responsible for stabilizing the ligand ChEMBL474807 at the active sites of the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3) and cyclin-dependent kinase-2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25808870,\n", " 'text': 'CP110 plays a mechanistic role in response of lung cancer cells to CDK2 inhibition, especially in the presence of activated KRAS mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25832654,\n", " 'text': 'NUAK2 silencing and inactivation of the PI3K pathway efficiently controlled CDK2 expression, whereas CDK2 inactivation specifically abrogated the growth of NUAK2-amplified and PTEN-deficient melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25860957,\n", " 'text': 'Identified ING5 as a novel CDK2 substrate. ING5 is phosphorylated at a single site, threonine 152, by cyclin E/CDK2 and cyclin A/CDK2. This site is also phosphorylated in cells in a cell cycle dependent manner, consistent with it being a CDK2 substrate.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25918937,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of the conformational characteristics and ligand binding mechanisms of CDK2 [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26026083,\n", " 'text': 'G1 arrest induced by SB265610 occurred at concentrations lacking CXCR2 selectivity and revealed cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) (Thr160) hypophosphorylation, cyclin D3 gene down-regulation, and p21 post-translational induction'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26028036,\n", " 'text': 'our study reveals a novel function of CDK2 in EGF-induced cell transformation and the associated signal transduction pathways. This indicates that CDK2 is a useful molecular target for the chemoprevention and therapy against skin cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26124340,\n", " 'text': 'We found no significant associations for CDKN2 p16 580 C>T and MDM2 SNP309 T>G variants between cases and controls.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26139602,\n", " 'text': 'Sox2 phosphorylation by Cdk2 promotes the establishment but not the maintenance of the pluripotent state.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26147897,\n", " 'text': 'fluspirilene is a potential CDK2 inhibitor and a candidate anti-cancer drug for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26151768,\n", " 'text': 'In G28 cells, a dosedependent induction of CDK2, p21 and cyclin D was observed between 10 and 50 microM roscovitine after 72 h, however, at the highest concentration of 100 microM, all investigated genes were downregulated.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26204491,\n", " 'text': 'ovary tumors with elevated CCNE1 expression may be staged for Cdk2-targeted therapy'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26248649,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that miR-200c plays an antioncogenic role in clear cell renal cell carcinomas, through controlling cell growth and cell-cycle progression by downregulating the G1-S regulator CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26297806,\n", " 'text': 'Centriolar satellites build a centrosomal microcephaly protein complex critical for human neurodevelopment that promotes CDK2 centrosomal localization and centriole duplication.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26304236,\n", " 'text': 'show thata combining cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) antagonism and ubiquitin thioesterase 33 (USP33) depletion augments anaphase catastrophe via changes in centrosomal protein of 110 kDa (CP110) protein expression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26373553,\n", " 'text': 'PIWIL2 has a role in promoting progression of non-small cell lung cancer by inducing CDK2 and Cyclin A expression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26464264,\n", " 'text': 'the results suggest that CK1delta activity can be modulated by the interplay between CK1delta and CDK2/E or CDK5/p35.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26555773,\n", " 'text': 'both cell lines feature a significant reduction of CDK2 expression verified at the RNA and protein level, respectively'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26595527,\n", " 'text': 'Inappropriate activation of CDK2 in S phase underlies the sensitivity of a subset of cell lines to Chk1 inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26644182,\n", " 'text': 'PHD1 is phosphorylated by CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 at Serine 130.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26652902,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 and DNA-PK regulate PR transcriptional activity by distinct mechanisms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26677902,\n", " 'text': 'Clioquinol suppressed cell cycle progression in the S-phase in SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells via the p21, p27-cyclin E,A/Cdk2 pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26714749,\n", " 'text': 'SATB2 regulates the mitosis of cell cycle and affects G1 cell cycle via interaction with CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26730572,\n", " 'text': 'A novel link has been discussed between CDK2 expression and cell migration by characterizing the CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of BRMS1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26828990,\n", " 'text': 'The expression of cdk2 in malignancy of ovarian tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26857166,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 controls a wide-spread epigenetic program that drives transcription at differentiation-related gene promoters specifically in G1. (Review)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26861625,\n", " 'text': 'Foxo3 circular RNA retards cell cycle progression via forming ternary complexes with p21 and CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26876672,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 protects podocytes from apoptosis and reduced expression of CDK2 associates with the development of diabetic nephropathy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26890070,\n", " 'text': 'Consistent with these findings, a genome-scale pooled RNA interference screen revealed that toxic doses of MK-1775 are suppressed by CDK2 or Cyclin A2 knockdown. These findings support G2 exit as the more significant effect of Wee1 inhibition in pancreatic cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26960431,\n", " 'text': 'Study describes a positive feedback loop centred on cyclin A2-Cdk2 inhibition of interphase APC/C-Cdc20 to allow further cyclin A2 accumulation and mitotic entry.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27065328,\n", " 'text': 'Here, we found that centrosomal protein of 76 kDa (Cep76), previously shown to restrain centriole amplification, interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and is a bona fide substrate of this kinase. Cep76 is preferentially phosphorylated by cyclin A/CDK2 at a single site S83, and this event is crucial to suppress centriole amplification in S phase'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27100206,\n", " 'text': 'These two states are separated by different metastable states that share hybrid structural features with both forms of the kinase. In contrast, the CDK2/ANS complex landscape is compatible with a conformational selection picture where the binding of ANS in proximity of the alphaC helix causes a population shift toward the inactive conformation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27109354,\n", " 'text': 'evidence that CDK1/2 participate in the regulation of constitutive pre-mRNA splicing by EGF stimulation in MDA-MB-468 cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27163259,\n", " 'text': 'a SUMO-deficient Rb mutant results in reduced SUMOylation and phosphorylation, weakened CDK2 binding, and attenuated E2F-1 sequestration.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27166195,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that Noxa-mediated MCL-1 phosphorylation and degradation is regulated by CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27259234,\n", " 'text': \"Findings suggest that ERK1/2-mediated Cdk2/cyclin A signaling pathway is involved in 7-hydroxy-5,4'-dimethoxy-2-arylbenzofuran (Ary) - induced G1/S-phase arrest.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 27285764,\n", " 'text': 'WHSC1L1 and H3K36me2 are enriched in the gene bodies of the cell cycle-related genes CDC6 and CDK2, implying that WHSC1L1 directly regulates the transcription of these gene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27378523,\n", " 'text': 'this study suggests that CDK2 and CDK9 are potential therapeutic targets in Neuroblastoma (NB) and that abrogating CDK2 and CDK9 activity by small molecules like dinaciclib is a promising strategy and a treatment option for NB patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27402161,\n", " 'text': 'periodic phosphorylation of Ku70 by cyclin-cyclin dependent kinases prevents the interaction of Ku with replication origin after initiation events in S-phase.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27465546,\n", " 'text': 'The upregulation of miR-302b reduced the expression of CDK2, and inhibited ERK signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation and G1/S phase conversion rate.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27629878,\n", " 'text': 'Dsg2 knockdown arrests non-small cell lung cancer cell cycle progression via modulation of p27-CDK2 levels.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27663592,\n", " 'text': 'Analysis of genomic data from TCGA demonstrated coamplification of CCNE1 and AKT2 Overexpression of Cyclin E1 and AKT isoforms, in addition to mutant TP53, imparted malignant characteristics in untransformed fallopian tube secretory cells, the dominant site of origin of high-grade serous ovarian cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27819669,\n", " 'text': 'Here, we introduce a transcriptional signature to specifically track CDK2 activity. It responds to genetic and chemical perturbations in the CDK-RB-E2F axis, correlates with mitotic rate in vitro and in vivo and reacts rapidly to changes in CDK2 activity during cell cycle progression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27831832,\n", " 'text': 'The data presented here suggest that the temporal separation of pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways by selective inhibition of CDK2 disrupts coherent signaling modules and may synergize with anti-proliferative drugs, averting toxic side effects from CDK1 inhibition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28003546,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 phosphorylates polyQ-AR specifically at Ser(96). Phosphorylation of polyQ-AR by CDK2 increased protein stabilization and toxicity and is negatively regulated by the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A signaling pathway in spinobulbar muscular atrophy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28030798,\n", " 'text': 'Date show that when Wee1 alone is inhibited, Chk1 suppresses CDC45 loading and thereby limits the extent of unscheduled replication initiation and subsequent S-phase DNA damage, despite very high CDK-activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28100774,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 serves as an important nexus linking primary beta-cell dysfunction to progressive beta-cell mass deterioration in diabetes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28345297,\n", " 'text': 'Residual Cdk1/Cdk2 activity after DNA damage promotes cell senescence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28350121,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that cyclin E1 and CDK2 participate in STC1 promoting cell proliferation of prostate neoplasm cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28430399,\n", " 'text': 'These compounds bind CDK2/ Cyclin A, inhibit its kinase activity, compete with substrate binding, but not with ATP, and dock onto the T-loop of CDK2. The best compound also binds CDK4 and CDK4/Cyclin D1, but not CDK1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28666995,\n", " 'text': 'The authors find that Spy1 confers structural changes to Cdk2 that obviate the requirement of Cdk activation loop phosphorylation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28760857,\n", " 'text': 'High CDK2 expression is associated with breast cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28842430,\n", " 'text': 'identified a new phosphorylation-based substrate recognition mechanism of PTPN12 by CDK2, which orchestrated signaling crosstalk between the oncogenic CDK2 and HER2 pathways'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29157894,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 contributes to S81-AR phosphorylation and transactivation while CDK4 was not shown to be involved in this process.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29203878,\n", " 'text': 'ATM and CDK2 control the chromatin remodeling activity of CSB in the regulation of double strand break repair pathway choice.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29254517,\n", " 'text': 'The authors show that human Cyclin-Dependent-Kinases (CDKs) target the RAD9 subunit of the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp on Thr292, to modulate DNA damage checkpoint activation. Thr292 phosphorylation on RAD9 creates a binding site for Polo-Like-Kinase1 (PLK1), which phosphorylates RAD9 on Thr313.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29323532,\n", " 'text': 'Among these genes, STAT3 and CDK2 were significantly associated with recurrence. Further study suggested that inhibition of CDK2 reduced invasion of Pca cell lines. The invasion ability was rescued after reintroduction of CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29328425,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 may have key functions in neuroblastoma progression by regulating the expression of neoplastic genes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29372687,\n", " 'text': 'Our findings provide a rationale for clinical use of Bcl-2 family inhibitors in combination with CDK2 inhibitors for treatment of Mcl-1-dependent colorectal tumours associated with expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bcl-w proteins. In addition, we have shown potential of CDK2 inhibitors for treatment of tumours expressing R273H mutant p53.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29507054,\n", " 'text': 'Proteomics and phosphoproteomics analyses identified CDK2 as a driver of resistance to both BRAF and Hsp90 inhibitors and its expression is regulated by the transcription factor MITF upon XL888 treatment of melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29570358,\n", " 'text': 'LINC00958 acts as an oncogenic gene in the gliomagenesis through miR-203-CDK2 regulation, providing a novel insight into glioma tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29896817,\n", " 'text': 'The roles of the CDK2/SIRT5 axis in gastric cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 30300385,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 gene is a strong candidate gene for type-2 diabetes. CDK2 gene is located in a risk area composed of 4 blocks in strong LD around the type-2 diabetes SNP rs2069408. CDK2 overexpression inhibits the association of insulin receptor to the microtubule components, tubulin alpha and tubulin beta. Physical association of the insulin receptor complex with CDK2 is inhibited by the expression of tyrosine phosphatase PTPLAD1.'}],\n", " 'genomic_pos': {'chr': '12',\n", " 'end': 55972784,\n", " 'ensemblgene': 'ENSG00000123374',\n", " 'start': 55966769,\n", " 'strand': 1},\n", " 'genomic_pos_hg19': {'chr': '12',\n", " 'end': 56366568,\n", " 'start': 56360553,\n", " 'strand': 1},\n", " 'go': {'BP': [{'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000082',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000082',\n", " 'term': 'G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle'},\n", " {'evidence': 'NAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000086',\n", " 'pubmed': 1653904,\n", " 'term': 'G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000086',\n", " 'term': 'G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000122',\n", " 'term': 'negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006260',\n", " 'pubmed': 19238148,\n", " 'term': 'DNA replication'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006281',\n", " 'term': 'DNA repair'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006468',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'protein phosphorylation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006468',\n", " 'pubmed': [12944431, 28666995],\n", " 'term': 'protein phosphorylation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006813',\n", " 'term': 'potassium ion transport'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006977',\n", " 'term': 'DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IMP',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0007099',\n", " 'pubmed': 26297806,\n", " 'term': 'centriole replication'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEP',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0007265',\n", " 'pubmed': 9054499,\n", " 'term': 'Ras protein signal transduction'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0008284',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of cell proliferation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0008284',\n", " 'pubmed': 10767298,\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of cell proliferation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0010389',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'regulation of G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0016572',\n", " 'pubmed': 11746698,\n", " 'term': 'histone phosphorylation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0018105',\n", " 'pubmed': 23184662,\n", " 'term': 'peptidyl-serine phosphorylation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0031145',\n", " 'term': 'anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0031571',\n", " 'pubmed': 21319273,\n", " 'term': 'mitotic G1 DNA damage checkpoint'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0032298',\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of DNA-dependent DNA replication initiation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0045893',\n", " 'term': 'positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0051298',\n", " 'pubmed': 19238148,\n", " 'term': 'centrosome duplication'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0051301',\n", " 'term': 'cell division'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0051321',\n", " 'pubmed': 19238148,\n", " 'term': 'meiotic cell cycle'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0060968',\n", " 'pubmed': 20935635,\n", " 'term': 'regulation of gene silencing'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0071732',\n", " 'pubmed': 20079829,\n", " 'term': 'cellular response to nitric oxide'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:1901796',\n", " 'term': 'regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator'}],\n", " 'CC': [{'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000307',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000307',\n", " 'pubmed': [1312467, 8692841],\n", " 'term': 'cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000781',\n", " 'term': 'chromosome, telomeric region'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000793',\n", " 'term': 'condensed chromosome'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000805',\n", " 'term': 'X chromosome'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000806',\n", " 'term': 'Y chromosome'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005634',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'nucleus'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005634',\n", " 'pubmed': 10767298,\n", " 'term': 'nucleus'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005654',\n", " 'pubmed': 8245034,\n", " 'term': 'nucleoplasm'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005654',\n", " 'term': 'nucleoplasm'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005667',\n", " 'term': 'transcription factor complex'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005737',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'cytoplasm'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005737',\n", " 'pubmed': 10767298,\n", " 'term': 'cytoplasm'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005768',\n", " 'pubmed': 21262353,\n", " 'term': 'endosome'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005813',\n", " 'term': 'centrosome'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005813',\n", " 'pubmed': 19238148,\n", " 'term': 'centrosome'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0005829',\n", " 'term': 'cytosol'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0015030',\n", " 'pubmed': 10995387,\n", " 'term': 'Cajal body'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0097123',\n", " 'term': 'cyclin A1-CDK2 complex'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0097124',\n", " 'pubmed': [1312467, 8876165, 11746698, 15024385],\n", " 'term': 'cyclin A2-CDK2 complex'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0097134',\n", " 'term': 'cyclin E1-CDK2 complex'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'CC',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0097135',\n", " 'term': 'cyclin E2-CDK2 complex'}],\n", " 'MF': [{'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000287',\n", " 'term': 'magnesium ion binding'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IGI',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0004674',\n", " 'pubmed': 26996940,\n", " 'term': 'protein serine/threonine kinase activity'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0004693',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity'},\n", " {'category': 'MF',\n", " 'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0004693',\n", " 'pubmed': 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'3UNJ',\n", " '3UNK',\n", " '3WBL',\n", " '4ACM',\n", " '4BCK',\n", " '4BCM',\n", " '4BCN',\n", " '4BCO',\n", " '4BCP',\n", " '4BCQ',\n", " '4BGH',\n", " '4BZD',\n", " '4CFM',\n", " '4CFN',\n", " '4CFU',\n", " '4CFV',\n", " '4CFW',\n", " '4CFX',\n", " '4D1X',\n", " '4D1Z',\n", " '4EK3',\n", " '4EK4',\n", " '4EK5',\n", " '4EK6',\n", " '4EK8',\n", " '4EOI',\n", " '4EOJ',\n", " '4EOK',\n", " '4EOL',\n", " '4EOM',\n", " '4EON',\n", " '4EOO',\n", " '4EOP',\n", " '4EOQ',\n", " '4EOR',\n", " '4EOS',\n", " '4ERW',\n", " '4EZ3',\n", " '4EZ7',\n", " '4FKG',\n", " '4FKI',\n", " '4FKJ',\n", " '4FKL',\n", " '4FKO',\n", " '4FKP',\n", " '4FKQ',\n", " '4FKR',\n", " '4FKS',\n", " '4FKT',\n", " '4FKU',\n", " '4FKV',\n", " '4FKW',\n", " '4FX3',\n", " '4GCJ',\n", " '4I3Z',\n", " '4II5',\n", " '4KD1',\n", " '4LYN',\n", " '4NJ3',\n", " '4RJ3',\n", " '5A14',\n", " '5AND',\n", " '5ANE',\n", " '5ANG',\n", " '5ANI',\n", " '5ANJ',\n", " '5ANK',\n", " '5ANO',\n", " '5CYI',\n", " '5D1J',\n", " '5FP5',\n", " '5FP6',\n", " '5IEV',\n", " '5IEX',\n", " '5IEY',\n", " '5IF1',\n", " '5JQ5',\n", " '5JQ8',\n", " '5K4J',\n", " '5L2W',\n", " '5LMK',\n", " '5MHQ',\n", " '5NEV',\n", " '5OO0',\n", " '5OO1',\n", " '5OO3',\n", " '5OSJ',\n", " '5OSM',\n", " '5UQ1',\n", " '5UQ2',\n", " '5UQ3'],\n", " 'pfam': 'PF00069',\n", " 'pharmgkb': 'PA101',\n", " 'pharos': {'target_id': 10687},\n", " 'pir': 'A41227',\n", " 'prosite': 'PS50011',\n", " 'reagent': {'GNF_Qia_hs-genome_v1_siRNA': [{'id': 'GNF247215',\n", " 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF247216', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF247217', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF247218', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-ORFeome1_1_reads': {'id': 'GNF161504', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " 'GNF_hs-Origene': [{'id': 'GNF035860', 'relationship': 'similar to'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF037258', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF048982', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-druggable_lenti-shRNA': [{'id': 'GNF081385', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF081386', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF081387', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-druggable_plasmid-shRNA': [{'id': 'GNF051995',\n", " 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF056761', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF061563', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF078683', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-druggable_siRNA': [{'id': 'GNF066537', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF066538', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs-pkinase_IDT-siRNA': [{'id': 'GNF166768', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF166769', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF166770', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF166771', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'GNF_hs_LentiORF-HA-MYC': {'id': 'GNF282834', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " 'GNF_hs_LentiORF-Jred': {'id': 'GNF283761', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " 'GNF_mm+hs-MGC': {'id': 'GNF002384', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " 'Invitrogen_IVTHSSIPKv2': [{'id': 'GNF324610', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF324611', 'relationship': 'is'}],\n", " 'NIBRI_hs-Secretome_pDEST': {'id': 'GNF337962', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " 'NOVART_hs-genome_siRNA': [{'id': 'GNF093028', 'relationship': 'is'},\n", " {'id': 'GNF132726', 'relationship': 'is'}]},\n", " 'refseq': {'genomic': ['NC_000012.12', 'NG_034014.1'],\n", " 'protein': ['NP_001277159.1',\n", " 'NP_001789.2',\n", " 'NP_439892.2',\n", " 'XP_011536034.1'],\n", " 'rna': ['NM_001290230.1', 'NM_001798.4', 'NM_052827.3', 'XM_011537732.2'],\n", " 'translation': [{'protein': 'NP_001789.2', 'rna': 'NM_001798.4'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_001277159.1', 'rna': 'NM_001290230.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_439892.2', 'rna': 'NM_052827.3'},\n", " {'protein': 'XP_011536034.1', 'rna': 'XM_011537732.2'}]},\n", " 'reporter': {'HG-U133_Plus_2': ['204252_at', '211803_at', '211804_s_at'],\n", " 'HG-U95Av2': ['1792_g_at', '1833_at'],\n", " 'HTA-2_0': 'TC12000496.hg.1',\n", " 'HuEx-1_0': '3417146',\n", " 'HuGene-1_1': '7956076',\n", " 'HuGene-2_1': '16752305'},\n", " 'summary': 'This gene encodes a member of a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that participate in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein is the catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, which regulates progression through the cell cycle. Activity of this protein is especially critical during the G1 to S phase transition. This protein associates with and regulated by other subunits of the complex including cyclin A or E, CDK inhibitor p21Cip1 (CDKN1A), and p27Kip1 (CDKN1B). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014].',\n", " 'symbol': 'CDK2',\n", " 'taxid': 9606,\n", " 'type_of_gene': 'protein-coding',\n", " 'umls': {'cui': 'C1332733'},\n", " 'unigene': ['Hs.689624', 'Hs.19192'],\n", " 'uniprot': {'Swiss-Prot': 'P24941',\n", " 'TrEMBL': ['A0A024RB10',\n", " 'G3V5T9',\n", " 'E7ESI2',\n", " 'B4DDL9',\n", " 'A0A024RB77',\n", " 'G3V317']},\n", " 'wikipedia': {'url_stub': 'Cyclin-dependent kinase 2'}}]" ] }, "execution_count": 31, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "payload = {'ids': '673,1017', 'species': 'human'}\n", "response = requests.post('http://mygene.info/v3/gene', data=payload)\n", "response.json()" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 32, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "name": "stdout", "output_type": "stream", "text": [ "BRAF: This gene encodes a protein belonging to the RAF family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERK signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene, most commonly the V600E mutation, are the most frequently identified cancer-causing mutations in melanoma, and have been identified in various other cancers as well, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colorectal cancer, thyroid carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, hairy cell leukemia and adenocarcinoma of lung. Mutations in this gene are also associated with cardiofaciocutaneous, Noonan, and Costello syndromes, which exhibit overlapping phenotypes. A pseudogene of this gene has been identified on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2017].\n", "CDK2: This gene encodes a member of a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that participate in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein is the catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, which regulates progression through the cell cycle. Activity of this protein is especially critical during the G1 to S phase transition. This protein associates with and regulated by other subunits of the complex including cyclin A or E, CDK inhibitor p21Cip1 (CDKN1A), and p27Kip1 (CDKN1B). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014].\n" ] } ], "source": [ "for gene in response.json():\n", " print(gene['symbol'] + ':', gene['summary'])" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 33, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "[{'pubmed': 8621729, 'text': 'MEK1 interacts with B-Raf.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12068308,\n", " 'text': 'somatic missense mutations in 66% of malignant melanomas and at lower frequency in a wide range of human cancers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12198537,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations in colorectal cancers occur only in tumours that do not carry mutations in a RAS gene known as KRAS, and BRAF mutation is linked to the proficiency of these tumours in repairing mismatched bases in DNA'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12447372, 'text': 'High frequency of BRAF mutations in nevi'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12619120,\n", " 'text': 'The V599E BRAF mutation appears to be a somatic mutation associated with melanoma development and/or progression in a proportion of affected individuals.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12644542,\n", " 'text': 'results demonstrate that the mutational status of BRAF and KRAS is distinctly different among histologic types of ovarian serous carcinoma, occurring most frequently in invasive micropapillary serous carcinomas and its precursors, serous borderline tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12670889,\n", " 'text': 'High prevalence of BRAF mutations in thyroid cancer is genetic evidence for constitutive activation of the RET/PTC-RAS-BRAF signaling pathway in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12697856,\n", " 'text': 'activating BRAF mutations may be an important event in the development of papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12753285,\n", " 'text': 'cAMP activates ERK and increases proliferation of autosomal dominant polycystic kindey epithelial cells through the sequential phosphorylation of PKA, B-Raf and MAPK in a pathway separate from the classical receptor tyrosine kinase cascade'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12778069,\n", " 'text': 'gene is mutated in skin melanoma, but not in uveal melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12810628,\n", " 'text': '13 germline BRAF variants, 4 of which were silent mutations in coding regions & 9 nucleotide substitutions in introns, were found in melanoma patients and melanoma family, but none appeared statistically likely to be a melanoma susceptibility gene.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12821662,\n", " 'text': 'B-raf is involved in adhesion-independent ERK1/2 signaling in melanocytes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12824225,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that BRAF T1796A activating mutation is not common in primary uveal melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12855697,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf has a role in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in T cells and prevents antigen-presenting cell-induced anergy'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12879021,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF has a role in in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck through uncommon mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12881714,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V599E) mutation appears to be an alternative event to RET/PTC rearrangement rather than to RAS mutations, which are rare in PTC. BRAF(V599E) may represent an alternative pathway to oncogenic MAPK activation in PTCs without RET/PTC activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12893203,\n", " 'text': 'Mucinous ovarian cancers without a KRAS mutation have not sustained alternative activation of this signaling pathway through mutation of the BRAF oncogene.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12917419,\n", " 'text': '3 cell lines derived from human choroidal melanoma express B-Raf containing the V599E mutation and showed a 10-fold increase in endogenous B-RafV599E kinase activity and a constitutive activation of the MEK/ERK pathway that is independent of Ras'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12931219,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations are not detectable in plasma cell leukemia and multiple myeloma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12970315,\n", " 'text': 'mutation of BRAF gene could be a potentially useful marker of prognosis of patients with advanced thyroid cancers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14501284,\n", " 'text': 'Our findings of a high frequency of BRAF mutations at codon 599 in benign melanocytic lesions of the skin indicate that this mutation is not sufficient by itself for malignant transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14507635,\n", " 'text': 'Both BRAF and FBXW7 mutations functionally activate kinase effectors important in pancreatic cancer and extend potential options for therapeutic targeting of kinases in treatment of phenotypically distinct pancreatic adenocarcinoma subsets.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14513361,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations, which are present in a variety of other human cancers, do not seem to be involved in gastric cancer development'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14522897,\n", " 'text': 'Uceal melanomas arise independent of oncogenic BRAF and NRAS mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14534542,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations were seen in stomach neoplasms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14602780,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are restricted to papillary carcinomas and poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas arising from papillary carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14612909,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF is occasionally mutated in NHL, and BRAF mutation may contribute to tumor development in some NHLs'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14618633,\n", " 'text': 'None of the cases of gastric cancer showed braf mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14639609,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations of BRAF are associated with extensive hMLH1 promoter methylation in sporadic colorectal carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14668801,\n", " 'text': 'Missense mutation is marker of colonic but not gastric cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14688025,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations were found in exon 15 in colorectal adenocarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14691295,\n", " 'text': 'Our data indicate that BRAF gene mutations are rare to absent events in uveal melanoma of humans.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14695152,\n", " 'text': 'NRAS and BRAF mutations arise early during melanoma pathogenesis and are preserved throughout tumor progression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14695993,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are associated with proximal colon tumors with mismatch repair deficiency and MLH1 hypermethylation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14719068,\n", " 'text': 'New enriched PCR-RFLP assay for detecting mutations of BRAF codon 599 mutation in pleural mesotheliomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14722037,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genotype prevalence and gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14724583,\n", " 'text': \"RAS or BRAF mutations are detected in about 32% of all Barrett's adenocarcinomas; the disruption of the Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) kinase pathway is a frequent but also early event in the development of Barrett's adenocarcinoma\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 14734469,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are frequently present in sporadic colorectal cancer with methylated hMLH1'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14961576,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations in BRAF gene is associated with malignant melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14966563,\n", " 'text': 'These studies identify isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase as a potential target for reducing the growth of K-Ras- and B-Raf-induced malignancies.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15001635,\n", " 'text': 'The lack or low prevalence of BRAF mutation in other thyroid neoplasms is consistent with the notion that other previously defined genetic alterations on the same signaling pathway are sufficient to cause tumorigenesis in most thyroid neoplasms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15009714,\n", " 'text': 'possible cooperation between BRAF activation and PTEN loss in melanoma development.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15009715,\n", " 'text': 'mutations in the BRAF gene and to some extent in the N-ras gene represent early somatic events that occur in melanocytic nevi'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15014028,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation may be acquired during development of metastasis but is not a significant factor for primary melanoma development and disease outcome.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15077125,\n", " 'text': 'ovarian serous cystadenomas do not contain mutations in either BRAF or KRAS genes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15104286,\n", " 'text': 'These results suggest that the BRAF mutation is unlikely to be involved in gastric carcinogenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15126572,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V599E) is more common genetic alteration found to date in adult sporadic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). It is unique for this thyroid cancer histotype, and it might drive the development of PTCs of classic papillary subtype.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15140228,\n", " 'text': 'The finding of tandem mutations in thin melanomas makes it more likely that they arise as a simultaneous rather than sequential event.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15145515,\n", " 'text': 'Radiation-induced tumors have a low prevalence of BRAF point mutations and high prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15150271,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf kinase activity regulation by tuberin and Rheb is mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15161700,\n", " 'text': 'mucosal melanomas of the head and neck do not frequently harbor an activating mutation of BRAF'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15179189,\n", " 'text': 'in contrast to cutaneous melanoma, BRAF does not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of uveal melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15186612,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are rather rare in solitary cold adenomas and adenomatous nodules and do not explain the molecular etiology of ras mutation-negative cold thyroid nodules.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15191558,\n", " 'text': 'activation of this gene may be one of the early events in the pathogenesis of some melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15263001,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf and ERK are activated by cyclic AMP after calcium restriction'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15273715, 'text': 'mutated in papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15277467,\n", " 'text': 'In this study, this BRAF mutation was demonstrated in some conjunctival melanoma tissue samples, suggesting that some conjunctival melanomas may share biological features in common with cutaneous melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15313890,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that SPRY2, an inhibitor of ERK signaling, may be bypassed in melanoma cells either by down-regulation of its expression in WT BRAF cells, or by the presence of the BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15330192,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations within the BRAF gene are useful markers for the differential diagnosis between Spitz nevus and malignant melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15331929,\n", " 'text': 'we found 19 cases (38%) to harbor somatic B-raf exon 15 mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15339934,\n", " 'text': 'Data provide evidence that B-Raf is a positive regulator of T cell receptor-mediated sustained ERK activation, which is required for NFAT activation and the full production of IL-2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15373778,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V599E) mutation is seven times higher in lesions with structural changes and 13 times higher in growing lesions as compared with lesions without changes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15488754,\n", " 'text': 'REVIEW: our understanding of B-RAF as an oncogene and of its role in cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15489648,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations of BRAF or KRAS oncogenes are early events in the serrated polyp neoplasia pathway. CpG island methylation plays a role in serrated polyp progression to colorectal carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15538400,\n", " 'text': 'mutated in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15577314,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are associated with conjunctival neoplasms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15630448,\n", " 'text': 'AKAP9-BRAF fusion was preferentially found in radiation-induced papillary carcinomas developing after a short latency, whereas BRAF point mutations were absent in this group'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15632082,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that Rit is involved in a novel pathway of neuronal development and regeneration by coupling specific trophic factor signals to sustained activation of the B-Raf/ERK and p38 MAP kinase cascades.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15653554,\n", " 'text': 'a novel Ras-independent ERK1/2 activation system in which p110gamma/Raf-1/MEK1/2 and PKA/B-Raf/MEK1/2 cooperate to activate ERK1/2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15702478,\n", " 'text': 'We found mutations in p53, K-ras, and BRAF genes in 35%, 30%, and 4% of tumors, respectively, and observed a minimal or no co-presence of these gene alterations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15705790,\n", " 'text': 'KSHV-infected cell lines expressed higher levels of B-Raf and VEGF-A; B-Raf-induced VEGF-A expression was demonstrated to be sufficient to enhance tubule formation in endothelial cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15710605,\n", " 'text': 'autoinhibition was negatively regulated by acidic substitutions at phosphorylation sites within the activation loop'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15765445,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations in the BRAF protooncogene (V599E)may be an alternative pathway of tumorigenesis of familial colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15782118,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations proved to be absent in tumors from hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome (HNPCC) families with germline mutations in the MMR genes MLH1 and MSH2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15791479,\n", " 'text': 'The data of this study suggest that activating mutations of B-RAF are not a frequent event in gliomas; nevertheless, when present they are associated with high-grade malignant lesions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15791648,\n", " 'text': 'B-raf mutations surrounding Thr439 found in human cancers are unlikely to contribute to increased oncogenic properties of B-raf'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15824163,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15842051,\n", " 'text': 'These results suggest that BRAF mutations do not have a role in tumorigenesis of neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15880523,\n", " 'text': 'Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas which are derived from papillary carcinomas are due to BRAF and p53 mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15904951,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15935100,\n", " 'text': 'B-raf V599E and V599K oncogenic mutations are likely to affect melanocyte-specific pathways controlling proliferation and differentiation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15968271,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15968271,\n", " 'text': 'The increasing frequency of BRAF mutations as a function of age could help account for the well documented but poorly understood observation that age is a relevant prognostic indicator for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15980887,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation occurs later in thyroid tumor progression and is restricted mainly to papillary thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15994075,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15998781,\n", " 'text': 'Role of BRAF mutation in facilitating metastasis and progression of papillary thyroid cancer in lymph nodes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16007166,\n", " 'text': 'determination of mutation specific gene expression profiles in papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16007203,\n", " 'text': 'Single-cell clones with efficient knockdown of (V 600 E)B-RAF could be propagated in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor but underwent apoptosis or senescence-like growth arrest upon withdrawal of this growth factor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16015629,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16024606,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16079850,\n", " 'text': 'sustained BRAF(V600E) expression in human melanocytes induces cell cycle arrest, which is accompanied by the induction of both p16(INK4a) and senescence-associated acidic beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) activity, a commonly used senescence marker'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16096377,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation in melanoma is most likely to occur prior to the development of metastatic disease'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16098042,\n", " 'text': 'Although BRAF and NRAS mutations are likely to be important for the initiation and maintenance of some melanomas, other factors might be more significant for proliferation and prognosis in subgroups of aggressive melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16098042,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16123397,\n", " 'text': 'The results showed that conjunctival nevi, similar to skin nevi, have a high frequency of oncogenic BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16129781,\n", " 'text': 'These data suggest that MITF is an anti-proliferation factor that is down-regulated by B-RAF signaling and that this is a crucial event for the progression of melanomas that harbor oncogenic B-RAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16143028,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16144912,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations of the BRAF gene are partly involved in the malignant transformation of the endometrium.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16144912,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16172610,\n", " 'text': 'selective reduction in catalytic activity and expression of B-Raf but not Raf-1 suggest that B-Raf may be playing an important role in altered ERK signaling in brain of suicide subjects, and thus in the pathophysiology of suicide'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16174717,\n", " 'text': 'In patients with papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF mutation is associated with poorer clinicopathological outcomes and independently predicts recurrence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16174717,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16179867,\n", " 'text': 'As the BRAF oncogene is frequently found to be mutated in human cutaneous melanomas, it may constitute a risk factor for melanoma formation within CMN and DMN.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16179870,\n", " 'text': 'The oncogenic B-raf mutations V599E and V599K, as early events in melanocyte transformation, persist throughout metastasis with important prognostic implications.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16181240,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16181547,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16199894,\n", " 'text': 'copy number gain may represent another mechanism of BRAF activation in thyroid tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16268813,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16354196,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16354196,\n", " 'text': 'The estimated proportion of attributable risk of melanoma due to variants in BRAF is 1.6%, but the burden of disease associated with this variant is greater than that associated with the major melanoma locus (CDKN2A) which has a risk of 0.2%.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16354586,\n", " 'text': 'Mutation and elevated expression of BRAF is associated with the development of testicular germ cell tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16361694,\n", " 'text': 'The authors have developed and run a high-throughput screen to find inhibitors of V600E BRAF using an enzyme cascade assay in which oncogenic BRAF activates MEK1, which in turn activates ERK2, which then phosphorylates the transcription factor ELK1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16364920,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that B-RAF activates C-RAF through a mechanism involving 14-3-3 mediated heterooligomerization and C-RAF transphosphorylation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16371460,\n", " 'text': 'V600E B-Raf requires the Hsp90 chaperone for stability and is degraded in response to Hsp90 inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16373964,\n", " 'text': 'activating mutations of PDGFR-alpha, c-kit and B-RAF are absent in gliosarcomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16376942,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16376942,\n", " 'text': 'V599E BRAF mutation was uncommon in Japanese lung cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16382052,\n", " 'text': 'aberrant B-Raf activity in angiomyolipomas leads to abnormal cellular differentiation and migration [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16397024,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genotype prevalence. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16413100,\n", " 'text': 'The most frequent B-RAF gene alterations are not involved in prostate carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16417232,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation does not seem to be sufficient to produce MAPK activation in melanocytic nevi.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16424035,\n", " 'text': 'gain-of-function BRAF signaling is strongly associated with in vivo tumorigenicity'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16439621,\n", " 'text': 'findings demonstrate that heterogeneous de novo missense mutations in three genes within the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, BRAF, MEK1 and MEK2 cause cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16452469,\n", " 'text': 'wild-type B-Raf-mediated ERK1/2 activation plays a major role in proliferation and transformation of uveal melanocytes; Raf-1 is not involved in this activation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16452550,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16462768,\n", " 'text': 'NRAS and BRAF activating mutations can coexist in the same melanoma, but are mutually exclusive at the single-cell level'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16474404,\n", " 'text': 'Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome involves dysregulation of the RAS-RAF-ERK pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16487015,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16537381,\n", " 'text': 'Merlin and MLK3 can interact in situ and merlin can disrupt the interactions between B-Raf and Raf-1 or those between MLK3 and either B-Raf or Raf-1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16547495,\n", " 'text': 'Melanoma cells require either B-RAF or phosphoinositide-3 kinase activation for protection from anoikis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16601293,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E is associated with a high risk of recurrence and less differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma due to the impairment of Na+/I- targeting to the membrane'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16601293,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16618717,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-environment interaction and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16687919,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genotype prevalence. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16691193,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16691193,\n", " 'text': 'UV light is not necessarily required for the acquisition of the BRAF(V600E) mutation, and non-mutagenic effects of UV light to melanocytes may be more important in the nevogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16721785,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are as uncommon as KRAS mutations in prostate adenocarcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16728573,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF (V600E) was confirmed to be associated with the papillary growth pattern, but not with poorer differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma variants.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16728573,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16773193,\n", " 'text': 'among 23 melanomas located at body sites with chronic UV exposure, only a single tumour harboured the B-raf V599E mutation which was a significantly lower frequency in comparison to melanomas from sun-protected body sites'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16786134,\n", " 'text': 'a BRAFT1799A mutation may have a role in poor differentiation of thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16799476,\n", " 'text': 'A subset of Spitz nevi, some with atypical histologic features, possess BRAF mutations. The BRAF mutational status does not separate all Spitz nevi from spitzoid melanomas and non-Spitz types of melanocytic proliferations, contrary to previous reports.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16803888,\n", " 'text': 'Rheb has a central role in the regulation of the Ras/B-Raf/C-Raf/MEK signaling network'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16804544,\n", " 'text': 'CpG island methylator phenotype-positive colorectal tumors represent a distinct subset, encompassing almost all cases of tumors with BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16809487,\n", " 'text': 'findings show that MC1R variants are strongly associated with BRAF mutations in non-chronic sun-induced damage melanomas; in this subtype, risk for melanoma associated with MC1R is due to increase in risk of developing melanomas with BRAF mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16845322,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with melanoma and melanocytic nevi.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16858395,\n", " 'text': 'Thus, we propose that the hitherto unidentified function of the B-Raf amino-terminal region is to mediate calcium-dependent activation of B-Raf and the following MEK activation, which may occur in the absence of Ras activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16858683,\n", " 'text': 'Aberrant methylation and hence silencing of TIMP3, SLC5A8, DAPK and RARbeta2, in association with BRAF mutation, may be an important step in PTC tumorigenesis and progression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16879389,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation was frequent in hyperplastic polyps (67%) and sessile serrated adenomas (81%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16912199,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF has been identified as the most mutated gene in invasive cells and therefore an attractive therapeutic target in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16918136,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are associated with colorectal cancers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16918957,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16924241,\n", " 'text': 'Expression of p27Kip1 in melanoma is regulated by B-RAF at the mRNA level and via B-RAF control of Cks1/Skp2-mediated proteolysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16932278,\n", " 'text': 'Single nucleotide polymorphism found exclusively in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16937524,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 are expressed in colorectal polyps and stool'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16937524,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 are expressed in colorectal polyps and stool [BAT26]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16946010, 'text': 'Braf mutations in thyroid tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16953233,\n", " 'text': 'Concomitant KRAS and BRAF mutations increased along progression of MSS colorectal cancer, suggesting that activation of both genes is likely to harbour a synergistic effect'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16959844,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E activates not only MAPK but also NF-kappaB signaling pathway in human thyroid cancer cells, leading to an acquisition of apoptotic resistance and promotion of invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16960555,\n", " 'text': 'Expression of active mutants of B-Raf induces fibronectin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16964379,\n", " 'text': 'Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-3 (ERK3/MAPK6) is highly expressed in response to BRAF signaling.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16973828,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16987295,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF T1976A mutation is present at high frequency in benign naevi such as Spitz and Reed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17001349,\n", " 'text': 'data support a model in which mutational activation of BRAF in human melanomas contributes to constitutive induction of NF-kappaB activity and to increased survival of melanoma cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17018604,\n", " 'text': 'Normally, BRAF alone is responsible for signaling to MEK. However, when RAS is mutated in melanoma, melanocytes switch their signaling from BRAF to CRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17044028,\n", " 'text': 'Activating BRAF mutation is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17060774,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation remained a significant prognostic factor for lymph node metastasis (odds ratio = 10.8, 95% confidence interval, 3.5-34.0, P < 0.0001).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17074813,\n", " 'text': 'phosphorylation on both S365 and S429 participate in the differential regulation of B-Raf isoforms through distinct mechanisms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17097223,\n", " 'text': 'data provide evidence that oncogenic properties of BRAF contribute to the tumorigenesis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm/carcinoma (IPMN/IPMC), but at a lower frequency than KRAS'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17119056,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF-V600E mutations are mainly involved in colorectal cancer families characterized by an increased risk of other common malignancies'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17119447,\n", " 'text': 'Association with preexisting nevi and pronounced infiltration of lymphocytes was significantly higher in BRAF mutated melanoma tumours'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17148775,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17148775,\n", " 'text': 'Previously identified associations between smoking and colon cancer, whether microsatellite unstable or stable, appear to be explained by the association of smoking with BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17159915,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(T1799A) mutation is associated with a lower rate of tumor proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17159915,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17170014,\n", " 'text': 'RASSF1A methylation was observed in a high frequency in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma whereas K-ras and B-raf mutations were observed in a low frequency'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17179987,\n", " 'text': 'The role for BRAF activation in thyroid cancer development and establishing the potential therapeutic efficacy of BRAF-targeted agents in patients with thyroid cancerwill be reviewed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17186541,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with thyroid carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17186541,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17195912,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17195912,\n", " 'text': 'there is a subgroup of colorectal carcinomas which develop via the microsatellite instability pathway that carry an alteration of the BRAF gene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17199737,\n", " 'text': 'Absence of association between BRAF mutation and activation of MAPK pathway in papillary thyroid carcinoma suggests the presence of mechanisms that downregulate MAPK activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17227125,\n", " 'text': 'Copy gain of PDGFB occurs in a subset of tumors showing no evidence of mutated BRAF or rearranged ret, suggesting that copy gain of PDGFB may underlie the increased expression of platelet-derived growth factor described recently in the literature.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17270239,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17297294,\n", " 'text': 'characterization of the T1799-1801del and A1799-1816ins BRAF mutations in papillary thyroid cancer; the two new mutations resulted in constitutive activation of the BRAF kinase and caused NIH3T3 cell transformation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17302867,\n", " 'text': 'Overexpression of B-Raf mRNA and protein may be a feature of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, highlighting overactivity of the Ras-B-Raf-MAP kinase pathway in these tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17309670,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF gene plays a \"gatekeeper\" role but does not act as a predisposition gene in the development of low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17309670,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17312306,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17315191,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E represents a detectable marker in the plasma/serum from melanoma patients for monitoring but not diagnostic purposes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17318013,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF mutations are a rare event in pituitary tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17355635,\n", " 'text': 'The aim of this study was to identify the effect that BRAF oncogene has on post-transcriptional regulation in papillary thyroid carcinoma by using microRNA analysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17360030,\n", " 'text': 'findings show that RASSF1A hypermethylation and KRAS mutations and BRAF mutations are inversely correlated and play an important role in the development of cervical adenocarcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17366577,\n", " 'text': 'mutational analysis of KRAS, BRAF, and MAP2K1/2 in 56 patients with CFC syndrome; comparison of the genotype-phenotype correlation of CFC with that of Costello syndrome suggest a significant clinical overlap but not genotype overlap.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17387744,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is identified in a subset of cutaneous metastases from papillary thyroid carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17393356,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17393356,\n", " 'text': 'data suggest that BRAF mutations might be present less frequently than KRAS mutations in Greek patients with colorectal carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17440063,\n", " 'text': 'finding of a strong association between BRAF mutations and serrated histology in hyperplastic aberrant crypt foci supports the idea that these lesions are an early, sentinel, or a potentially initiating step on the serrated pathway to colorectal carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17453004,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation was occasionally observed in anaplastic carcinomas with papillary carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17453358,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17454879,\n", " 'text': 'MSI is rare in UC-related neoplasia as well as non-neoplastic lesions, and does not contribute to the development of dysplasia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17464312,\n", " 'text': 'prevalence of BRAF mutation and RET/PTC were determined in diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma; none of the cases showed a BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17483702,\n", " 'text': 'Molecular diagnosis and careful observations should be considered in children with Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome because they have germline mutations in BRAF and might develop malignancy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17487277,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17487504,\n", " 'text': 'c-kit expression is not alternative to BRAF and/or KRAS activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17488796,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation in PTCs is associated with reduced expression of key genes involved in iodine metabolism'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17507627,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17507627,\n", " 'text': 'data indicate that both early-life UV exposure and nevus propensity contribute to occurrence of BRAF+ melanoma, whereas nevus propensity and later-life sun exposure influence the occurrence of NRAS+ melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17516929,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of a BRAF mutation-associated gene expression signature in melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17518771,\n", " 'text': 'low rate of RAS-RAF mutations (2/22, 9.1%) observed in Spitz melanocytic nevi suggests that these lesions harbor as yet undetected activating mutations in other components of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK-MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17520704,\n", " 'text': 'Meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17520704,\n", " 'text': 'frequency of the BRAF mutation and the associations between BRAF mutation and clinicopathologic parameters in papillary thyroid carcinoma were evaluated by meta-analysis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17525723,\n", " 'text': 'T1790A BRAF mutation (L597Q) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a functional oncogene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17535994,\n", " 'text': 'The heterogeneous distribution of BRAF mutations suggests that discrete tumor foci in multifocal PTC may occur as independent tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17542667,\n", " 'text': 'Presence of BRAF V600E in very early stages of papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17548320,\n", " 'text': 'influence of B-RAF-specific RNA interference on the proliferation and apoptosis of gastric cancer BGC823 cell line'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17566669,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17566669,\n", " 'text': 'We conclude that screening for BRAF 15 exon mutation is an efficient tool in the diagnostic strategy for HNPCC'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17635919,\n", " 'text': 'In contrast to C-RAF that requires farnesylated H-Ras, cytosolic B-RAF associates effectively and with significantly higher affinity with both farnesylated and nonfarnesylated H-Ras.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17663506,\n", " 'text': 'KLF6 and p53 mutations are involved in the development of nonpolypoid colorectal carcinoma, whereas K-ras and B-raf mutations are not'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17671688,\n", " 'text': 'PPARbeta/delta has a role in growth of RAF-induced lung adenomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17685465,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid may facilitate tumor cell growth and progression once seeded in the lymph nodes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17693984,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genotype prevalence, gene-disease association, and genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17693984,\n", " 'text': 'There was no coexistence of BRAF (V600E) mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17696195,\n", " 'text': 'data showed differences in gene expression between nevi with and without the V600E BRAF mutation. Moreover, nevi with mutations showed over-expression of genes involved in melanocytic senescence and cell cycle inhibition'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17699719,\n", " 'text': 'RNA interference and pharmacologic approaches were used to assess the role of B-Raf activation in the growth of human melanomas and additionally determined if a similar role for mutant B-Raf is seen for colorectal carcinoma cell lines.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17704260,\n", " 'text': '5 unreported mutations (T241P, Q262R, G464R, E501V, N581K) were found in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. A hotspot in exon 6 at Q257 was found.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17714762,\n", " 'text': 'diffuse expression of wild-type and/or mutant B-Raf may be involved in the tumorigenic process'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17717450,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is primarily present in conventional papillary thyroid cancer; it is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype and higher risk of recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17717450,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17721188,\n", " 'text': 'Develompment of malignant strumo ovarii with papillary thyroid carcinoma features is associated with BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17727338,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation detected on fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens, more than RET/PTC rearrangements, is highly specific for papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17785355,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with high-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17785355,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17786355,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutations were found in 41.2% of the papillary thyroid carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17854396,\n", " 'text': 'Papillary thyroid cancers with no 131I uptake had a high frequency of BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17878251,\n", " 'text': 'MEK inhibition is cytostatic in papillary thyroid cancer and anaplastic thyroid cancer cells bearing a BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17911174,\n", " 'text': 'effects of a MEK inhibitor, CI-1040, on thyroid cancer cells, some of which, particularly cell proliferation and tumor growth, seemed to be BRAF mutation or RAS mutation selective'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17914558,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated as early as the hyperplastic polyp stage followed by microsatellite instability at the carcinoma stage'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17924122,\n", " 'text': 'Examined associations between BRAF mutations, morphology, and apoptosis in early colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17940185,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation represents a novel indicator of the progression and aggressiveness of papillary thyroid cancer (Review)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17942568,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF interacts with PLCepsilon1 in nephrotic syndrome type 3. Both proteins are coexpressed and colocalize in developing and mature glomerular podocytes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17962436,\n", " 'text': 'In this small study, the T1799A BRAF mutation was identified in almost half of the iris melanoma tissues samples examined. This finding suggests that there may be genetic as well as clinical differences between iris and posterior uveal melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17972530,\n", " 'text': 'These results suggest that papillary thyroid carcinomas with BRAF (V600E) mutation are more aggressive than those with wildtype BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18000091,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18008004,\n", " 'text': 'mutation of N-RAS or B-RAF, signature genetic lesions present in most MMs, potently induced the expression of cell-surface CD200, a repressor of DC function.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18024410,\n", " 'text': 'no BRAF mutations identified in 65 screened JMML patients; this gene is unlikely to play a role in the pathogenesis of JMML.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18032947,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF mutation is common in melanomas, but variation in rates across melanoma subtypes points to a complex interplay between BRAF activation and other factors (eg, sun exposure).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18042262,\n", " 'text': 'the results of HRAS, BRAF and MAP2K1/2 mutation screening in a large cohort of patients with CS and CFC'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18045960,\n", " 'text': 'Detection of BRAF improves the diagnosis in fine-needle biopsy with cytological findings suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18045987,\n", " 'text': 'These results identify Rnd3 as a regulator of cross talk between the RAF/MEK/ERK and Rho/ROCK signaling pathways, and a key contributor to oncogene-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18060073,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and MEK1/2 mutations may be more common than anticipated in ovarian cancer which could have important implications for treatment of patients with this disease and suggests potential new therapeutic avenues'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18061181,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18070147,\n", " 'text': \"BRAF(V600E)'alone' does not represent a marker for poor outcome\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 18071315,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf(V600E) signaling deregulates the mitotic spindle checkpoint through stabilizing Mps1 levels in melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18098337,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF provides proliferation and survival signals in MSI colorectal carcinoma cells displaying BRAF(V600E) but not KRAS mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18172070,\n", " 'text': 'Because of the very sensitive pyrophosphorolysis-activated polymerization (PAP)technology, B-RAF mutations were found in cell lines and primary uveal melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18199160,\n", " 'text': 'A worse clinical outcome was found for CIMP-high, microsatellite stable colorectal cancer with KRAS/BRAF mutation but not for those lacking KRAS/BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18224685,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18226854,\n", " 'text': 'frequency of the occurrence of BRAF mutation and/or RET/PTC in H4-PTEN positive tumors was extremely high (75%) in papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18227705,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is not associated with cutaneous melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18228248,\n", " 'text': 'Important signalling role in T cell development.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18235983,\n", " 'text': 'Follicular histotypes of oncocytic thyroid carcinomas do not carry BRAF mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18246127,\n", " 'text': 'Mutant B-RAF mediates resistance to anoikis via Bad and Bim.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18267069,\n", " 'text': 'A genome-wide RNA-interference screening to identify genes required for an activated BRAF oncogene to block proliferation of fibroblasts and melanocytes revealed that a IGFBP7, has a central role in BRAF-mediated senescence and apoptosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18310286,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF T1799A mutation is associated with aggressive pathological outcomes of papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18310287,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is asscoiated with papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18310288,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF-V600E mutation is associated with familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18323787,\n", " 'text': 'Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity is subject to regulation even in BRAF/NRAS mutant melanoma cells and that high MAPK pathway signaling may be important only in distinct subsets of tumor cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18329792,\n", " 'text': 'RKIP could play an important role in the down-regulation of wild-type BRAF, serving thus as an endogenous inhibitor of the MAPK pathway in nasal polyps and their adjacent turbinate mucosa.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18337114,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation testing of papillary thyroid carcinoma might improve the diagnosis, prognostic stratification and treatment of these tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18343945,\n", " 'text': 'Our data provide evidence that PIK3CA and BRAF contribute to the tumorigenesis of IPMN/IPMC, but at a lower frequency than KRAS.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18368129,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18368129,\n", " 'text': 'This study confirms that the known MC1R-melanoma risk association is confined to subjects whose melanomas harbor BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18375819,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with disease stabilization in melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18381570,\n", " 'text': 'Thyroid cancers with BRAF mutation are preferentially sensitive to MEK inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18382358,\n", " 'text': 'Detecting BRAF mutation by pyrosequencing is more sensitive, faster, and less expensive than direct DNA sequencing.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18383861,\n", " 'text': 'K-RAS and BRAF mutations are a frequent genetic event in our samples of sporadic papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18383861,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18397470,\n", " 'text': 'is commonly activated by somatic point mutation, it may provide possible diagnostic and therapeutic targets in human malignant tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18398503,\n", " 'text': 'Results implicate aberrant activation of the MAPK pathway due to gene duplication or mutation of BRAF as a molecular mechanism of pathogenesis in low-grade astrocytomas and suggest inhibition of the MAPK pathway as a potential treatment.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18402768,\n", " 'text': 'Aberrant BRAF and INK4A functionally interact to promote growth and survival of melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18408659,\n", " 'text': 'in melanocytic lesions, BRAF(V600E) mutation can affect a subset of the cells and is associated with the type and quantity of sun exposure'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18413255,\n", " 'text': 'study describes the biochemical characterization of novel BRAF and MEK germline mutations in cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18434602,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk1/cyclin B has a role in regulating B-raf activation at mitosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18435933,\n", " 'text': 'CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal neoplasms may result from activating mutations in either BRAF or KRAS.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18451171,\n", " 'text': 'Akt3 and mutant V600E B-Raf cooperate to promote early melanoma development.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18458053,\n", " 'text': 'oncogenic BRAF inhibition can have a different effect on cell fate depending on the cellular type'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18470905,\n", " 'text': 'aberrant methylation of the hMLH1 gene may play a role in BRAF mutation-promoted thyroid tumorigenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18509003,\n", " 'text': 'study revealed a significant correlation of BRAFV600E mutation with a lower expression of both sodium iodide symporter and thyroperoxidase in papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18509361,\n", " 'text': 'Shorter overall survival in primary melanoma was associated with the presence of ulceration and BRAF exon 15 mutations, as well as the absence of nuclear activation of Akt and of cytoplasmic activation of ERK.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18517279,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer microsatellite-stable cases are associated with high levels of chromosomal instability that are likely responsible for the adverse outcomes in these cases'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18519771,\n", " 'text': 'a significant relationship in overall survival in colon cancer patients with defective DNA mismatch repair and the presence of a specific mutation in BRAF (V600E)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18532874,\n", " 'text': 'Compared to melanomas without BRAF mutations, melanomas with BRAF mutations showed statistically significantly higher degrees of intraepidermal scatter of melanocytes, and a higher proportion of melanocytes arranged in nests.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18567582,\n", " 'text': 'the scaffold protein IQGAP1 couples Ca(2+) and calmodulin signaling to B-Raf function'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18592405,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18594528,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18602919,\n", " 'text': 'Rac1b and B-Raf(V600E) functionally cooperate to sustain colorectal cell viability and suggest they constitute an alternative survival pathway to oncogenic K-Ras'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18615679,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18615679,\n", " 'text': 'V600E BRAF mutation is associated with imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18615680,\n", " 'text': 'MLH1 methylation and BRAF mutations are associated with microsatellite unstable colon tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18615680,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18621636,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18628356,\n", " 'text': 'The frequencies of LOHs of 17q21, 17p13, 10q23, and 22q13 were higher in tumors with lymph node metastasis, suggesting that these LOHs may be important in increased lymph node metastasis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18628431,\n", " 'text': 'People of southern European origin had lower risk of colorectal cancers with CIMP and BRAF mutation than people of Anglo-Celtic origin, which may in part be due to genetic factors that are less common in people of southern European origin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18628967,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF regulates melanoma proliferation through the lineage specific factor MITF'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18632627,\n", " 'text': 'co-overexpression of KIT/CDK4 is a potential mechanism of oncogenic transformation in some BRAF/NRAS wild-type melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18636014,\n", " 'text': 'lung adenocarcinoma of mixed type with a high incidence of papillary and lepidic growth may be worthwhile investigating for BRAF-V600E mutation as more genetically oriented drug therapies emerge.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18650848,\n", " 'text': 'hyperactivation of the MAPK pathway following activation of an inducible form of oncogenic C-Raf induces a senescence-like proliferation arrest in B-Raf mutant melanoma cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18668139,\n", " 'text': \"N-RAS(Q61K) and B-RAF(V600E) contribute to melanoma's resistance to apoptosis in part by downregulating Bim expression\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 18669866,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18676742,\n", " 'text': 'CST6, CXCL14, DHRS3, and SPP1 are regulated by BRAF signaling and may play a role in papillary thyroid carcinoma pathogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18676756,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18682506,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18682506,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation was demonstrated to be a poor prognostic factor independent from other clinicopathological features.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18697864,\n", " 'text': 'Identification and functional characterization of a novel T599I-VKSR(600-603)del BRAF mutation in a patient with follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18710471,\n", " 'text': 'There is a higher frequency of the BRAF(V600E) mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas than in normal thyroid tissue.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18715233,\n", " 'text': 'These data suggest that regulation of BIM expression by BRAF-->MEK-->ERK signaling is one mechanism by which oncogenic BRAF(V600E) can influence the aberrant physiology of melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18716556,\n", " 'text': 'focal gains at chromosome 7q34 and increased BRAF-MEK-ERK signaling are common findings in sporadic pilocytic astrocytomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18718023,\n", " 'text': 'presence of the BRAF (V600E) mutation,the incidence of microsatellite instability high colorectal cancer in populations based study.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18757341,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS and BRAF mutations can impair response to anti-EGFR therapy for colorectal neoplasms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18757433,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18759827,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18778891,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with the CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer from young patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18778891,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18782444,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF, KRAS and PIK3CA mutations occur prior to malignant transformation demonstrating that these oncogenic alterations are primary genetic events in colorectal carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18782444,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18787396,\n", " 'text': 'These data implicates a mitotic role for B-Raf in regulating spindle formation and the spindle checkpoint in human somatic cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18794094,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18794803,\n", " 'text': 'study identified a group of melanomas with low-activity BRAF mutations (G469E- and D594G) that are reliant upon CRAF-mediated survival activity'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18798261,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation occurs independently of CpG island methylator phenotype and MSI in all types of serrated polyps and may serve as a marker of serrated pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18806830,\n", " 'text': 'study concludes a single endogenous BRAF(V600E) allele is sufficient to repress BIM & prevent death from growth factor withdrawal; colorectal cancer cells with V600E mutations are addicted to the ERK1/2 pathway for repression of BIM'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18832519,\n", " 'text': 'CIMP-high appears to be an independent predictor of a low colon cancer-specific mortality, while BRAF mutation is associated with a high colon cancer-specific mortality.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18834226,\n", " 'text': 'With at least 3 markers methylated, new CIMP-positive colorectal cancers were closely associated with proximal tumor location, low frequency of KRAS mutation, and high frequency of BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18840924,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation may play some roles in local carcinoma development, there is no evidence that BRAF(V600E) mutation significantly reflects the aggressive characteristics and poor prognosis of patients with papillary carcinoma in Japan.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18840924,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18945298,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E appeared to be the most commonly mutated gene in both the melanocytic aggregate (seven of 18, 39%) and the melanoma (four of 18, 22%)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18946221,\n", " 'text': 'Hereditary pancreatitis patients with PRSS1 mutations also had mutations in BRAF and KRAS2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18953432,\n", " 'text': 'study shows high expression of p16(INK4a) or the absence of activated B-RAF correlates with in vivo response of melanoma to cytotoxic drugs'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18974108,\n", " 'text': 'rearrangement, which was not observed in a series of 244 higher-grade astrocytomas, results in an in-frame fusion gene incorporating the kinase domain of the BRAF oncogene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18980976,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18985043,\n", " 'text': 'the T1799A BRAF mutation is present in a proportion of posterior uveal melanomas but within these tumours the distribution of the mutation is heterogeneous.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18987552,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations may not play an important role in the oncogenesis or therapy of prostate adenocarcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18992635,\n", " 'text': '8% of sporadic colorectal tumors in this study harbor mutation in the BRAF gene.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18992635,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19001320,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19001320,\n", " 'text': 'Wild-type BRAF is required for response to panitumumab or cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19003996,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF-V600E mutation is uncommon in endocrine tumors other than thyroid papillary carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19012001,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19012001,\n", " 'text': 'The result showed that the mutation rate of PIK3CA in nasopharyngeal carcinomas (n = 73) was 9.6%, whereas both BRAF (n = 65) and RAS (n = 45) were wild type in every specimen with adequate DNA for analysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19014278,\n", " 'text': 'In Korean patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, the BRAFV600E mutation is associated with a lower frequency of background Hashimoto thyroiditis and a high frequency of lymph node metastasis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19014278,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19016743,\n", " 'text': 'Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing revealed a fusion product between KIAA1549 and BRAF in pediatric low-grade astrocytomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19018267,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19018267,\n", " 'text': 'ovarian cancer patients with KRAS or BRAF mutations may benefit from CI-1040 treatment'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19026650,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19033861,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19034577,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is assocciated with aggressive papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19034577,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19037234,\n", " 'text': 'NRAS and BRAF mutations increase from the radial to the vertical growth phase in cutaneous melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19064572,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study and meta-analysis of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19079609,\n", " 'text': 'Genetic extinction of BRAF(V600E) in established prostate tumors did not lead to tumor regression, indicating that while sufficient to initiate development of invasive prostate adenocarcinoma, BRAF(V600E) is not required for its maintenance.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19087308,\n", " 'text': 'G12D mutation may be more likely selected in a BRAF mutated context'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19098310,\n", " 'text': 'ERK activation was induced by PKD2 overexpression via B-Raf signaling, providing a possible molecular mechanism of cystogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19107232,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF pseudogene activation may play a role in thyroid tumor development.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19126563,\n", " 'text': 'Sessile serrated adenomas are encountered commonly in routine endoscopy practice and the histological diagnosis correlates strongly with the presence of BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19127559,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19133693,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19142971,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19147753,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and RET/PTC dual mutations are associated with recurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19147753,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19152441,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19159571,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19164452,\n", " 'text': 'MLH1-hypermethylated tumors harbor fewer APC and KRAS mutations and more BRAF mutations, suggesting that they develop distinctly from an MGMT methylator pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19178815,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations are absent or rare in the kinase domain of B-RAF in Japanese head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19178815,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19190079,\n", " 'text': 'Mutation in BRAF is associated with adrenocortical carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19190105,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19190129,\n", " 'text': 'Distinct BRAF (V600E) and KRAS mutations in high microsatellite instability sporadic colorectal cancer in African Americans.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19190129,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19194051,\n", " 'text': 'Expression levels of fibronectin, vimentin and CITED1 were positively correlated with those of BRAFV600E, suggesting pathophysiological links between activated BRAF and overexpression of these genes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19200582,\n", " 'text': '(novel) mutation in the activation kinase domain of the BRAF (A598V), this mutation led to the up-regulation of the BRAF kinase activity and its downstream signaling factors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19206169,\n", " 'text': 'Findings provide evidence for a wide phenotypic diversity associated with mutations affecting BRAF, and occurrence of a clinical continuum associated with these molecular lesions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19207009,\n", " 'text': 'the presence of the braf protein mutation increases prohibitin promoter activity and therefore potentially mediates effects of this mutation on the behavior of BRAF protein'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19208736,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFT1799A mutation or RET/PTC rearrangement, mainly corresponding to follicular variants, maintain a thyroid differentiation expression level close to that of normal tissue.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19226609,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF* melanomas appear to be associated with a specific profile of DNA copy number aberrations that is distinct from those found in NRAS* and BRAF/NRAS(wt/wt) tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19237633,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19240718,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19255327,\n", " 'text': 'Clinical trial of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19274086,\n", " 'text': 'oncogenic BRAF(V600E) induces the uncoupling of LKB1-AMPKalpha complexes providing at the same time a possible mechanism in cell proliferation that engages cell growth and cell division in response to mitogenic stimuli'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19276360,\n", " 'text': 'GDC-0879-mediated efficacy was associated strictly with BRAF(V600E) status, MEK inhibition also attenuated proliferation and tumor growth of cell lines expressing wild-type BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19282104,\n", " 'text': 'study of KRAS/BRAF mutation status in a large and well-documented cohort of primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19289622,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19289622,\n", " 'text': 'a correlation between a gene mutation--BRAF V600E--and cisplatin resistance in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19342899,\n", " 'text': 'Both BRAF and RKIP expression levels exhibit a decrease from normal skin tissue and actinic keratosis, going to squamous cell carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19344998,\n", " 'text': 'In BRAF mutated colorectal carcinoma cells quercetin, luteolin and ursolic acid decreased Akt phosphorylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19351817,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19355825,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) is associated some of the aggressive clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma including younger age at diagnosis, larger tumor size, and classic histological type, as well as also extrathyroidal invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19355825,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19358278,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19362540,\n", " 'text': 'Targets of phosphorylation by B-Raf signaling are investigated in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19369630,\n", " 'text': 'K-ras, EGFR, and BRAF mutations are disproportionately seen in adenocarcinomas of lung with a dominant micropapillary growth pattern compared with conventional adenocarcinoma in our institutional experience.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19369630,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19370505,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation was significantly found in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19370505,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19372556,\n", " 'text': 'Mutation in BRAF is associated with ERK1/2 activation and MEK1/2 inhibitor therapy in colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19378335,\n", " 'text': 'proliferation of cells harboring mutations in B-Raf, but not K-Ras, is exquisitely sensitive inhibition of the MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19383313,\n", " 'text': 'REVIEW summarizes the literature on NRAS and BRAF activating mutations in melanoma tumors with respect to available data on histogenetic classification as well as body site and presumed UV-exposure.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19383316,\n", " 'text': 'The genes whose expression is associated with BRAF mutations are not simply restricted to the MAPK/ERK signaling but also converge to enhanced immune responsiveness, cell motility and melanosomes processing involved in the adaptative UV response'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19389934,\n", " 'text': 'a subpopulation of melanocytes possesses the ability to survive BRAF(V600E)-induced senescence'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19393416,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF mutation was found to be significantly higher in papillary carcinomas when compared to follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas (55.6% vs 14.3%, P = 0.05).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19393416,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19398955,\n", " 'text': 'The murine model of mutant BRAF-induced melanoma formation provides an important tool for identifying further genetic alterations that cooperates with BRAF and that may be useful in enhancing susceptibility to BRAF-targeted therapeutics in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19404844,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19404844,\n", " 'text': 'elevated pERK expression occurs in urothelial carcinoma in the absence of B-Raf mutations and is not correlated with FGFR3 over-expression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19404918,\n", " 'text': 'Investigated BRAF mutations in 30 bladder tumors. Detected two tumor specimens bearing two different mutations, both of which were found in exon 15. One sample showed the T1799A (V600E) and the other the G1798T (V600L) mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19404918,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19414674,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19415957,\n", " 'text': 'The T1799A BRAF mutation does not appear to play a role in the tumorigenesis of the cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19416762,\n", " 'text': 'Novel BRAF mutation in a patient with LEOPARD syndrome and normal intelligence is reported.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19424571,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is not the target gene for abnormal DNA mismatch repair in patients with sporadic endometrial cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19424639,\n", " 'text': \"Report efficient molecular screening of Lynch syndrome by specific 3' promoter methylation of the MLH1 or BRAF mutation in colorectal cancer with high-frequency microsatellite instability.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 19430562,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations in BRAF were found 10% patients in the low-grade carcinoma group, however, they were not found in the high-grade carcinoma group. KRAS and BRAF mutations were mutually exclusive, and both mutations were observed in 40%.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19430562,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19440799,\n", " 'text': 'oncogenic properties of KRAS and BRAF but not NRAS, HRAS, and PIK3CA contribute to the tumorigenesis of periampullary and ampullary tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19461239,\n", " 'text': 'mismatch repair deficiency is not a crucial event for BRAF mutation in melanocytic tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19464601,\n", " 'text': 'The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway has emerged as a major player in the induction and maintenance of melanoma, particularly the protein kinase BRAF, mutated in approximately 44% of melanoma cases. Review.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19474002,\n", " 'text': 'data confirm that KRAS and BRAF mutations do occur in the same cell and that BRAF V600E mutation is associated with CIMP+ status.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19483722,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf/MKK/ERK provides a permissive environment for melanoma genesis by modulating plexin B1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19487299,\n", " 'text': 'If BRAF is mutated in the primary thyroid neoplasm, it is likely that the metastases will harbor the defect.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19487299,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19492075,\n", " 'text': 'Targeting NRAS alone or both BRAF and CRAF in combination or both BRAF and PIK3CA together showed delay in tumor growth.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19498322,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19498322,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that activating BRAF somatic mutations may be occasionally found in advanced adrenocortical carcinomas, while CTNNB1 activating mutations are early and common events in adrenal tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19504446,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19534622,\n", " 'text': 'CTNNB1 and BRAF mutations may have roles in the cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19534623,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E may have a role in development of papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19543740,\n", " 'text': 'Pilocytic astrocytomas had BRAF fusions in 70% of cases but not IDH1 or IDH2 mutations. Diffuse astrocytomas had IDH1 mutations in 76% of cases but not IDH2 mutations or BRAF fusions. Analysis of BRAF and IDH1 separates pilocytic from diffuse astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19547661,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19551857,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19561230,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations represent an alternative molecular pathway in the early tumorigenesis of a subset of KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GISTs and are per se not associated with a high risk of malignancy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19561230,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19571295,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19571295,\n", " 'text': 'study concludes that a BRAF mutation is a negative prognostic marker in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19571709,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutated tumors occurred with a much greater frequency in proximal colon tumors than in either distal colon or rectal tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19571821,\n", " 'text': 'We observed no association between germline MC1R status and somatic BRAF mutations in melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19574281,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation analysis can significantly improve FNAB diagnostic accuracy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19584155,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19584155,\n", " 'text': 'Results suggest that the mutations of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF between primary tumors and corresponding lymph node metastases should be considered whenever mutations are used for the selection of patients for EGFR-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19603018,\n", " 'text': 'Assessing KRAS and BRAF mutations might help optimising the selection of the candidate metastatic colorectal cancer patients to receive anti-EGFR moAbs.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19603018,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19603024,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (P=0.01) mutations predicted reduced progress free survival in response to cetuximab salvage therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer .'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19603024,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19624312,\n", " 'text': 'Mutated BRAF is a target in metastatic melanomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19626635,\n", " 'text': 'In this study, 28 matched tumor and serum samples obtained from patients with both benign and malignant thyroid disorders were analyzed for BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19626635,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19628078,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19633643,\n", " 'text': 'Characterization of candidate gene copy number alterations in the 11q13 region along with BRAF and NRAS mutations in human melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19637313,\n", " 'text': 'strong inter-relation between DR4 AND DR5 overexpression and presence of oncogenic KRAS/ BRAF mutations in colon cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19638574,\n", " 'text': 'Sorafenib inhibits NSCLC cell growth by targeting B-RAF in cells with wild-type KRAS and C-RAF in those with mutant KRAS.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19644722,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19652585,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19659611,\n", " 'text': 'simultaneous depletion of both MITF and BRAF(V600E) significantly inhibited melanoma growth even for the melanoma cell lines resistant to MITF depletion'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19667985,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that in pilocytic astrocytomas, the BRAF fusion gene has been identified as a specific and frequent event leading to potentially targetable mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19669908,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and DATA ERROR. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19679016,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that drugs are effective in targeting essential molecular pathways of BRAF, PTEN, Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19679059,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations in BRAF protein is associated with Colorectal Carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19679059,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19681119,\n", " 'text': 'Investigated the prevalence of PTPN11, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, MEK1, and MEK2 mutations in a relatively large cohort of primary embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) tumors. No mutation was observed in BRAF and MEK genes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19682280,\n", " 'text': 'This study provides a basis for understanding the molecular processes that are regulated by (V600E)BRAF/MEK signalling in melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19686742,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19690147,\n", " 'text': 'a dual mechanism that affects the Sprouty2/B-Raf interaction: Sprouty phosphorylation and B-Raf conformation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19693938,\n", " 'text': 'Whenever necessary BRAF testing may be performed on the residual samples of thyroid nodules, without interfering with routine cytology.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19704056,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19710001,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation can be used as a potential prognostic factor in PTMC patients in a BRAF(V600E)-prevalent area.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19710016,\n", " 'text': 'DGKeta acts as a novel critical regulatory component of the Ras/B-Raf/C-Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade via a previously unidentified mechanism.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19718661,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of the effect on the Ras/Raf signaling pathway of post-translational modifications of neurofibromin'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19724843,\n", " 'text': 'This article focuses on reviewing the impact of the BRAFV600E mutation in the tumorigenesis of Papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19725049,\n", " 'text': 'EPAC-mediated cellular effects require activation of the B-Raf/ERK and mTOR signaling cascades'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19735675,\n", " 'text': 'Insights into the molecular function of the inactivating mutations of B-Raf involving the DFG motif.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19738388,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19738460,\n", " 'text': 'Papillary carcinomas of the thyroid with papillary growth and areas of follicular growth have a high frequency of BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19745699,\n", " 'text': 'Beta-catenin nuclear labeling is a common feature of sessile serrated adenomas and correlates with early neoplastic progression after BRAF activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19752400,\n", " 'text': 'The polyclonality of BRAF mutations in acquired melanocytic nevi suggests that mutation of BRAF may not be an initial event in melanocyte transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19759551,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of coexisting NRAS and BRAF mutations in primary familial melanomas with specific CDKN2A germline alterations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19765726,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19794125,\n", " 'text': 'As predicted from the genomic organization at this locus, 22 of 36 patients with sporadic pilocytic astrocytomas and B-Raf gene rearrangement also exhibit corresponding homeodomain interacting protein kinase-2 (HIPK2) gene amplification.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19826477,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19829302,\n", " 'text': 'data argues against obligatory downregulation in IGFBP7 expression in BRAF mutated melanoma cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19850689,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(T1799A) can be detected in the blood of papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with residual or metastatic disease and may provide diagnostic information'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19850689,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19855373,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutations were seen in 83% of proximal and 74% of distal hyperplastic colonic polyps'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19861538,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E oncogene induces transforming growth factor beta secretion leading to sodium iodide symporter repression and increased malignancy in thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19861964,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19861964,\n", " 'text': 'These data demonstrate the feasibility of BRAF mutation detection in cfDNA of patients with advanced melanoma. Future studies should aim to incorporate BRAF mutation testing in cfDNA to further validate this biomarker for patient selection.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19878585,\n", " 'text': 'Suppression of BRAF gene expression inhibited cell proliferation in cells with BRAF(V600E) mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19880519,\n", " 'text': 'Hyperactivation of BRAF-MEK signaling activates MAP2 expression in melanoma cells by two independent mechanisms, promoter demethylation or down-regulation of neuronal transcription repressor HES1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19881948,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and KRAS oncogenes have different transforming capability in colon cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19883729,\n", " 'text': 'The knowledge of BRAF mutation status can facilitate more accurate risk stratification and better decision making at various steps in the management of papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19884549,\n", " 'text': 'Clinical trial of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19884549,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS and BRAF mutations in advanced colorectal cancer are associated with poor prognosis but do not preclude benefit from oxaliplatin or irinotecan.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19884556,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF status, EGFR amplification, and cytoplasmic expression of PTEN were associated with outcome measures in KRAS wild-type patients treated with a cetuximab-based regimen.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19884556,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19893451,\n", " 'text': 'Study identified the previously reported pathogenic mutation of NTRK3 in a KRAS/BRAF wild-type tumor and 2 somatic mutations in the Src family of kinases (YES1 and LYN) that would be expected to cause structural changes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19903786,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19908233,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF gene mutation is associated with colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19908233,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19913317,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are not relevant for rectal carcinogenesis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19913317,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19917255,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that melanoma cells expressing B-Raf(V600E) display a reduced C-Raf:B-Raf ratio, and further suppression of C-Raf increases MAPK activation and proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19919630,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutational status appears to be of limited diagnostic utility in distinguishing genital naevi that exhibit atypia from those that do not.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19919912,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19935791,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19955937,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19955937,\n", " 'text': 'v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene mutations are common in ovarian serous bordeline tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19956635,\n", " 'text': 'Uncategorized study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19958951,\n", " 'text': 'clinical, cytologic, and pathologic parameters of 106 consecutive surgically treated patients with BRAF-positive PTC were compared with a concurrent cohort of 100 patients with BRAF-negative PTC (papillary thyroid carcinoma)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19959686,\n", " 'text': '2-fold increased risk of BRAF V600E colonic tumor mutation was observed in current and former cigarette smokers homozygous for the OGG1 polymorphism'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19960590,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF T1796A mutation was identified in 27% of papillary thyroid cancer samples and its identification may be used to determine this risk factor of the development of papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19960590,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20008640,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20009493,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with high-risk clinicopathological characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma and worse prognosis of patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20009493,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20012784,\n", " 'text': 'Screening for BRAF, RET, KRAS, NRAS, and HRAS mutations, as well as RET-PTC1 and RET-PTC3 rearrangements, was performed on cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis with a dominant nodule'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20023270,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E detection in the tumor does not induce a higher expression of the B-raf protein or the preferential activation of the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway compared with GISTs without the BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20027224,\n", " 'text': 'CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-specific inactivation of BRAF(V600E)-induced senescence and apoptosis pathways by IGFBP7 DNA hypermethylation might create a favorable context for the acquisition of BRAF(V600E) in CIMP+ colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20043015,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20043015,\n", " 'text': 'no support for MC1R variants with BRAF mutation for melanoma risk'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20044755,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF gene rearrangements were more common in cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma than non-cerebellar tumors; clinical outcome was independent of BRAF status'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20049644,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations only in metastases is not associated with resistance to anti-EGFR treatment in primary colorectal tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20049644,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20051945,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20068183,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation seems to define a subset of malignant astrocytomas in children, in which there is frequent concomitant homozygous deletion of CDKN2A (five of seven cases).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20098682,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20118768,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20140953,\n", " 'text': 'Formalin-fixed primary melanomas from relapsed and nonrelapsed patients were sequenced for common BRAF and NRAS mutations. BRAF/NRAS mutations were detected in 77% of relapsers and 58% of nonrelapsers and did not predict ulceration or mitotic rate.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20146801,\n", " 'text': 'Data demonstrate a signaling loop between B-Raf activation and p73 function, and suggest that low expression of TAp73 in colorectal cancer cell lines with mutated B-Raf may lead to lack of response to oxaliplatin/cetuximab.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20156809,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF activating mutations are a major genetic alteration in this histologic group of pediatric low-grade brain tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20162668,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20162668,\n", " 'text': 'With MSI, specific KRAS and BRAF mutations, 3 distinct prognostic subgroups were observed: patients with (i) KRAS mutation G12D, G12V or BRAFmutation, (ii) KRAS/BRAFwild-type or KRAS G13D mutations in MSS/MSI-L and (iii) MSI-H and KRAS G13D mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20177422,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20182446,\n", " 'text': 'High oncogenic BRAF levels trigger autophagy, which may have a role in melanoma tumor progression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20186801,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20187782,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20200438,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20200438,\n", " 'text': 'we measured the prevalence and epidemiologic correlates of the BRAF V600E somatic mutation in cases collected as a part of a population-based case-control study of colorectal cancer in northern Israel.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20230995,\n", " 'text': 'pathogenesis of papillary thyroid cancer , and the clinical implications of BRAF(V600E) mutation in the diagnosis, prognosis and potential targeted therapeutic strategies for thyroid cancer [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20233436,\n", " 'text': 'data support the model of BRAF and K-ras mutations arising in distinct colorectal cancer subsets associated with different clinicopathological and dietary factors, acting as mutually exclusive mechanisms of activation of the same signalling pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20234366,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20300843,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is not associated with interval cancers but is a marker of poor prognosis, particularly in microsatellite stable cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20300843,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20302979,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20303012,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20303012,\n", " 'text': 'Our study suggests that mutations of KRAS, not BRAF, may play a role in the pathogenesis of prostate carcinoma in Chinese patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20305537,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20332228,\n", " 'text': 'Studies show FOXD3 is suppressed by B-RAF, uncover a novel role and mechanism for FOXD3 as a negative cell cycle regulator, and have implications for the repression of melanocytic lineage cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20351680, 'text': 'Mutated in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20379614,\n", " 'text': 'Clinical trial of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20381121,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20406109,\n", " 'text': 'The miR-146b expression levels in papillary thyroid carcinoma with BRAF mutation were significantly higher than those without this mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20407018,\n", " 'text': 'Activated Raf-1 induces focal adhesion kinase expression and regulates neuroendocrine and metastatic phenotypes in gastrointestinal carcinoid cell line BON.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20410389,\n", " 'text': 'thyroid carcinoma with the BRAF(V600E) mutation tends to be taller than wide and is not associated with the presence of calcifications on ultrasound.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20413299,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20444249,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20445557,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF(V600E) can protect melanocytes from anoikis independently of cell cycle inhibition'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20453000,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20454969,\n", " 'text': 'This study identified an exceptionally high frequency of KIAA1549-BRAF fusions in pilocytic astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20460314,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20460314,\n", " 'text': 'These data demonstrate a high prevalence of B-RAF mutations in the present study population, underscoring the possibility of strong regional differences.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20473281,\n", " 'text': 'Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha is expressed in papillary thyroid carcinomas and is regulated not only by hypoxia but also by BRAF(V600E)-mediated signaling pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20473281,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20478260,\n", " 'text': 'Study concludes that the secreted protein IGFBP7 is dispensable for B-RAF(V600E)-induced senescence in human melanocytes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20485284,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutations are associated with MSI-H status and cyclin D1 overexpression and characterize a subgroup of patients with poor prognosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20485284,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20489114,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20495538,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20496269,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20498063,\n", " 'text': 'Knockdown of B-Raf(V600E) resulted in thrombospondin-1 down-regulation and a reduction of adhesion and migration/invasion of human thyroid cancer cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20501503,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20501503,\n", " 'text': 'The V600E BRAF mutation confers a worse prognosis to stage II and stage III colon cancer patients independently of disease stage and therapy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20501689,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20514492,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation may be used a biomarker for the selection of patients with colorectal cancer patients who might benefit from anti-egf receptor monoclonal antibodies.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20514492,\n", " 'text': 'Meta-analysis of gene-disease association, gene-environment interaction, and pharmacogenomic / toxicogenomic. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20519626,\n", " 'text': 'Studies identified the oncogenic BRAF V600E mutation in 35 of 61 archived specimens (57%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20526288,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20526288,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF 1799T>A mutation was found in 5 of 19 (26%) of infiltrative follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas and in none of the encapsulated carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20543023,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20563851,\n", " 'text': 'HER2, but not EGFR gene amplification, is frequently observed in KRAS and BRAF wild type colorectal cancer patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20563851,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20569675,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20569675,\n", " 'text': 'reports the low frequency of PIK3CA and B-RAF mutations in astrocytomas, despite the presence of activated ERK and AKT proteins'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20570909,\n", " 'text': 'Incidence of cancer in FDRs of index CRC patients with the p.V600E BRAF mutation may be explained by a genetic predisposition to develop cancer through the serrated pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20570909,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20571907,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20571907,\n", " 'text': 'PIK3CA mutations may have a role in KRAS and BRAF wild type colorectal cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20573852,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutational status of metastases is not required when the primary tumour is BRAF wild type.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20576522,\n", " 'text': 'allele specific Taqman-based real-time PCR assay allows the sensitive, accurate and reliable measurement of BRAF(V600E) mutated DNA in plasma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20591910,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20605766,\n", " 'text': 'in melanomas activation of the MAPK pathway can occur through signaling pathways operating independently of BRAF T1799A'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20607849,\n", " 'text': 'V600E BRAF mutation is not associated with seminoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20616366,\n", " 'text': 'Using traditional PCR and direct sequencing, we found KRAS mutations in 47 (40%) patients and BRAF(V600E) in 10 (8.5%)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20619739,\n", " 'text': 'if KRAS is not mutated, assessing BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA exon 20 mutations (in that order) gives additional information about the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20627194,\n", " 'text': 'PCR is practically applicable to KRAS/BRAF genotyping using small amounts of biopsied colorectal tumor cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20631031,\n", " 'text': 'No significant difference in BRAF alterations was found between pT1 tumors and thyroid capsule invasion and pT3 tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20631031,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20635392,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20640859,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20645028,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20645028,\n", " 'text': 'samples of metastatic colorectal cancer were tested for the presence of the seven most common mutations in the KRAS gene and the V600E mutation in the BRAF gene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20647301,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20647317,\n", " 'text': 'Findings delineate how mutant B-RAF protects melanoma cells from apoptosis and provide insight into possible resistance mechanisms to B-RAF inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20652941,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20670148,\n", " 'text': 'Traditional DNA sequencing and the somewhat more-sensitive pyrosequencing method can detect multiple alternative BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20679909,\n", " 'text': 'Mutant Braf can be detected in RNA from mixed populations with as few as 0.1% Braf(V600E) mutant cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20689758,\n", " 'text': 'PLX4032 has robust activity in BRAF mutated melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20702649,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20703476,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of genetic testing. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20720566,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20720566,\n", " 'text': 'association between MC1 receptor germline variation and BRAF/NRAS mutations in melanoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20736745,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-gene interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20802181,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is rare in advanced-stage low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20802181,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20807807,\n", " 'text': 'Mutant protein kinase elicits significant therapeutic responses in mutant BRAF-driven human melanoma xenografts.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20813562,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20813562,\n", " 'text': 'first report implicating BRAF mutation in OSCC. study supports that mutations in the BRAF gene makes at least a minor contribution to OSCC tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20837233,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation detection in fine needle biopsy may be an adjunct tool for preoperative didagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20840674,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20840674,\n", " 'text': 'RET rearrangements and BRAF mutation in undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas having papillary carcinoma components'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20843808,\n", " 'text': 'A BRAF aberrant splice variant with an intact kinase domain and partial loss of the N-terminal autoinhibitory domain was identified in fibroblasts from an additional patient, and fibroblast proliferation was inhibited by BRAF-specific siRNA.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20853079,\n", " 'text': 'reduced RKIP mRNA levels and the elevated levels of B-RAF in pT1, grade III tumors vs. normal tissue, corroborate that these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of urinary bladder cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20857202,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with lack of response in wild-type KRAS metastatic colorectal cancer treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20860430,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20881644,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20944096,\n", " 'text': 'Determination of the BRAF mutation and the growth fraction of melanomas may add a prognostic value.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20944096,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20945104,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is associated with thyroid nodules.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20945104,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20947270,\n", " 'text': 'In the present series, no BRAF mutation was detected. The presence of KRAS mutations and loss of PTEN expression were not associated with impaired response to cetuximab-based chemoradiotherapy and 3-year disease free survival.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20947270,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20950194,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF is mutated in a low percentage of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and most of these mutated cases are suspicious or positive on fine-needle aspiration.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20953721,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20955560,\n", " 'text': 'Anti-BRAF autoantibodies from RA patients preferentially recognize one BRAF peptide: P2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20959481,\n", " 'text': 'Braf mutation is associated with basal and treatment-induced regulation of the PI3K-AKT pathway as a critical regulator of AZD6244 sensitivity in cutaneous melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20962618,\n", " 'text': 'Describe benign serrated colorectal fibroblastic polyps/intramucosal perineuriomas are true mixed epithelial-stromal polyps (hybrid hyperplastic polyp/mucosal perineurioma) with frequent BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20975100,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20979647,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21048031,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21049459,\n", " 'text': 'Although many studies document BRAF mutation as a prognostic factor in PTC our results underline that it is too early to consider it as a routine clinical predictive factor.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21049459,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21051183,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21051183,\n", " 'text': 'findings indicate that somatic mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA but not BRAF oncogenes are closely associated with the development of cholangiocarcinoma in Chinese population'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21068756,\n", " 'text': 'The dermoscopical and histopathological patterns of nevi correlate with the frequency of BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21076620,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that BRAF knockdown led to suppression of the expression of the GABPbeta, which involved in regulating HPR1 promoter activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21098728,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF gene amplification can promote acquired resistance to MEK inhibitors in cancer cells harboring the BRAF V600E mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21102258,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations of EGFR, BRAF, and KRAS in adenocarcinoma were mutually exclusive and inversely correlated with RASSF1A methylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21102416,\n", " 'text': 'We show a strong association between concordant methylation of >/= 3 of five 3p22 genes with the CpG island methylator phenotype and the BRAF V600E mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21103049,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that among 181 CRC patients, stratified by microsatellite instability status, DNA sequence changes were identified in KRAS (32%), BRAF (16%), PIK3CA (4%), PTEN (14%) and TP53 (51%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21107320,\n", " 'text': 'identification of MAP3K8 (the gene encoding COT/Tpl2) as a MAPK pathway agonist that drives resistance to RAF inhibition in B-RAF(V600E) cell lines'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21107323,\n", " 'text': 'melanomas escape B-RAF(V600E) targeting not through secondary B-RAF(V600E) mutations but via receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated activation of alternative survival pathway(s) or activated RAS-mediated reactivation of the MAPK pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21129611,\n", " 'text': 'It therefore appears that BRAF mutations may play a strong negative prognostic role and only a slight role in resistance to anti-EGFR Abs.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21131919,\n", " 'text': 'Primary esophageal melanomas of Caucasian patients harbor mutations of c-Kit, KRAS and BRAF in varied frequencies.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21134544,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma is associated with an increased risk of palpable nodal recurrence and the need for reoperative surgery.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21134562,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and confer an aggressive thyroid cancer phenotype.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21161938,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS mutations arise more frequently than BRAF mutations in Moroccan patients with colorectal carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21166657,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF mutation was frequently detected in patients with superficial spreading melanoma (OR=2.021; P<0.001) and in melanomas arising in nonchronic sun-damaged skin (OR=2.043; P=0.001).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21167555,\n", " 'text': 'concluded that follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma differs from conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma in the rate of BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21176117,\n", " 'text': 'These results show that melanoma cell phenotype is an important factor in MAPK pathway inhibition response, as invasive phenotype cell response is dependent on BRAF mutation status.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21185263,\n", " 'text': 'this study has confirmed that the BRAF(T1799A) mutation confers cancer cells sensitivity to PLX4032 and demonstrated its specific potential as an effective and BRAF(T1799A) mutation-selective therapeutic agent for thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21190184,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf(insT) and B-Raf(V600E) , but not B-Raf(wt) , provoke drastic morphological alterations in human astrocytes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21203559,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF alternative splicing is differentially regulated in human and mouse. BRAF exon 9b is required for learning and memory associated with the hippocampus.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21215707,\n", " 'text': 'In melanoma cells, oncogenic (V600E) BRAF signaling downregulates PDE5A through the transcription factor BRN2, leading to increased cGMP and Ca2+ and the induction of invasion through increased cell contractility.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21223556,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf signaling has a key function in the altered expression of contractile receptors in the cerebrovasculature.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21223812,\n", " 'text': 'The high expression of activated ERK is not caused by BRAF gene mutation in nasal mucosa malignant melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21224857,\n", " 'text': 'Acquisition of a BRAF mutation is not a founder event, but may be one of the multiple clonal events in melanoma development, which is selected for during the progression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21239517,\n", " 'text': 'We found that performing BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis on the fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens was of great help to make a therapeutic decision for thyroid nodules when the fine-needle aspiration biopsy results were equivocal'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21249150,\n", " 'text': 'the oncogenic effect of BRAF(V600E) is associated with the inhibition of MST1 tumor suppressor pathways, and the activity of RASSF1A-MST1-FoxO3 pathways determines the phenotypes of BRAF(V600E) tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21263251,\n", " 'text': 'These findings suggest that BRAF mutations may be associated with the pathogenesis of sessile serrated colorectal adenomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21270111,\n", " 'text': 'Findings suggest inhibition of autophagy in combination with ER stress-inducing agents may represent a means by which to harness autophagy for the therapeutic benefit of B-RAF wild-type melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21274671,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf mutations, microsatellite instability and p53 protein expression is not associated with sporadic basal cell carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21274720,\n", " 'text': 'The analysis of BRAF V600E mutation in 1,320 nervous system tumors reveals high mutation frequencies in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, ganglioglioma and extra-cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21285991,\n", " 'text': 'Presence of mutated BRAF is one of the most powerful prognostic factors for advanced and recurrent CRC'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21289333,\n", " 'text': '803 metastatic colorectal cancer samples studied for KRAS exon 2 and BRAF exon 15 mutations; BRAF mutated samples were characterized for mismatch repair function; 344 tumours were mutated -34 involving BRAF mutations (8 of microsatellite instability type)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21303778,\n", " 'text': 'Ras/Raf/MAPK and RhoA/ROCKII signalling pathways are abnormally activated in eutopic endometrial stromal cells of patients with endometriosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21305640,\n", " 'text': '78 colorectal tumor samples were mutant for BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21307665,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of gallbladder carcinomas, gallbladder adenomas, and high-grade dysplastic lesions for the BRAF and the KRAS mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21317202,\n", " 'text': 'Findings suggest that inhibition of Raf-MEK-Erk pathway might offer a novel therapeutic strategy in neuroendocrine tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21317224,\n", " 'text': 'Studies showed that siRNA knockdown of BIM significantly blunted the apoptotic response in PTEN+ melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21317286,\n", " 'text': 'identified BAD serine 134 to be strongly involved in survival signaling of B-RAF-V600E-containing tumor cells and found that phosphorylation of BAD at this residue is critical for efficient proliferation in these cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21321384,\n", " 'text': 'identifying downstream events from the BRAFV600E/ERK1/2 pathway will eventually identify novel biomarkers that can be used to correlate with disease outcome and overall survival.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21324100,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that BRAF-mutated melanomas occur in a younger age group on skin without marked solar elastosis and less frequently affect the head and neck area, compared to melanomas without BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21326296,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations have a smaller role in the carcinogenesis of malignant melanoma in Chinese Han than in Western patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21332555,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations were rare in colorectal laterally-spreading tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21343559,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of mutant BRAF had no impact on the disease-free interval from diagnosis of first-ever melanoma to first distant metastasis; however, it may have impacted survival thereafter.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21345796,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf associates with and stimulates NHE1 activity and that B-Raf(V600E) also increases NHE1 activity that raises intracellular pH.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21351275,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with selective inhibition of thyroid cancer cells by the novel MEK inhibitor RDEA119 and genetic-potentiated synergism with the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21356389,\n", " 'text': 'IDH1 mutation works with other oncogenic mutations and could contribute to the metastasis in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21362156,\n", " 'text': 'Regulation of NR4A nuclear receptor expression by oncogenic BRAF in melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21383284,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutational status yielded no useful prognostic information in predicting recurrence and benefits from adjuvant chemotherapy in colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21383288,\n", " 'text': 'Thus, MEK1(C121S) or functionally similar mutations are predicted to confer drug resistance of neoplasms to combined MEK/RAF inhibition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21383698,\n", " 'text': 'tumor initiation by oncogenic BRAF renders thyroid cells susceptible to TGFbeta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, through a MAPK-dependent process'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21390154,\n", " 'text': 'K-ras gene mutation is a common event in Chinese colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, but may not be a prognostic factor in CRC , while BRAF is rarely mutated in Chinese CRC patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21408138,\n", " 'text': 'Allele-specific qPCR assays for the most frequent activating mutations in EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA in tumor-positive fine needle cytological aspirates were compared against histological material of primary tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21412762,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21424126,\n", " 'text': 'study suggested that both KRAS and BRAF mutations are exclusive, but KRAS and PIK3CA mutations are coexistent'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21424530,\n", " 'text': 'This study demonistrated that the role of RAF kinase fusions as a central oncogenic mechanism in the development of pilocytic astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21426297,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations at the position V600 of BRAF were described in approximately 8% of all solid tumors, including 50% of melanomas, 30 to 70% of papillary thyroid carcinomas and 5 to 8% of colorectal adenocarcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21427714,\n", " 'text': 'There were no significant differences in the frequency of BRAF mutations among lesions exhibiting the hyperplastic, adenomatous, or mixed patterns.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21430505,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation may play different roles between medium and giant CMNs in melanocytic tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21431280,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF T1799A mutation may be an early and essential carcinogenic event in nearly all Korean papillary thyroid carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21441079,\n", " 'text': 'In papilary thyroid carcinoma, the BRAFT1799A mutation is associated with age over 60 & a tumor size of 1cm or greater, but not with other clinicopathological characteristics, tumor recurrence or persistence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21441910,\n", " 'text': \"KSR interacts with a regulatory Raf molecule in cis to induce a conformational switch of MEK, facilitating MEK's phosphorylation by a separate catalytic Raf molecule in trans\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 21447798,\n", " 'text': 'Amplification of the driving oncogene, KRAS or BRAF, underpins acquired resistance to MEK1/2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21451543,\n", " 'text': 'Activated BRAF promotes melanoma cell growth by matrix metalloproteinase-1'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21455633,\n", " 'text': 'No V600E mutation was identified in the BRAF gene in any sample.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21456008,\n", " 'text': 'the impact of BRAF mutation and microsatellite instability on prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21457162,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are specific for serrated adenocarcinoma and identify a subset of serrated adenocarcinomas with gene methylation and a tendency for MSI-H'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21479234,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutations are common in the majority of pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21483104,\n", " 'text': 'Heterogeneity of KRAS and BRAF mutation status intra-tumorally in colorectal cancer was assessed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21498916,\n", " 'text': 'findings support the notion that BRAF(V600E), which can be detected preoperatively in papillary thyroid carcinoma fine-needle aspiration biopsy material, has a potential to contribute to patients stratification into high- and low-risk groups.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21512141,\n", " 'text': 'Mutated BRAF is detected in approximately 45% of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21514245,\n", " 'text': 'Ablation of B-Raf had no significant effect on development of K-Ras oncogene-driven non-small cell lung carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21553007,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations, but not KRAS mutations, were associated with a worse outcome in Chinese colorectal cancer patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21557216,\n", " 'text': 'MSS/BRAF mutant cancers were more commonly proximal (38/54, 70.3%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21570823,\n", " 'text': 'Analysis showed that blood samples with PCR evidence for CMC were heterogeneous for BRAF status under limiting-dilution conditions, suggestive of heterogeneity of CMC'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21577205,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that Raf kinases are excellent molecular targets for anticancer therapy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21587258,\n", " 'text': 'Wnt5a methylation was strongly associated with tumour microsatellite instability tumours after adjustment for age, sex, and tumour location and with BRAF V600E mutation, a marker of CpG island methylator phenotype'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21594703,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with recurrent papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21636552,\n", " 'text': 'introduction of constitutively active BRAF V600E into human cortical stem and progenitor cells initially promotes clonogenic growth in soft agar but ultimately results in dramatically reduced proliferation and arrested growth of the culture.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21653734,\n", " 'text': 'Compared with BRAF-wt papillary thyroid cancer, those harboring BRAF(V600E) exhibit downregulated VEGFA, VEGFR, and PDGFRbeta expression, suggesting presence of BRAF mutation does not imply stronger response to drugs targeting VEGF and PDGFB signal pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21663470,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutation was present in all patients with hairy-cell leukemia who were evaluated.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21681432,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutation did not show association with clinical or molecular characteristics of colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21693616,\n", " 'text': 'Eight of 16 primary tumor samples and 4 of 6 metastatic samples showed BRAF V600E gene mutations and no copy number changes were associated exclusively with metastatic cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21696415,\n", " 'text': 'The frequency of BRAF-KIAA1549 fusion transcripts is significantly lower in adult patients with pilocytic astrocytoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21705440,\n", " 'text': 'MEK1(F129L) mutation also strengthened binding to c-Raf, suggesting an underlying mechanism of higher intrinsic kinase activity'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21707687,\n", " 'text': 'The application of BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in US-guided FNAB can improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid nodules.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21716161,\n", " 'text': 'We describe a new mutation of BRAF, T599dup, in a case of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with tall cell papillary thyroid carcinomas component.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21725359,\n", " 'text': 'identified concurrent mutational inactivation of the PTEN and RB1 tumor suppressors as a mechanism for loss of BRAF/MEK dependence in melanomas harboring (V600E)BRAF mutations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21750338,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation of papillary thyroid carcinoma may have differential predictive values for LN metastasis, according to tumor size.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21774961,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis using residual liquid-based preparation cytologic samples is, therefore, a powerful additional diagnostic tool for diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21788131,\n", " 'text': 'Patients with mutations in BRAF or NRAS gene are frequently present with ulceration, and mutation in BRAF or NRAS gene is indicator for poor prognosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21796448,\n", " 'text': 'Importance of infiltrative growth pattern and invasiveness over presence of BRAF mutation in classic and follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma for development of nodal metastases.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21803329,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is not indicative for predicting papillary thyroid cancer prognosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21825258,\n", " 'text': 'study reports that V600E and non-V600E BRAF mutations affect different patients with non-small-cell lung cancer; V600E mutations are significantly associated with female sex and represent a negative prognostic factor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21826673,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations and llelic loss of susceptibility loci are associated with familial non-medullary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21835307,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF/MEK/ERK pathway is upregulated in progressive retinal arterial macroaneurysm patients, caused by mutation in IGFBP7.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21863388,\n", " 'text': 'Braf mutation in metastatic melanoma treated with BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21871821,\n", " 'text': 'Genetic analysis revealed individual heterozygous mutations in the KRAS (phenotype of CFC/Noonan syndrome) and BRAF genes (phenotype of CFC syndrome)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21875464,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation has a significant correlation with papillary thyroid carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21882184,\n", " 'text': 'the BRAF(V600E) mutation should be considered as a poor prognostic marker in papillary thyroid cancer (Meta-Analysis)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21900390,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that BRAF V600E mutation initiates follicular cell transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21901162,\n", " 'text': 'In sporadic colorectal tumourspatients, the most frequently mutated gene was APC (68.9% of tumours), followed by KRAS (31.1%), TP53 (27.2%), BRAF (8.7%) and CTNNB1 (1.9%).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21903858,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) causes upregulation of TIMP-1 via NF-kappaB. TIMP-1 binds then its surface receptor CD63, leading eventually to Akt activation, which in turn confers antiapoptotic behavior and promotion of cell invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21906875,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are of pathogenetic significance in wild type gastrointestinal stromal tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21909080,\n", " 'text': \"CXCR4 expression and BRAF mutation status could cooperatively induce and promote a more aggressive phenotype in papillary thyroid carcinoma through several pathways and specifically increase the tumors' spread outside of the thyroid gland.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 21915661,\n", " 'text': 'Aberrant CIMP was detected in 16% of chromosomal instable tumors and in 44% of both microsatellite instable and microsatellite and chromosomally stable carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21936566,\n", " 'text': 'this novel B-Raf fusion protein (SND-1 was identified as the B-Raf fusion partner) presents a novel target with potential clinical implications in the treatment of patients resistant to c-Met inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21937738,\n", " 'text': 'A prominent epigenetic mechanism through which BRAF V600E can promote papillary thyroid cancer tumorigenesis by altering the methylation and hence the expression of numerous important genes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21943101,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation V600E significantly induces cell migration and invasion properties in vitro in colon cancer cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21948220,\n", " 'text': 'In malignant FNABs in papillary thyroid carcinoma, BRAF(V600E) mutation was significantly associated with presence of extra-thyroidal extension and metastases after surgery.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22006538,\n", " 'text': 'DNA methylation of each marker was quantified using combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) and analyzed along with various genetic factors associated with CRC [the BRAF and KRAS mutations, MLH1 methylation and microsatellite instability'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22012135,\n", " 'text': 'An integrated approach combining both VE1 mutant protein immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis may increase the diagnostic accuracy of BRAF mutation analysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22027477,\n", " 'text': 'Postmenopausal hormone therapy was associated with borderline statistically significant risk reductions for BRAF-wildtype tumours among women with prolonged exposure to Postmenopausal hormone therapy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22028477,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with hairy cell leukemia and B-cell neoplasms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22033631,\n", " 'text': 'high prevalence of BRAF (V600E) mutation is associated with synchronous bilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22038996,\n", " 'text': 'Results support evaluation of BRAF(V600E)-specific inhibitors for treating BRAF(V600E) malignant astrocytomas (MA) patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22039425,\n", " 'text': 'study examined the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with mutant BRAF advanced cancer; conclude that BRAF appears to be a druggable mutation that also defines subgroups of patients with phenotypic overlap, albeit with differences that correlate with histology or site of mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22043994,\n", " 'text': 'This article reviewes the spectrum of KRAS/BRAF genotype and the impact of KRAS/BRAF mutations on the clinicopathological features and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22065586,\n", " 'text': 'Ras induces DR5 expression through co-activation of ERK/RSK and JNK signaling pathways'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22072557,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with hairy cell leukemia and other mature B-cell neoplasms'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22072743,\n", " 'text': 'BAG3 protein sustains anaplastic thyroid tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. The underlying molecular mechanism appears to rely on BAG3 binding to BRAF, thus protecting it from proteasome-dependent degradation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22105174,\n", " 'text': 'Murine thyroid tumors carrying the human BRAF(V600E) mutations are exquisitely dependent on the oncoprotein for viability.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22105775,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600E) is a prevalent genetic alteration in adult sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma in Indian cohort and it may be responsible for the progression of its classic variant.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22114137,\n", " 'text': 'Overall, no difference existed in microsatellite instability or BRAF mutation frequencies between African Americans and Caucasians with colorectal neoplasms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22133769,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations are associated with hairy cell leukemia and related lymphoproliferative disorders.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22136270,\n", " 'text': 'Case Report: describe case of follicular thyroid carcinoma with BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22137342, 'text': 'thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines are B-Raf inhibitors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22145942,\n", " 'text': 'Pyrosequencing of BRAF V600E in routine samples of hairy cell leukaemia identifies CD5+ variant hairy cell leukaemia that lacks V600E.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22147429,\n", " 'text': 'V600E mutation of the BRAF gene reported to be associated with poor prognosis of germ cell tumors in adults prognostic biomarkers cannot necessarily be transferred from one age group to the other.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22147942,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with inferior survival in stage III colon cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22150560,\n", " 'text': 'papillary thyroid cancers in young patients display a low prevalence of the already identified oncogenic alterations; the increasing prevalence with age is mainly due to V600E BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22156467,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutation is associated with a higher pathological stage at surgery and a higher rate of recurrence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22156468,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations enhance the predictability of malignancy in thyroid follicular lesions of undetermined significance.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22157687,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and KRAS mutations were observed in six (46.2%) and four (30.3%) filiform serrated adenomaS, respectively.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22170714,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma is a later subclonal event, its intratumoral heterogeneity may hamper the efficacy of targeted pharmacotherapy, and its association with a more aggressive disease should be reevaluated.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22174938,\n", " 'text': 'The antibody response against the catalytic domain of BRAF is not specific for rheumatoid arthritis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22178589,\n", " 'text': 'Report mutations in KRAS, EGFR, and BRAF in cholangiocarcinoma and identify therapeutic targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22180495,\n", " 'text': 'Findings suggest that the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib in combination with standard-of-care or novel targeted therapies may lead to enhanced and sustained clinical antitumor efficacy in CRCs harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22189819,\n", " 'text': 'Aberrant gene methylation driven by BRAF(V600E) altered expression of the DNA methyltransferase 1 and histone methyltransferase EZH2 profoundly.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22190222,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation was associated with high-risk clinicopathologic characteristics in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The BRAF(V600E) mutation may be a potential prognostic factor in PTC patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22190283,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf gene mutation primarily occurs at two loci--the exon 11 glycine loop and the activation area of exon 15--in surgically resected specimens of hepatocellular carcinoma patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22194995,\n", " 'text': 'These data support a model where the continuous regenerative process initiated by oncogenic B-RAF-driven alveolar disruption provides a tumor-promoting environment associated with chronic inflammation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22199277,\n", " 'text': 'RET mutations may have a role in medullary thyroid carcinoma, while BRAF, AKT1, and CTNNB1 do not; the role of HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS mutations are not determined'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22199339,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of BRAF gene mutations in non-small cell lung cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22203991,\n", " 'text': 'These results provide a functional link between oncogenic BRAF and angiogenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22210186,\n", " 'text': 'Patients with microsatellite instability tumor phenotype had favorable prognosis, but in those with the V600E BRAF mutation higher recurrence rate was observed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22210875,\n", " 'text': 'Our results suggest that HCLv and IGHV4-34(+) HCLs have a different pathogenesis than HCLc and that a significant minority of other HCLc are also wild-type for BRAF V600.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22214007,\n", " 'text': 'Although it constitutes a poor prognostic factor in colorectal cancer, it is not conclusive if it interferes with a poor therapeutic effect when cetuximab is used.[review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22227015,\n", " 'text': 'The findings show mutant BRAF-induced oncogenic stress manifests itself by DNA damage and growth arrest by activating the pCHK2-p53-p21 pathway.It also confers tumor-promoting phenotypes such as the up-regulation of GLUT1 and enhances glucose metabolism.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22228154,\n", " 'text': 'In patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma, there were significant differences between BRAF wild-type and mutant tumors in age, female sex, proximal tumor location, frequency of microsatellite instability, and survival.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22230299,\n", " 'text': 'One chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patient and one patient with B-prolymphocytic leukaemia were found to harbour the BRAF V600E mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22233696,\n", " 'text': 'Sessile serrated adenomas are precursors of sporadic colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability.Identified a novel surface microstructure, the Type II open-shape pit pattern (Type II-O), which was specific to SSAs with BRAF mutation and CIMP.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22235286,\n", " 'text': 'evidence for heterogeneity of the BRAF(V600E) mutation within individual melanoma tumor specimens'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22245873,\n", " 'text': 'No BRAF mutations were found in colon adenocarcinomas from renal transplant recipients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22246856,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation in low and intermediate grade lymphomas is associated with frequent occurrence in hairy cell leukaemia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22249628,\n", " 'text': 'None of the molecular marker mutations that were analyzed in this study, including the BRAF mutation, predicted lymph node metastasis in classic papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22250191,\n", " 'text': 'During therapy with selective BRAF inhibitors, panniculitis with arthralgia represents a new adverse effect that can require dose reduction.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22258409,\n", " 'text': 'Mutational activation of both BRAF and PIK3CA genes does contribute to hepatocellular tumorigenesis at somatic level in Southern Italian population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22282465,\n", " 'text': 'In naive GISTs carrying activating mutations in KIT or PDGFRA a concomitant activating mutation was detected in KRAS (5%) or BRAF (about 2%) genes. I'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22287190,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with colorectal serrated adenocarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22294102,\n", " 'text': 'No hotspot mutations in Braf were found in oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Greek population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22314188,\n", " 'text': 'Colon adenocarcinomas with BRAF mutations have morphologic characteristics distinct from those with KRAS mutations and BRAF-mutated proximal colonic adenocarcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair have an aggressive clinical course.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22317764,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that 266 (76.2%) tumors harbored EGFR mutations, 16 (4.6%) HER2 mutations, 15 (4.3%) EML4-ALK fusions, 7 (2.0%) KRAS mutations, and 2 (0.6%) BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22317887,\n", " 'text': 'Report of oncogenic BRAF/KRAS mutations in sporadic glomus tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22331186,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFmut as a useful marker in hairy cell leukemia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22331825,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is an independent prognostic biomarker for colorectal liver metastasectomy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22335197,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation-positive papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) displayed infiltrative growth, stromal fibrosis, psammoma bodies, plump eosinophilic tumour cells, and classic fully developed nuclear features of PTC.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22339435,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that the BRAF V600E mutation does not seem to play a role in myeloid malignant transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22358007,\n", " 'text': '(BRAF(V600E))detected in 141/170 malignant thyroid nodules (82.9%) (140 PTCs and one follicular variant of PTC). BRAF status not associated with US features with the exception of a negative relation between BRAF(V600E) and an irregular shape (p = 0.004).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22361037,\n", " 'text': 'This is the first reported study of the relationship between CK20/CK7 immunophenotype, BRAF mutations and microsatellite status in colorectal carcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22367297,\n", " 'text': 'A distinct subset of atypical Spitz tumors is characterized by BRAF mutation and loss of BAP1 expression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22368298,\n", " 'text': \"review demonstrates that tumour BRAF V600E mutation, and MLH1 promoter 'C region' methylation specifically, are strong predictors of negative MMR mutation status[review]\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 22374786,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of activating GNAS mutations, in association with KRAS or BRAF mutations, is a characteristic genetic feature of colorectal villous adenoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22376079,\n", " 'text': 'evidence presented that ERK activation occurs in a K-ras or B-raf -independent manner in the majority of primary colon cancer cases; B-raf mutations are not associated with mismatch-repair deficiency through loss of hMLH1 or hMSH2 expression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22376167,\n", " 'text': 'The V600E BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas may contribute to the initiation of the glycolytic phenotype and confers growth advantages in cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22382362,\n", " 'text': 'Eleven patients displayed Durable Disease Control (DDC) of which 55% had BRAF-V600E mutation positive tumors and 45% did not.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22393095,\n", " 'text': 'Patient diagnosed with colon cancer shows poor prognosis with BRAF genetic mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22395615,\n", " 'text': 'findings show (V600E)B-RAF copy-number gain as a mechanism of acquired B-RAF inhibitor resistance in 4 out of 20 patients treated with B-RAF inhibitor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22398042,\n", " 'text': 'In a cohort of Indian patients with ulcerative colitis, with or without neoplasia, none showed the BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22417847,\n", " 'text': 'we have analyzed the prevalence of somatic mutations in the FGFR3, PIK3CA, AKT1, KRAS, HRAS, and BRAF genes in bladder cancers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22426079,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that TaqMan(R) Mutation Detection assay is an important technology to consider in the field of mutation detection for KRAS, BRAF and EGFR point mutation screening.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22426956,\n", " 'text': 'genetic association studies in population in Turkey: Data suggest that a mutation in BRAF (V600E; found in 39.45% of patients) is associated with aggressiveness of papillary thyroid neoplasms; lymph node metastasis increases when mutation is present.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22427190,\n", " 'text': 'Investigation the prevalence of mutations in the BRAF gene and its correlation with demographic characteristics, tumor location and stage in 100 colorectal carcinoma patients from India.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22429583,\n", " 'text': 'Article reviews the current understanding of BRAF gene, its structure, expression, and signal pathway in non-small cell lung cancer. [Review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22430133,\n", " 'text': 'The prevalence of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA somatic mutations in 861 randomly selected Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22430208,\n", " 'text': 'We propose that , and that persistent phosphorylation of Mps1 through BRAF(V600E) signaling is a key event in disrupting the control of centrosome duplication and chromosome stability that may contribute to tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22430215,\n", " 'text': 'expression of these oncogenes markedly stimulated ERK1/2 activities and morphologically transformed IECs. Importantly however'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22431777,\n", " 'text': 'Effective use of PDT in the treatment of BRAF inhibitor-associated KAs and SCCs.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22431868,\n", " 'text': 'EFVPTC 1 patient BRAFV600E mutation, NVPTC 2 patients, FVPTC 2 patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22435913,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of a patient with pancreatic metastasis arising from a BRAF(V600E)-positive papillary thyroid cancer [case report]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22451557,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis from FNA specimens for calcified thyroid nodules may be performed for a greater negative predictive value and unveil the malignancy in 25% of indeterminate or nondiagnostic cytology.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22456166,\n", " 'text': 'Report marked differences in the genetic pattern of the BRAF or NRAS mutated and wild-type melanoma subgroups.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22459936,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations play a limited role in the development of sinonasal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22471241,\n", " 'text': 'Out of 1041 Korean patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, 0.4% had rare types of BRAF mutation and three new somatic mutations were identified'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22471666,\n", " 'text': 'An update on malignancies displaying high frequencies of BRAF mutations and the mechanisms underlying the side effects and drug resistance phenomena associated with Raf inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22488961,\n", " 'text': 'prevalence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation increased with increased tumor size'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22492957, 'text': 'BRAF V600E is associated with gliomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22498935,\n", " 'text': 'No BRAF V600E mutations were indentified in this study of patients with endometrial cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22500044,\n", " 'text': 'Highly sensitive and specific molecular assays such as MEMO sequencing are optimal for detecting the BRAF mutations in thyroid FNAC because these techniques can detect PTC that might be missed by cytology or less sensitive molecular assays.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22506009,\n", " 'text': 'The (600DLAT)B-RAF and (V600E)B-RAF mutations were found enriched in DNA and mRNA from the CD1a+ fraction of granuloma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22508706,\n", " 'text': 'The analysis of BRAF mutations by pyrosequencing is useful to refine the risk stratification of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22510757,\n", " 'text': 'Patients with serrated polyposis syndrome referred to genetics clinics had a pan-colonic disease with a high polyp burden and a high rate of BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22510884,\n", " 'text': 'It was shown that the dimer interface within the kinase domain plays a pivotal role for the activity of B-Raf and several of its gain-of-function mutants.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22514085,\n", " 'text': 'The tumor with T1799A BRAF mutation and tumor sizes of 2 cm or more were clinicopathologic parameters associated with lower STAT1 activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22515292,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E is common in patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma but does not predict recurrence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22515520,\n", " 'text': 'Mutation BRAF transforms cells through cross talk with developmental pathways Hedgehog and Wnt, as well as by deregulation of colorectal cancer related kinase pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22516966,\n", " 'text': 'Report upregulation of Bim and the splicing factor SRp55 in melanoma cells from patients treated with selective BRAF inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22522845,\n", " 'text': 'In signet ring cell carcinoma, BRAF V600E mutation adversely affects survival in microsatellite-stable tumors, but not in high-level microsatellite-unstable tumor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22531127,\n", " 'text': 'study concludes that generally, overweight increases the risk of colorectal cancer; taller individuals have an increased risk of developing a tumour with a BRAF mutation or microsatellite instability'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22531170,\n", " 'text': 'Demonstrate that BRAF V600E mutation-specific antibody can be used in immunohistochemical diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22534474,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF and KIT mutations have been found in Japanese melanoma patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22535154,\n", " 'text': 'study shows there are clinically and biologically distinct subtypes of BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma, defined by genotype, with distinct etiology and behavior; cumulative sun-induced damage in primary cutaneous melanoma and older age are associated with V600K BRAF mutations;it establishes prevalence of the BRAF mutation by age-decade'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22535974,\n", " 'text': 'The diagnostic sensitivity for thyroid cancer is significantly increased by BRAF V600E mutation analysis, indicating that the screening for BRAF mutation in FNAB samples has a relevant diagnostic potential.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22549559,\n", " 'text': 'Recurrent/persistent PTC in the central compartment typically harbors the BRAF mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22549727,\n", " 'text': 'abrogation of BRAFV600E-induced senescence contributes to melanomagenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22549934,\n", " 'text': 'The mTOR pathway could be a good target to enhance therapy effects in certain types of thyroid carcinoma, namely in those harboring the BRAF(V600E) mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22568401,\n", " 'text': 'These results suggest that low-grade diffuse gliomas with 1p/19q loss have frequent BRAF gains'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22579930,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations in colorectal cancer have sustained prevalence rate in the Taiwanese population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22581800,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF regulates expression of long noncoding RNAs in melanocytes and melanoma cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22586484,\n", " 'text': 'In the present study, we did not find any significant correlations between KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations and the loss of PTEN expression and various clinicopathological features in Chinese patients with colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22591444,\n", " 'text': 'Our results suggest that in a small fraction of diffuse gliomas, KIAA1549-BRAF fusion gene and BRAF(v600E) mutation may be responsible for deregulation of the Ras-RAF-ERK signaling pathway'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22592144,\n", " 'text': 'Immunohistochemical detection of the mutated V600E BRAF protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma may facilitate mutational analysis in the clinical setting.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22614711,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF p.Val600Lys mutations were present at a relatively high frequency in the cohort of metastatic melanoma patients (27/183, 15%)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22614978,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF/NRAS mutations were identified in 58% of primary melanomas (43% BRAF; 15% NRAS)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22628551,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that RNF149 (RING finger protein 149) interacts with wild-type BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22639828,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that BRAF V600E mutation may not be widespread in hematologic malignancies, excluding hairy-cell leukemia (HCL).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22649091,\n", " 'text': \"Patient's BRAF mutation was likely responsible for his tumor's marked response to dasatinib, suggesting that tumors bearing kinase-impaired BRAF mutations may be exquisitely sensitive to dasatinib.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 22681706,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with lymph node metastasis in multiple papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22684223,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of BRAF mutations in these adenomatous precursors to colon cancer suggests that they represent sessile serrated adenomas with complete cytologic dysplasia.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22694820,\n", " 'text': 'In papillary thyroid cancer, significant correlations between the methylation status of four genes (TIMP3, RASSF1A, RARbeta2 and DCC) and the V600E BRAF mutation were found.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22699145,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that 14% with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) and 7% ampullary adenocarcinomas (A-ACs) had mutations in both KRAS and BRAF.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22702340,\n", " 'text': 'In papillary thyroid carcinoma BRAFV600E is associated with increased expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator and its cognate receptor, but not with disease-free interval.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22705994,\n", " 'text': 'Hairy cell leukemia cell lines expressing annexin A1 and displaying B-cell receptor signals characteristic of primary tumor cells lack the signature BRAF mutation to reveal unrepresentative origins.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22706026,\n", " 'text': 'The combined effects of EGFR downregulation, ligand competition, and immune effector function conspire to inhibit tumor growth in xenograft models of cetuximab-resistant BRAF and KRAS mutant cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22727996,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutations are present in approximately 90% of all kidney metanephric adenoma cases, serving as a potential valuable diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22730329,\n", " 'text': 'Reactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway by FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3)/Ras mediates resistance to vemurafenib in human B-RAF V600E mutant melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22732794,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation revealed a strong association with specific histological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22740704,\n", " 'text': 'These results clearly prove that the BRAFV600E mutation is not associated with the development of distant metastases or fatal outcome in papillary thyroid carcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22742884,\n", " 'text': 'Vemurafenib is effective for advanced melanomas expressing the BRAF V600E mutations [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22743296,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF V600E mutation is associated with response to vemurafenib in lung adenocarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22751131,\n", " 'text': 'B-Raf/MKK/ERK controls key aspects of cancer cell behavior and gene expression by modulating a network of miRNAs with cross-regulatory functions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22752848,\n", " 'text': 'study reports a novel complex BRAF mutation identified in 4/492 Japanese papillary thyroid carcinoma(PTC) cases; findings suggest the BRAF(V600delinsYM)mutation, is a gain-of-function mutation and plays an important role in PTC development'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22767446,\n", " 'text': 'study found a relatively higher B-Raf serine/threonine-protein kinase (BRAF)(V600E) mutation rate in classical type papillary thyroid carcinomas than in other similar studies'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22770943,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mRNA expression may help to identify PTC among thyroid nodules independently of the presence of BRAFV600E mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22772867,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600) mutations are are associated with melanomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22773810,\n", " 'text': 'Lung cancers with acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors occasionally harbor BRAF gene mutations but lack mutations in KRAS, NRAS, or MEK1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22797077,\n", " 'text': 'RSK regulates activated BRAF signalling to mTORC1 and promotes melanoma growth'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22798288,\n", " 'text': 'Data show clinical significance to BRAF(L597) mutations in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22798500,\n", " 'text': 'In CRC patients treated with cetuximab, activating mutation signatures for BRAF (58 genes) were developed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22799316,\n", " 'text': 'Preoperative BRAF mutation was a predictive factor for occult contralateral papillary thyroid microcarcinoma presence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22809251,\n", " 'text': 'As has been reported in other common types of melanoma, V600 BRAF mutation is the most common mutation of those tested in spindle cell melanoma. NRAS or KIT mutation appears to be rare, if not completely absent.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22814862,\n", " 'text': 'we found no cases of Rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors of the fourth ventricle showing KIAA1549-BRAF gene fusion or BRAF (V600E) mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22820187,\n", " 'text': 'these results link epigenetic genes to methylation and suppression of tumor suppressor genes as a mechanism involved in BRAFV600E-promoted melanoma tumorigenesis and uncover a novel molecular signature that predicts a poor prognosis of melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22820660,\n", " 'text': 'No BRAF V600E mutations were detected in nonserous epithelial ovarian tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22824468,\n", " 'text': 'Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in BRAF gene is associated with diseases.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22826122,\n", " 'text': 'It was concluded that extracellular kinase-mediated up-regulation of c-myc by K-Ras or B-Raf oncogenes disrupts the establishment of apical/basolateral polarity in colon epithelial cells independently of its effect on proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22826437,\n", " 'text': 'RAF1(D486N), as well as other kinase-impaired RAF1 mutants, showed increased heterodimerization with BRAF, which was necessary and sufficient to promote increased MEK/ERK activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22833462,\n", " 'text': 'Investigated BRAF and RAF1 alterations in Chinese prostate cancer.Found BRAF truncated in five of 200 informative Chinese cases & RAF1 was truncated in three of 204 informative cases and genomic rearrangements were correlated w/high Gleason scores.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22850568,\n", " 'text': 'This study reveals a novel mechanism of immune suppression sensitive to BRAF(V600E) inhibition, and indicates that clinical blockade of IL-1 may benefit patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22858857,\n", " 'text': 'A review summarizes the role of the BRAF V600E mutation in the development and progression of thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22859608,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22863493,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAFV600E occurs exclusively in papillary thyroid carcinoma and papillary carcinoma-derived anaplastic cancer, rising as a specific diagnostic marker for this tumor when identified in cytological / histological exams'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22870241,\n", " 'text': 'High-throughput genotyping in metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma identifies phosphoinositide-3-kinase and BRAF mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22876591,\n", " 'text': 'Cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome is caused by heterogeneous mutations in BRAF gene.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22879539,\n", " 'text': 'High prevalence of BRAF V600E mutations is associated with Erdheim-Chester disease but not in other non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22880048,\n", " 'text': 'This study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22887810,\n", " 'text': 'A K601E BRAF mutation is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22892521,\n", " 'text': 'The results of this study supported an important role for BRAF duplication and MAPK pathway activation in gliomas of the optic nerve proper.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22898351,\n", " 'text': 'MSI status, KRAS and BRAF mutation rates varied remarkably among the colonic carcinoma subsites irrespective of right- and left-sided origin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22899730,\n", " 'text': 'The presence of a BRAF c.1799T>A (p.V600E) mutation is associated with significantly poorer prognosis after colorectal cancer diagnosis among subgroups of patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22912864,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that mutation frequency in malanoma patients was found witih BRAF(V600) in 51%, NRAS in 19%, PI3K pathway in 41% and PTEN in 22%.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22918165,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF(V600E) mutation is an early event in thyroid carcinogenesis, and is associated with distinctive morphology and aggressive features even in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22926515,\n", " 'text': 'ARAF seems to stabilize BRAF:CRAF complexes in cells treated with RAF inhibitors and thereby regulate cell signaling in a subtle manner to ensure signaling efficiency'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22930283,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with early stage disease and improved outcome in patients with low-grade serous ovarian cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22931913,\n", " 'text': 'We conclude that the presence of BRAF mutation, NRAS mutation, and the absence of an immune-related expressed gene profile predict poor outcome in melanoma patients with macroscopic stage III disease.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22932786,\n", " 'text': 'Thus, in this meta-analysis, the BRAF mutation in PTC was significantly associated with PTC recurrence, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension, and advanced stage AJCC III/IV.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22938585,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and AKT1 mutations can be rapidly and accurately detected for cancer diagnosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22941165,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF V600E mutation is the only independent predictor of compartment lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22946697,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that of the 32 cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC) patients, 28 (88%) had a known mutation in a gene that is causative for CFC, including BRAF (n = 21), MEK1 (n = 2), MEK2 (n = 4), and KRAS (n = 1).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22972589,\n", " 'text': 'Higher response rates and longer time to progression were observed with selumetinib-containing regimens in patients who had melanoma that harbored a BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22973979,\n", " 'text': 'found a significantly increased risk of papillary thyroid carcinoma attributed to the SNP variants rs17161747, rs1042179, and rs3748093 for those with a family history of cancer, for smokers, and for both those of age <45 years and nondrinkers'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22996177,\n", " 'text': 'This report is the first to identify the rare, variant BRAF V600D mutation in LCH, and provides support for constitutively activated BRAF oncogene-induced cell senescence as a mechanism of regression in congenital, benign LCH.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23009221,\n", " 'text': 'consistent with previous studies, it was concluded that the incidence of BRAF V600E mutation in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, if any, is extremely infrequent'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23010278,\n", " 'text': 'B-RAF upregulates SGLT1 activity, an effect requiring vesicle insertion into the cell membrane.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23010994,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is suggested to be poor prognostic factors in CRLM.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23014346,\n", " 'text': 'Braf mutation status is not significantly associated with poor survival for melanoma in Koreans.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23021375,\n", " 'text': 'EGFR and downstream genetic alterations in KRAS/BRAF and PI3K/AKT pathways have roles in colorectal cancer and treatment [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23026937,\n", " 'text': 'Immunohistochemistry is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of V600E BRAF mutation in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23033302,\n", " 'text': 'the spectrum and frequency distribution of the identified KRAS and BRAF mutations in Serbian patient with colorectal cancer are in good accordance with literature data.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23036672,\n", " 'text': 'We describe 3 patients with BRAF V600E mutation metastatic melanoma in whom treatment with vemurafenib resulted in prompt extracranial disease response but progression of metastatic disease in the brain.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23039341,\n", " 'text': 'Studied the cytotoxicity and anti-tumour activity of novel MEK inhibitor, E6201, in a panel of melanoma cell lines. Most melanoma cell lines were sensitive or hypersensitive to E6201; the sensitivity correlated with wildtype PTEN and mutant BRAF status.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23041829,\n", " 'text': 'Findings support the potential use of immunohistochemistry as an ancillary screening tool to assess the BRAFV600E mutation status in primary cutaneous melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23051629,\n", " 'text': 'Increased BRAF mutation with age along with the lack of a UVR magnitude-BRAF mutation association suggests that duration of exposure rather than UVR exposure dose is the more likely link to acquiring mutations in melanocytic nevi.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23055340,\n", " 'text': 'KRAS and BRAF mutations are infrequent or absent, respectively in Intestinal-type sinonasal adenocarcinoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23055546,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation was associated with lymph node metastases (LNM), advanced stage, extrathyroidal extension, tumor size, male gender, multifocality, absence of capsule, classic PTC, and tall-cell variant papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23056577,\n", " 'text': 'A systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that BRAF mutation is an absolute risk factor for patient survival in colorectal cancer and melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23062653,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation was not found to be significantly associated with lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23066120,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation was demonstrated to be a poor prognostic factor for the persistence of the disease independent from other clinical-pathological features in low-risk intrathyroid papillary thyroid carcinoma patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23069257,\n", " 'text': 'Histopathologic changes suggesting prolapsed rectal mucosa should take precedence over BRAF results in diagnosing sessile serrated adenomas in the rectum.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23088640,\n", " 'text': 'analysis suggests that BRAF mutations occur at a low frequency in chronic lymphocytic leukemia'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23095503,\n", " 'text': 'Desmoplastic malignant melanoma: a study of ten cases and status of BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23096133,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas with anaplastic features.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23096702,\n", " 'text': 'We found that NRAS-mutant melanomas were significantly more likely from older patients and BRAF-mutant melanomas were more frequent in melanomas from the trunk.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23098991,\n", " 'text': 'Studied differential miRNA expression in metastatic colorectal cancer by microarrays from primary tumors of 33 patients who had wild-type KRAS/BRAF and third- to sixth-line anti-EGFRmAb treatment, with/without irinotecan.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23110075,\n", " 'text': 'Study demonstrates that chromosomal instability commonly occurs in advanced BRAF mutant/MSS colorectal cancers where it may contribute to poorer survival, and further highlights molecular similarities occurring between these and BRAF wild type cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23125007,\n", " 'text': 'One hundred and ten patients (51%) were identified who were potentially nonresponders to anti-EGFR therapy: 13/117 (11.1%) had the V600E BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23132792,\n", " 'text': 'BRAFV600E mutation is associated with cervical lymph node metastasis and recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23138171,\n", " 'text': 'Clinical characteristics of colorectal cancer with the V600E BRAF mutation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23153455,\n", " 'text': 'These findings indicate that ABCG2 confers resistance to vemurafenib in A375 cells, suggesting involvement of this transporter in acquired resistance to vemurafenib.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23157614,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation was more frequent in women, but this gender difference was not statistically significant.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23157823,\n", " 'text': 'In Chinese colorectal carcinoma patients, BRAF mutation is associated with tumor differentiation and primary tumor sites.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23157824,\n", " 'text': 'Codon 12, 13 in KRAS gene and codon 600 in BRAF gene are the most common mutation points in Chinese colorectal cancer. KRAS and BRAF mutations are mutually exclusive. KRAS and BRAF gene mutation is higher in females than that in males.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23158172,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutational status is predictive of papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23159116,\n", " 'text': 'V600E point mutation was identified in the BRAF gene in 3 intramucosal nevi and in 2 melanomas. Only 1 blue nevus harbored the GNAQ209 mutation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23161556,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation as a new serum marker for papillary thyroid carcinomas were not detectable in patientts diagnosed with thyroid neoplasms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23161722,\n", " 'text': 'data confirm that among lymphoproliferative disorders, BRAF V600E mutation is restricted to hairy cell leukemia (HCL); no mutations were identified in variant HCL, NMZL, ENMZL, PTLD, PTCL, ALCL, or LGL proliferations'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23163107,\n", " 'text': 'The BRAF(V600E) mutation might be associated with a more aggressive phenotype and a poor prognosis in classic variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23179992,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600E) mutation is associated with papillary thyroid carcinomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23188063,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations were correlated with poor overall survival in the full patient cohort'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23190154,\n", " 'text': 'Our findings suggest that RAS pathway activation due to BRAF V600E and KRAS mutations is an important event in a subset of peripheral nerve sheath tumours not related to neurofibromatosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23190890,\n", " 'text': 'Oncogenic B-RAF(V600E) signaling induces the T-Box3 transcriptional repressor to repress E-cadherin and enhance melanoma cell invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23192464,\n", " 'text': 'Aim of this work is to provide a detailed comparison of clinical-pathologic features between well-differentiated and poorly differentiated tumors according to their BRAF and RASSF1A status.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23192956,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600E) mutation is associated with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23203004,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF (V600E) is non-associated with Gal-3 expression, whereas it is associated with cytoplasmatic localization of p27kip1 and higher CK19 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23207070,\n", " 'text': 'The present study revealed that ESCC of Brazilian patients do not present mutations in hot spots of EGFR, K-RAS and BRAF and only a minor proportion present overexpression of EGFR or HER2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23208503,\n", " 'text': 'results suggest that mutant B-RAF signaling downregulates Tiam1/Rac activity resulting in an increase in N-cadherin levels and a decrease in E-cadherin levels and ultimately enhanced invasion'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23224067,\n", " 'text': 'Mutations affecting BRAF, EGFR, PIK3CA, and KRAS are not associated with sporadic vestibular schwannomas.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23235345,\n", " 'text': 'the BRAF V600E mutation is not pathobiologically relevant in primary central nervous system lymphoma'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23237741,\n", " 'text': 'Patients with V600R BRAF mutations can be treated successfully with oral BRAF inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23242808,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that BRAF and EGF receptor or SRC family kinase inhibition blocked proliferation and invasion of the resistant tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23246082,\n", " 'text': 'the role of BRAF mutations in melanoma and colorectal cancer, focusing on similarities and differences of BRAF mutations (Review)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23253715,\n", " 'text': 'The status of BRAF(V600E) mutation was more frequent in multifocal PTC patients with lymph node metastasis and diagnosis at later age.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23263826,\n", " 'text': 'we deduce that in the absence of mutation activation, B-Raf overexpression or downregulation is a protective event, since it delays the development of both malignant and benign thyroid tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23274581,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutation is associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23280049,\n", " 'text': 'Preoperative mutation screening for BRAF(V600E) does not meaningfully improve risk stratification and is unlikely to alter the initial management of patients with indeterminate nodules.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23287985,\n", " 'text': 'Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis appears to be a clonal proliferation that may or may not have BRAF V600E mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23290787,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that BRAF mutations are identified in 40-50% of patients with melanoma, and treatment with either of two BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib, dabrafenib) or the MEK inhibitor trametinib is associated with improved clinical benefit.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23297805,\n", " 'text': 'No point mutations were identified in BRAF codon Val600Glu in the studied colorectal adenocarcinomas in the Turkish population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23307859,\n", " 'text': 'High BRAF is associated with metastatic melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23310942,\n", " 'text': 'This study shows that BRAF mutation occurs in Nigerian colorectal cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23317446,\n", " 'text': 'Results demonstrated the action of Dabrafenib and the inhibition of MAPK pathway in melanoma cell lines carrying BRAFV600D/R mutations; these results could be helpful to enlarge the number of patients who may benefit of a more effective targeted treatment'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23324583,\n", " 'text': 'BRAF mutations is associated with colorectal cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23334329,\n", " 'text': 'Human neural crest progenitor cells are susceptible to BRAF(V600E)-induced transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23343956,\n", " 'text': 'no association with BRAF-V600E mutation in gastroeosophageal tumors'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23349307,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that besides confirming the constant presence of BRAF-V600E in all patients with hairy cell leukemia, phospho-ERK1/ERK2 expression was observed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23352452,\n", " 'text': 'Ras pathway activation via EGF treatment induced strong binding between B-Raf and C-Raf and a low level of binding between B-Raf and A-Raf.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23354951,\n", " 'text': 'Alternative splicing of exons 14, 15, 15b, 16b and 16c occurs in a considerable fraction of BRAF mRNA in normal colon and colorectal cancer cells and is independent of the V600E mutational status of the parental allele.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23355004,\n", " 'text': 'The detected Merkel cell polyomavirus prevalence in non-small cell lung cancer in combination with the deregulated expression of BRAF and Bcl-2 genes suggests that these events are likely to contribute to the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23359496,\n", " 'text': 'Kidins220 is a novel T-cell receptor (TCR)-interacting protein that couples B-Raf to the TCR. Kidins220 is mandatory for sustained Erk signaling and is crucial for TCR-mediated T cell activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23370429,\n", " 'text': 'This is the first report of BRAF V600E mutation in endometrial cancer, indicating that it may contribute to tumorigenesis of endometrial cancer, although at a low frequency compared with KRAS mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23370668,\n", " 'text': 'study suggests that highly aggressive papillary thyroid microcarcinoma may arise in a subset of patients with BRAF(V600E) mutation and tumors greater than 5 mm; multivariate analysis showed that tumor recurrence was not associated with BRAF(V600E)mutation'},\n", " ...]" ] }, "execution_count": 33, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "braf_info['generif']" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 34, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "2000" ] }, "execution_count": 34, "metadata": {}, "output_type": "execute_result" } ], "source": [ "len(braf_info['generif'])" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 35, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "name": "stdout", "output_type": "stream", "text": [ "https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12068308\n" ] } ], "source": [ "print('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12068308')" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 36, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [], "source": [ "def gene_search(name):\n", " query = {'q': name}\n", " response = requests.get('http://mygene.info/v3/query',params=query )\n", " entrez_id = response.json()['hits'][0]['_id']\n", " gene_response = requests.get('http://mygene.info/v3/gene/' + entrez_id)\n", " return gene_response.json()\n" ] }, { "cell_type": "code", "execution_count": 37, "metadata": {}, "outputs": [ { "data": { "text/plain": [ "{'HGNC': '1771',\n", " 'MIM': '116953',\n", " 'Vega': 'OTTHUMG00000170575',\n", " '_id': '1017',\n", " '_score': 13.168399,\n", " 'accession': {'genomic': ['AC025162.48',\n", " 'AC034102.32',\n", " 'AF512553.1',\n", " 'AJ223951.1',\n", " 'CH471054.1',\n", " 'KT584459.1',\n", " 'NC_000012.12',\n", " 'NG_034014.1',\n", " 'U50730.2'],\n", " 'protein': ['AAA35667.1',\n", " 'AAH03065.1',\n", " 'AAM34794.1',\n", " 'AAP35467.1',\n", " 'BAA32794.1',\n", " 'BAF84630.1',\n", " 'BAG56780.1',\n", " 'CAA43807.1',\n", " 'CAA43985.1',\n", " 'EAW96856.1',\n", " 'EAW96857.1',\n", " 'EAW96858.1',\n", " 'EAW96859.1',\n", " 'EAW96860.1',\n", " 'NP_001277159.1',\n", " 'NP_001789.2',\n", " 'NP_439892.2',\n", " 'P24941.2',\n", " 'XP_011536034.1'],\n", " 'rna': ['AA789250.1',\n", " 'AA810989.1',\n", " 'AB012305.1',\n", " 'AK291941.1',\n", " 'AK293246.1',\n", " 'BC003065.2',\n", " 'BJ991087.1',\n", " 'BT006821.1',\n", " 'DA814453.1',\n", " 'M68520.1',\n", " 'NM_001290230.1',\n", " 'NM_001798.4',\n", " 'NM_052827.3',\n", " 'X61622.1',\n", " 'X62071.1',\n", " 'XM_011537732.2'],\n", " 'translation': [{'protein': 'BAA32794.1', 'rna': 'AB012305.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'BAF84630.1', 'rna': 'AK291941.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'BAG56780.1', 'rna': 'AK293246.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'AAA35667.1', 'rna': 'M68520.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'AAP35467.1', 'rna': 'BT006821.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'CAA43985.1', 'rna': 'X62071.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'AAH03065.1', 'rna': 'BC003065.2'},\n", " {'protein': 'XP_011536034.1', 'rna': 'XM_011537732.2'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_001277159.1', 'rna': 'NM_001290230.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_001789.2', 'rna': 'NM_001798.4'},\n", " {'protein': 'CAA43807.1', 'rna': 'X61622.1'},\n", " {'protein': 'NP_439892.2', 'rna': 'NM_052827.3'}]},\n", " 'alias': ['CDKN2', 'p33(CDK2)'],\n", " 'ec': '2.7.11.22',\n", " 'ensembl': {'gene': 'ENSG00000123374',\n", " 'protein': ['ENSP00000243067',\n", " 'ENSP00000266970',\n", " 'ENSP00000393605',\n", " 'ENSP00000450983',\n", " 'ENSP00000452138',\n", " 'ENSP00000452514'],\n", " 'transcript': ['ENST00000266970',\n", " 'ENST00000354056',\n", " 'ENST00000440311',\n", " 'ENST00000553376',\n", " 'ENST00000554545',\n", " 'ENST00000554619',\n", " 'ENST00000555357',\n", " 'ENST00000555408',\n", " 'ENST00000556146',\n", " 'ENST00000556276',\n", " 'ENST00000556464',\n", " 'ENST00000556656'],\n", " 'translation': [{'protein': 'ENSP00000266970', 'rna': 'ENST00000266970'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000450983', 'rna': 'ENST00000555408'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000452514', 'rna': 'ENST00000553376'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000393605', 'rna': 'ENST00000440311'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000452138', 'rna': 'ENST00000555357'},\n", " {'protein': 'ENSP00000243067', 'rna': 'ENST00000354056'}],\n", " 'type_of_gene': 'protein_coding'},\n", " 'entrezgene': '1017',\n", " 'exac': {'all': {'exp_lof': 14.064243652,\n", " 'exp_mis': 103.582926056,\n", " 'exp_syn': 40.3209373824,\n", " 'lof_z': 3.45076866809409,\n", " 'mis_z': 3.05571457340068,\n", " 'mu_lof': 1.02721752647e-06,\n", " 'mu_mis': 9.19091133625e-06,\n", " 'mu_syn': 3.45583178284e-06,\n", " 'n_lof': 1.0,\n", " 'n_mis': 40.0,\n", " 'n_syn': 40.0,\n", " 'p_li': 0.958299189494179,\n", " 'p_null': 2.00659367791929e-05,\n", " 'p_rec': 0.041680744569042,\n", " 'syn_z': 0.0313334362386},\n", " 'bp': 897,\n", " 'cds_end': 56365409,\n", " 'cds_start': 56360792,\n", " 'n_exons': 7,\n", " 'nonpsych': {'exp_lof': 12.5888844843,\n", " 'exp_mis': 93.611933068,\n", " 'exp_syn': 36.3537267212,\n", " 'lof_z': 3.48454051513261,\n", " 'mis_z': 2.89910545322279,\n", " 'mu_lof': 1.02721752647e-06,\n", " 'mu_mis': 9.19091133625e-06,\n", " 'mu_syn': 3.45583178284e-06,\n", " 'n_lof': 0.0,\n", " 'n_mis': 38.0,\n", " 'n_syn': 36.0,\n", " 'p_li': 0.987477460052364,\n", " 'p_null': 6.18333159581444e-06,\n", " 'p_rec': 0.0125163566160399,\n", " 'syn_z': 0.0369369403215127},\n", " 'nontcga': {'exp_lof': 12.9253985908,\n", " 'exp_mis': 95.282592769,\n", " 'exp_syn': 37.0815586845,\n", " 'lof_z': 3.27214293719079,\n", " 'mis_z': 3.02573046413952,\n", " 'mu_lof': 1.02721752647e-06,\n", " 'mu_mis': 9.19091133625e-06,\n", " 'mu_syn': 3.45583178284e-06,\n", " 'n_lof': 1.0,\n", " 'n_mis': 36.0,\n", " 'n_syn': 38.0,\n", " 'p_li': 0.939863326722736,\n", " 'p_null': 5.01892923357667e-05,\n", " 'p_rec': 0.0600864839849285,\n", " 'syn_z': -0.0954979610569747},\n", " 'transcript': 'ENST00000266970.4'},\n", " 'exons': [{'cdsend': 55971625,\n", " 'cdsstart': 55967008,\n", " 'chr': '12',\n", " 'position': [[55966768, 55967124],\n", " [55968048, 55968169],\n", " [55968777, 55968948],\n", " [55971043, 55971247],\n", " [55971520, 55972789]],\n", " 'strand': 1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_001290230',\n", " 'txend': 55972789,\n", " 'txstart': 55966768},\n", " {'cdsend': 55971625,\n", " 'cdsstart': 55967008,\n", " 'chr': '12',\n", " 'position': [[55966768, 55967124],\n", " [55967856, 55967934],\n", " [55968048, 55968169],\n", " [55968777, 55968948],\n", " [55969474, 55969576],\n", " [55971043, 55971247],\n", " [55971520, 55972789]],\n", " 'strand': 1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_001798',\n", " 'txend': 55972789,\n", " 'txstart': 55966768},\n", " {'cdsend': 55971625,\n", " 'cdsstart': 55967008,\n", " 'chr': '12',\n", " 'position': [[55966768, 55967124],\n", " [55967856, 55967934],\n", " [55968048, 55968169],\n", " [55968777, 55968948],\n", " [55971043, 55971247],\n", " [55971520, 55972789]],\n", " 'strand': 1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_052827',\n", " 'txend': 55972789,\n", " 'txstart': 55966768}],\n", " 'exons_hg19': [{'cdsend': 56365409,\n", " 'cdsstart': 56360792,\n", " 'chr': '12',\n", " 'position': [[56360552, 56360908],\n", " [56361832, 56361953],\n", " [56362561, 56362732],\n", " [56364827, 56365031],\n", " [56365304, 56366573]],\n", " 'strand': 1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_001290230',\n", " 'txend': 56366573,\n", " 'txstart': 56360552},\n", " {'cdsend': 56365409,\n", " 'cdsstart': 56360792,\n", " 'chr': '12',\n", " 'position': [[56360552, 56360908],\n", " [56361640, 56361718],\n", " [56361832, 56361953],\n", " [56362561, 56362732],\n", " [56363258, 56363360],\n", " [56364827, 56365031],\n", " [56365304, 56366573]],\n", " 'strand': 1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_001798',\n", " 'txend': 56366573,\n", " 'txstart': 56360552},\n", " {'cdsend': 56365409,\n", " 'cdsstart': 56360792,\n", " 'chr': '12',\n", " 'position': [[56360552, 56360908],\n", " [56361640, 56361718],\n", " [56361832, 56361953],\n", " [56362561, 56362732],\n", " [56364827, 56365031],\n", " [56365304, 56366573]],\n", " 'strand': 1,\n", " 'transcript': 'NM_052827',\n", " 'txend': 56366573,\n", " 'txstart': 56360552}],\n", " 'generif': [{'pubmed': 11907280,\n", " 'text': 'Cyclin A/Cdk2 and cyclin E/cdk2 continuously shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12049628,\n", " 'text': 'results argue that TTK-associated CDK2 may function to maintain target-specific phosphorylation of RNA Pol II that is essential for Tat transactivation of HIV-1 promoter'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12081504,\n", " 'text': 'Activation mechanism role of cyclin binding versus phosphorylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12114499,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2/cyclin E is required for Tat-dependent transcription in vitro.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12149264,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 binding to cyclin E is required to drive cells from G(1) into S phase'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12531694,\n", " 'text': 'Interferon gamma reduces the activity of Cdk4 and Cdk2, inhibiting he G1 cell cycle in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12676582,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 is not required for sustained cell division.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12729791,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that the interaction between PKCeta and cyclin E is carefully regulated, and is correlated with the inactivated form of the cyclin E/Cdk2 complex.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12732645,\n", " 'text': 'IRF1 represses CDK2 gene expression by interfering with SP1-dependent transcriptional activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12801928, 'text': 'role in regulating Cdc25A half life'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12810668,\n", " 'text': 'TGF-beta 1 inhibition requires early G(1) induction and stabilization of p21 protein, which binds to & inhibits cyclin E-CDK2 and cyclin A-CDK2 kinase activity rather than direct modulation of cyclin or CDK protein levels as seen in other systems.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12857729,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 has a role in phosphorylation of the NF-Y transcription factor'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12912980,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 has a role in the G2 DNA damage checkpoint'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12915577,\n", " 'text': \"Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus K-bZIP physically associates with cyclin-CDK2 and downmodulates its kinase activity.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 12947099,\n", " 'text': 'it is evident that B-Myb protein may promote cell proliferation by a non-transcriptional mechanism that involves release of active cyclin/cyclin dependent kinase 2 from cyclin-dependent inhibitor 1C p57(KIP2)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 12954644,\n", " 'text': 'Inhibition of Cdk2 by 1,25-(OH)2D3 may thus involve two mechanisms: 1) reduced nuclear Cdk2 available for cyclin binding and activation and 2) impairment of cyclin E-Cdk2-dependent p27 degradation through cytoplasmic mislocalization of Cdk2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14506259,\n", " 'text': 'kinetic insight into the basis for selecting suboptimal specificity determinants for the phosphorylation of cellular substrates'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14536078,\n", " 'text': 'multisite phosphorylation by Cdk2 and GSK3 controls cyclin E degradation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14550307, 'text': 'CDK2 binds to SU9516 at Leu83 and Glu81'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14551212,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 activation process through phosphorylation is examined using 2D PAGE'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14562046,\n", " 'text': 'Epstein-Barr virus can inhibit genotoxin-induced G1 arrest downstream of p53 by preventing the inactivation of CDK2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14612403,\n", " 'text': 'p220 is an essential downstream component of the cyclin E/Cdk2 signaling pathway and functions to coordinate multiple elements of the G1/S transition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14645251,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2-cyclin E, without prior CDK4-cyclin D activity, can phosphorylate and inactivate pRb, activate E2F, and induce DNA synthesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14646596,\n", " 'text': 'significant difference in their biochemical properties between CDK4/cyclin D1 and CDK2/cyclin A affecting regulation of cellular RB function'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14694185,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2, -4, and -6 were down-regulated from the myelocytes/metamyelocytes stages and onward'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14701826,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 complexes have roles in G(1)/S deregulation and tumor progression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 14985333,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 regulates beta-catenin phosphorylation/ degradation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15004027,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 and Cdk4 phosphorylate human Cdt1 and induce its degradation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15024385,\n", " 'text': 'Binding to Cdk2-cyclin A is accompanied by p27 folding, and kinetic data suggest a sequential mechanism that is initiated by binding to cyclin A'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15063782,\n", " 'text': 'We also found that cyclin A/CDK2 phosphorylates Axin, thereby enhancing its association with beta-catenin.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15159402,\n", " 'text': 'study provides evidence that the cyclin A1-cyclin dependent kinase 2 complex plays a role in several signaling pathways important for cell cycle control and meiosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15178429, 'text': 'interacts with dephosphorylated NIRF'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15199159,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin A-cdk2 plays an ancillary noncatalytic role in the ubiquitination of p27(KIP1) by the SCF(skp2) complex'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15226429,\n", " 'text': 'Results identify an important role for CDK2 in the maintenance of genomic stability, acting via an ATM- and ATR-dependent pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15309028,\n", " 'text': 'after CDK4/6 inactivation, the fate of pancreatic tumor cells depends on the ability to modulate CDK2 activity'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15355984,\n", " 'text': 'Data suggest that cyclin D1-Cdk2 complexes mediate some of the transforming effects of cyclin D1 and demonstrate that the cyclin D1-Cdk2 fusion protein is a useful model to investigate the biological functions of cyclin D1-Cdk2 complexes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15456866,\n", " 'text': 'These findings establish a novel function for cyclin A1 and CDK2 in DNA double strand break repair following radiation damage.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15572662,\n", " 'text': 'Phosphborylation of progesterone receptor serine 400 mediates ligand-independent transcriptional activity in response to activation of CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15601848,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin A/Cdk2 has a role as a progesterone receptor coactivator'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15607961,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 depletion suppressed growth and cell cycle progression in melanoma and may be a suitable drug target in melanoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15611077,\n", " 'text': 'Inhibition of CDK2 kinase by indole-3-carbinol is accompanied by selective alterations in cyclin E composition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15632290,\n", " 'text': 'molecular dynamics study on the complex CDK2 with the peptide substrate HHASPRK'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15649889,\n", " 'text': 'Results demonstrate that a peptide derived from the alpha5 helix of cyclin A significantly inhibits kinase activity of complexes harboring CDK2, and forms stable complexes with CDK2-cyclin A.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15660127,\n", " 'text': 'crystal structure of phospho-CDK2 in complex with a truncated cyclin E1 (residues 81-363) at 2.25 A resolution'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15665273,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2-BRCA1-Nucleophosmin pathway coordinately functions in cell growth and tumor progression pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15671017,\n", " 'text': 'HTm4 binding to KAP.Cdk2.cyclin A complex enhances the phosphatase activity of KAP, dissociates cyclin A, and facilitates KAP dephosphorylation of Cdk2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15695825,\n", " 'text': 'Results present a comprehensive description of the dynamic behavior of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 in complex with cyclin A.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15707957,\n", " 'text': 'Puralpha has been shown to colocalize with cyclin A/Cdk2 and to coimmunoprecipitate with cyclin A during S-phase and we show that this interaction is mediated by a specific affinity of Puralpha for Cdk2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15890360,\n", " 'text': 'Rapid binding of p27 domain 1 to cyclin A tethers the inhibitor to the binary Cdk2/cyclin A complex'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15922732,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 translational down-regulation may be a key regulatory event in replicative senescence of endothelial cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15944161,\n", " 'text': 'origin recognition complex 2 has an unexpected role in CDK2 activation, a linkage that could be important for maintaining genomic stability'},\n", " {'pubmed': 15964852,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 destabilizes p21 via the cy2 cyclin-binding motif and p21 phosphorylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16036217,\n", " 'text': 'Our results demonstrate that differential regulation of Cdc2 and Cdk2 activity by different doses of doxorubicin may contribute to the induction of two modes of cell death in hepatoma cells, either apoptosis or cell death through mitotic catastrophe.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16082200,\n", " 'text': 'CINP is part of the Cdc7-dependent mechanism of origin firing and a functional and physical link between Cdk2 and Cdc7 complexes at the origins'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16082227,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 inhibition modifies the dynamics of chromatin-bound minichromosome maintenance complex and replication protein A'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16085226,\n", " 'text': 'results indicate that CDK2 participates in Tat-mediated HIV-1 transcription and may serve as a potential therapeutic target'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16150942,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 inhibition decreases the efficiency of chemical induction of KSHV lytic transcripts ORF 50 and 26. Importantly, Cdk2 activity is also essential for replication in other human herpesviruses'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16258277,\n", " 'text': 'A new concept indicates in this review that both Cdk2 and/or Cdc2 can drive cells through G1/S phase in parallel.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16262700,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 dependent phosphorylation(s) cannot be a critical trigger of replicon initiation in response to reoxygenation after several hours of hypoxia, at least in the T24 cells studied'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16343435,\n", " 'text': 'We propose that during TNFalpha-induced apoptosis, PKCdelta-mediated phosphorylation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) at (146)Ser attenuates the Cdk2 binding of p21(WAF1/CIP1) and thereby upregulates Cdk2 activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16407256,\n", " 'text': 'molecular analysis of the CDK5/p25 and CDK2/cyclin A systems'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16504183,\n", " 'text': 'Cyclin-dependent kinases regulate the transcriptional activity of FOXM1c; a combination of three phosphorylation sites mediates the Cyclin E and Cyclin A/CDK2 effects.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16540140,\n", " 'text': 'Here, we show that human papillomavirus type 16 16E1--E4 is also able to associate with cyclin A and Cdk2 during the G2 phase of the cell cycle.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16575928,\n", " 'text': 'The interaction between roscovitine and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (cdk2) was investigated by performing correlated ab initio quantum-chemical calculations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16707497,\n", " 'text': 'the phospho-CDK2/cyclin A recruitment site has a role in substrate recognition'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16762841,\n", " 'text': 'Phosphorylation of the linker histone H1 by CDK regulates its binding to HP1alpha'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16765349,\n", " 'text': 'suggest a novel retinoic acid (RA)-signaling, by which RA-induced p21 induction and complex formation with cyclin E/CDK2 diverts CDK2 function from normally driving proliferation to alternatively promoting apoptosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16824683,\n", " 'text': 'Membrane depolarization may stimulate cellular proliferation by augmenting the expression of cyclin E leading to increases in Cdk2 activity and RB phosphorylation in a neuroblastoma cell line.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16912045,\n", " 'text': 'the Chk1-mediated S-phase checkpoint targets initiation factor Cdc45 via a Cdc25A/Cdk2-independent mechanism'},\n", " {'pubmed': 16912201,\n", " 'text': 'Breast cancer cells lacking cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 are more sensitive to CDK2 inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17001081,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of the NBI1-binding site on cyclin A which inhibits the catalytic activity of the complex cyclin-dependent kinase 2-cyclin A'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17013093,\n", " 'text': 'progression of melanoma is associated with changes in CDK-2 expression level'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17038621,\n", " 'text': 'functional interaction between CDK2 and FOXO1 provides a mechanism that regulates apoptotic cell death after DNA strand breakage'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17095507,\n", " 'text': 'Kinetic and crystallographic analyses of CDK2-cyclin A complexes reveal that this inhibitory mechanism operates through steric blockade of peptide substrate binding.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17207508,\n", " 'text': 'Review highlights an alternative role for CDK2 in the regulation of progesterone receptor signaling.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17293600,\n", " 'text': 'TopBP1 necessary for the G(1)/S transition: one for activating cyclin E/CDK2 kinase and the other for loading replication components onto chromatin to initiate DNA synthesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17361108,\n", " 'text': 'Our results demonstrate that CDK2 is capable of autophosphorylation at Thr160.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17371838,\n", " 'text': 'results argue that Mdm2 is needed for full inhibition of Cdk2 activity by p21, thereby positively contributing to p53-dependent cell cycle arrest'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17386261,\n", " 'text': 'Both Cdk1 and -2 require cyclin binding and T loop phosphorylation for full activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17409409,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17495531,\n", " 'text': 'The structure of phospho-CDK2/cyclin B is reported. pCDK2/cyclin B is less discriminatory in substrate recognition than CDK2/cyclin A & has properties of both an S-phase & an M-phase kinase. CDK2/cyclin B is effective against S phase substrates.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17638878,\n", " 'text': 'ATRIP is a CDK2 substrate, and CDK2-dependent phosphorylation of S224 regulates the ability of ATR-ATRIP to promote cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage'},\n", " {'pubmed': 17713927,\n", " 'text': 'Phosphorylation on a conserved Thr14 can inhibit activities of both the kinases, but phosphorylating another conserved Tyr15, however, can lead to totally opposite inhibition and stimulation consequences in CDK2 and CDK5.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18042686,\n", " 'text': 'The conserved rigid regions are important for nucleotide binding, catalysis, and substrate recognition; most flexible regions correlate with those where large conformational changes occur during CDK2 regulation processes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18156799,\n", " 'text': 'cdk2 activity is necessary for the survival of human DLBCL.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18174243,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18199752,\n", " 'text': 'major Cdk2-dependent multiple gene regulatory events are present in pemphigus vulgar'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18202766,\n", " 'text': 'serum starvation induces G1 arrest through suppression of Skp2-dependent CDK2 activity and Skp2-independent CDK4 activity in human SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18208561,\n", " 'text': 'growth arrest by SmE directly correlates with the reduction of cyclin E, CDK2, CDC25C and CDC2 expression, and up-regulation of p27Kip'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18236071,\n", " 'text': 'Findings strongly demonstrate that retinoblastoma (RB) and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) on one side and cytokeratin 8 (CK8) and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) on the other may affect the clinical course of the disease in 56% of patients.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18276582,\n", " 'text': 'Cyclin E and SV40 small T antigen cooperate to bypass quiescence and contribute to transformation by activating CDK2 in human fibroblasts'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18281541,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18345036,\n", " 'text': 'Bim-mediated apoptosis following actin damage due to deregulation of Cdk2 and the cell cycle by the absence of functional p53.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18372919,\n", " 'text': 'G2 phase cyclin A/cdk2 controls the timing of entry into mitosis by controlling the subsequent activation of cyclin B/cdk1, but also has an unexpected role in coordinating the activation of cyclin B/cdk1 at the centrosome and in the nucleus'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18400748,\n", " 'text': 'disruption of the spindle-assembly checkpoint does not directly influence p53 activation, but the shortening of the mitotic arrest allows cyclin E-CDK2 to be activated before the accumulation of p21(CIP1/WAF1).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18408738,\n", " 'text': 'Results suggest that GSK-3 regulates nuclear p27 Kip1 expression through downregulation of Skp2 expression and regulates p27 Kip1 assembly with CDK2, playing a critical role in the G0/G1 arrest associated with intestinal cell differentiation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18470542,\n", " 'text': 'The structures of fully active cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2)complexed with ATP and peptide substrate, CDK2 after the catalytic reaction, and CDK2 inhibited by phosphorylation at Thr14/Tyr15 were studied using molecular dynamics simulations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18507837,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18617527,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2-associated complexes, by targeting SHP-1 for proteolysis, counteract the ability of SHP-1 to block cell cycle progression of intestinal epithelial cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18635963,\n", " 'text': 'Cyclin A-CDK activity during G(1) would result in an inhibition of progression into the S phase.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18667424,\n", " 'text': 'the cyclin A-CDK2 complex may be a potential effector of NFATs, specifically NFATc1, in mediating SMC multiplication leading to neointima formation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18784074,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 negatively regulates the activity of hPXR, and suggest an important role for Cdk2 in regulating hPXR activity and CYP3A4 expression in hepatocytes passing through the cell cycle'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18806832,\n", " 'text': 'This suggests an important role for CDK2 in cell cycle regulation in hESCs that are likely to bear significant impacts on the maintenance of their pluripotent phenotype.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 18941885,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19061641,\n", " 'text': 'Cyclin A assembles with Cdk1 only after complex formation with Cdk2 reaches a plateau during late S and G2 phases.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19066288,\n", " 'text': 'These findings establish phosphorylation events by CDKs 1 and 2 as key regulators of Discs Large 1 localisation and function.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19091404,\n", " 'text': 'Notch-1 may be mediated through regulating the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin D1, CDK2 and p21 and the activity of Akt signaling'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19101503,\n", " 'text': 'These results demonstrate that double phosphorylation of CDK2 peptides increases the stoichiometry of metal ion binding, and hence may contribute to the previously observed regulation of CDK2 activity by metal ions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19103742,\n", " 'text': 'the pathway of apoptin-induced apoptosis and show that it essentially depends on abnormal phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/Akt activation, resulting in the activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19124506,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19166026,\n", " 'text': 'Overexpression of CDK2 was strongly correlated with abnormal proliferation in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19197163,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that human Cdk2 is a functional homolog for most of Ime2 functions.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19201832,\n", " 'text': 'disruption of Smad2 function by CDK2 phosphorylation acts as a mechanism for TGF-beta resistance in multiple myeloma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19258477,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19258477,\n", " 'text': 'Strengthened signals in imputation-based analysis at CDK2 SNPs rs2069391, rs2069414 and rs17528736 lend evidence to the role of cell cycle genes in ovarian cancer etiology.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19321444,\n", " 'text': 'The combination of st and deregulated cyclin E result in cooperative and coordinated activation of both an essential origin licensing factor, CDC6, and an activity required for origin firing, CDK2, resulting in progression from quiescence to S phase.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19440053,\n", " 'text': 'Co-depletion of Cdc6 and p53 in normal cells restored Cdk2 activation and Rb phosphorylation, permitting them to enter S phase with a reduced rate of replication.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19594747,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19596857,\n", " 'text': 'resistance of oral squamous carcinoma to IFNgamma is not due to deficiency in STAT1-dependent signaling but from a defect in the signaling component that mediates IFNgamma-induced down-regulation of CcnA2 and Cdk2 expression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19609547,\n", " 'text': 'Four genes previously not examined in that respect in laryngeal carcinoma, occurred to be good markers of the neoplasm. They are: metal-proteinase ADAM12, cyclin-dependent kinase 2-CDK2, kinesin 14-KIF14, suppressor 1 of checkpoint-CHES1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19631451,\n", " 'text': 'Data demonstrate that the novel anticancer mechanism of hinokitiol involves accumulation of p27, down-regulation of pRb, Skp2, and impairment of Cdk2 function.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19703905,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin A/cdk2-dependent phosphorylation of APC affects astral microtubule attachment to the cortical surface in mitosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19706521,\n", " 'text': 'Results suggest that simple but robust rules encoded in the CDK2 structure play a dominant role in predefining the mechanisms of ligand binding, which may be advantageously exploited in designing inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19723060,\n", " 'text': 'Studies indicate that roscovitine arrests the cell cycle is direct inhibition of CDK1, a mitotic regulator, and CDK2, involved in G1/S transition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19724860,\n", " 'text': 'Overexpression of Notch1 in laryngeal carcinoma cell line was coupled with the downregulation of cdk2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19738611,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19797611,\n", " 'text': 'results show that the expression of UGT1A1 and CYP2B6 is negatively regulated through a CDK2 signaling pathway linked to cell cycle progression in HepG2 and SW480 cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19822658,\n", " 'text': 'Results underscore the crucial role of cyclin A2-CDK2 in regulating the PLK1-SCF(beta-TrCP1)-EMI1-APC/C axis and CDC6 to trigger genome reduplication after the activity of CDK1 is suppressed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19829063,\n", " 'text': 'Since CAC1 interacts with CDK2 and promotes the kinase activity of CDK2 protein, we propose that CAC1 is a novel cell cycle associated protein capable of promoting cell proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19838212,\n", " 'text': 'Chk1 signalling causes centrosome amplification after ionizing radiation by upregulating Cdk2 activity through activating phosphorylation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19838216,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that SHP-1 knockdown increases p27stability, decreases the CDK6 levels, inducing retinoblastoma protein hypophosphorylation, downregulation of cyclin E and thereby a decrease in the CDK2 activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19854217,\n", " 'text': 'expression upregulation is critical for TLR9-stimulated proliferation of kung cancer cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19858290,\n", " 'text': 'Export was also reduced by Cdk inhibition or cyclin A RNA interference, suggesting that cyclin A/Cdk complexes contribute to Wee1 export.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19885547,\n", " 'text': 'aberrant regulation of S100P in HCC might activate cyclin D1 and CDK expression and contribute to the mitogenic potential of tumor cells during Hepatocellular carcinoma carcinogenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19960406,\n", " 'text': 'Cellular production of IGFBP-3 leads to G1 cell cycle arrest with inhibition of CDK2 and CDK4.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 19966300,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that Myc repressed Ras-induced senescence, and that Cdk2 interacted with Myc at promoters, where it affected Myc-dependent regulation of genes, including those of proteins known to control senescence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20017906, 'text': 'FUS-DDIT3 and the normal DDIT3 bind CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20062077,\n", " 'text': 'Results directly show that the inhibition of Cdk1 activity and the persistence of Cdk2 activity in G2 cells induces endoreplication without mitosis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20068231,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that most of the up-regulated sites phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent CDK1 or CDK2 were almost fully phosphorylated in mitotic cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20079829,\n", " 'text': 'the nitric oxide-mediated biphasic effect was dependent on Cdk2 nitrosylation/activation and the loss of mitochondrial potential'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20147522,\n", " 'text': 'central roles for CDK2 nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking and cyclin E in the mechanism of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)-mediated growth inhibition in prostate cancer cells'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20195506,\n", " 'text': 'These findings demonstrate that Cdk2 maintains a balance of S-phase regulatory proteins and thereby coordinates subsequent p53-independent G(2)/M checkpoint activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20399812,\n", " 'text': 'Data describe the properties of a mutant form of Cdk2 identified during large-scale sequencing of protein kinases from cancerous tissue.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20422243,\n", " 'text': 'Triticum aestivum-5B2 (( Ta ) 5B2) is suggested to be a wheat analogue of human CDK2 enzyme.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20444741,\n", " 'text': 'Conclude that cisplatin likely activates both caspase-dependent and -independent cell death, and Cdk2 is required for both pathways.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20465575,\n", " 'text': 'In addition to having a pivotal role in the up-regulation of IL-2 and IL-2RA gene expression, IKK controls the expression of cyclin D3, cyclin E and CDK2, and the stability SKP2 and its co-factor CKS1B, through mechanisms independent of IL-2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20508983,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20512928,\n", " 'text': 'Hr and VDR interact via multiple protein-protein interfaces, catalyzing histone demethylation to effect chromatin remodeling and repress the transcription of VDR target genes that control the hair cycle.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20694007,\n", " 'text': 'protein phosphatase 1 competition with Cdk-cyclins for retinoblastoma protein(Rb) binding is sufficient to retain Rb activity and block cell-cycle advancement.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20711190,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), especially Cdk1 and Cdk2, promote interphase nuclear pore complex formation in human dividing cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20844047,\n", " 'text': 'Nuclear export of HPV31 E1 is inhibited by Cdk2 phosphorylation at two serines residues, S92 and S106.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 20935635,\n", " 'text': 'The results demonstrate that CDK2-mediated phosphorylation is a key mechanism governing EZH2 function and that there is a link between the cell-cycle machinery and epigenetic gene silencing.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21048031,\n", " 'text': 'Observational study of gene-disease association and gene-environment interaction. (HuGE Navigator)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21062975,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that miR-302 simultaneously suppressed both the cyclin E-CDK2 and cyclin D-CDK4/6 pathways to block>70% of the G1-S cell cycle transition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21099355,\n", " 'text': 'Overexpression of human Cdk2 resulted in a defect in the G1 to S transition and a reduction in viability.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21233845,\n", " 'text': 'MicroRNA miR-885-5p targets CDK2 and MCM5, activates p53 and inhibits proliferation and survival.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21262353,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 functions via a Cdk2/SHP-1/beta-catenin/CEACAM1 axis, and show that Cdk2 has the capacity to regulate insulin internalization.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21264535,\n", " 'text': 'XPD may play an important role in cell apoptosis of hepatoma by inducing an over-expression of p53, but suppressing expressions of c-myc and cdk2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21319273,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 downregulation causes high apoptosis at the early time points'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21325496,\n", " 'text': 'Conclude that in cisplatin induced-kidney injury phosphorylation of p21 by Cdk2 limits the effectiveness of p21 to inhibit Cdk2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21454540,\n", " 'text': 'the ability of Emi1 to inhibit APC/C is negatively regulated by CDKs'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21515670,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin E and CDK2 genes are key physiological effectors of the c-ETS1 proto-oncogene. Furthermore, c-ETS1 is indispensable for the hepatotropic action of HBx in cell cycle deregulation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21565702,\n", " 'text': 'Transient binding of a second catalytic magnesium activates the structure and dynamics of CDK2 kinase for catalysis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21596315,\n", " 'text': 'The deubiquitinase USP37 binds CDH1 and removes degradative polyubiquitin from cyclin A. USP37 was induced by E2F factors in G1, peaked at G1/S, and was degraded in late mitosis. Phosphorylation of USP37 by CDK2 stimulated its full activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21646351,\n", " 'text': 'anti-oncogenic role of miR-372 may be through control of cell growth and cell cycle progression by down-regulating the cell cycle genes CDK2 and cyclin A1'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21658603, 'text': 'Cdk2 is required for cell proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21769424,\n", " 'text': 'RT-PCR and Western blotting results revealed that both mRNA and protein levels of CDK2 were significantly higher in tumor tissues.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21871181,\n", " 'text': 'NF-Y binds to CCAAT sequences in the Cyclin A promoter, as well as to those in the promoters of cell cycle G2 regulators such as CDC2, Cyclin B and CDC25C.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21918011,\n", " 'text': 'Epstein-Barr virus Rta-mediated transactivation of p21 and 14-3-3sigma arrests cells at the G1/S transition by reducing cyclin E/CDK2 activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21941773,\n", " 'text': 'The expression level of CDK2 protein did not change significantly in silica-induced human embryo lung fibroblasts.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 21965652,\n", " 'text': 'excess of MCM3 up-regulates the phosphorylation of CHK1 Ser-345 and CDK2 Thr-14.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22084169,\n", " 'text': 'The S-phase-specific cyclin-dependent kinase 2 was required for robust activation of ATR in response to diverse chemotherapeutic agents.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22231403,\n", " 'text': 'The authors show that, in human and mouse, Mre11 controls these events through a direct interaction with CDK2 that is required for CtIP phosphorylation and BRCA1 interaction in normally dividing cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22467868,\n", " 'text': 'Lin-28 homologue A (LIN28A) promotes cell cycle progression via regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin D1 (CCND1), and cell division cycle 25 homolog A (CDC25A) expression in cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22474407,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 inhibition drastically diminishes anchorage-independent growth of human cancer cells and cells transformed with various oncogenes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22479189,\n", " 'text': 'low molecular weight cyclin E (LMW-E) requires CDK2-associated kinase activity to induce mammary tumor formation by disrupting acinar development'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22673765,\n", " 'text': 'The activation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) was significantly up-regulated over time, but there was no change in the level of CDK2 expression by treatment of HEK293 cells with various concentrations of veterinary antibiotics.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22718829,\n", " 'text': 'Human cytomegalovirus IE1/2 expression was downregulated by cyclin A2, CDK1 and CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22819841,\n", " 'text': 'exposure of cancer cells (such as HeLa and MCF7 cells) to H2O2 increased CDK2 activity with no accompanying change in the PCNA level, leading to cell proliferation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22927831,\n", " 'text': 'By a chemical-genetic approach study identified Nbs1 as a target of Cdk2, and mapped the phosphorylation to a conserved CDK consensus recognition site.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 22951823,\n", " 'text': 'cellular CDK2 phosphorylates the functionally critical S/T-P sites of the hepadnavirus core CTD and is incorporated into viral capsids'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23028682,\n", " 'text': 'cyclin A-Cdk2 regulates apoptosis through a mechanism that involves Rad9phosphorylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23065011,\n", " 'text': 'human papillomavirus E4 proteins can interact with cyclin A and cdk2, which may contribute to viral manipulation of the host cell cycle.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23082202,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk2 also binds the N-terminal domain of Fbw7-gamma as well as SLP-1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23140174,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 phosphorylates CDK9 on Ser 90 and thereby contributes to HIV-1 transcription.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23184662,\n", " 'text': 'EEF2 phosphorylation by cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) on a novel site, serine 595 (S595), directly regulates T56 phosphorylation by eEF2K.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23185313,\n", " 'text': 'This study aimed to explore the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CDK2 and CCNE1 on breast cancer risk, progression and survival in a Chinese Han population.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23230143,\n", " 'text': 'Findings revealed a novel function of simultaneous p27 and CDK2 cytoplasmic mislocalization in mediating growth-factor-regulated cell proliferation, migration and invasion.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23300027,\n", " 'text': 'possible relationship between the CDK2 deleterious variants and the drug-binding ability'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23321641,\n", " 'text': 'Constitutive Cdk2 activity promotes aneuploidy while altering the spindle assembly and tetraploidy checkpoints.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23390492,\n", " 'text': 'Constitutive CCND1/CDK2 expression contributes to neoplastic mammary epithelial cell transformation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23390529,\n", " 'text': 'The prolyl isomerase Pin1 acts synergistically with CDK2 to regulate the basal activity of estrogen receptor alpha in breast cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23446853,\n", " 'text': 'Aurora-A kinase-induced centrosome amplification was mediated by Cdk2 kinase.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23479742,\n", " 'text': 'the up-regulation of CDK2 by CUL4B is achieved via the repression of miR-372 and miR-373, which target CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23532886,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that TG02 blocked signaling by CDKs 1, 2, 7, and 9 and ERK5, leading to potent and highly consistent antimyeloma activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23643165,\n", " 'text': 'The expression of CDK2 mRNA significantly decreased in P(CDK2-siRNA).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23671119,\n", " 'text': 'A specific and essential roles for Cdk2 inhibitory phosphorylation in the successful execution of the replication stress checkpoint response and in maintaining genome integrity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23720738,\n", " 'text': 'MCM7 is a substrate of cyclin E/Cdk2 and can be phosphorylated on Ser-121.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23727278,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that different binding sites of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK2) contributing towards the binding of inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23737759,\n", " 'text': 'CDK7 involved in phosphorylation/activation of CDK4 and CDK6; existence of CDK4-activating kinase(s) other than CDK7; and novel CDK7-dependent positive feedbacks mediated by p21 phosphorylation by CDK4 and CDK2 to sustain CDK4 activation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23776131,\n", " 'text': 'FBXO28 activity and stability are regulated during the cell cycle by CDK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of FBXO28, which is required for its efficient ubiquitylation of MYC.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23781148,\n", " 'text': 'antitumor effects of DOC-1R may be mediated by negatively regulating G1 phase progression and G1/S transition through inhibiting CDK2 expression and activation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 23787073,\n", " 'text': 'This study indicates that genetic polymorphisms of AURKA, BRCA1 and CCNE1 may affect ovarian cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han women.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24075009,\n", " 'text': 'Cells decide at the end of mitosis to either start the next cell cycle by immediately building up CDK2 activity or to enter a transient G0-like state by suppressing CDK2 activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24204256,\n", " 'text': 'PKC activation then triggered activation of cdk-2, which became further activated by caspase-3.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24216307,\n", " 'text': 'Two nuclear export signals of Cdc6 work cooperatively and distinctly for the cytoplasmic translocation of Cdc6 phosphorylated by cyclin A/Cdk2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24240190,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 knockdown alters the profile of Rb phosphorylation in coronary artery smooth muscle cells, as well as the proliferative response of these cells to mitogenic stimulation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24386425,\n", " 'text': 'Of the total, the deregulation of several genes (CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, MCM2, MCM3, MCM4, EIF3a and RPN2) were potentially associated with disease development and progression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24444383,\n", " 'text': 'MYC-dependent breast cancer cells possess high MYC expression and high level of MYC phosphorylation, but are not sensitive to inhibition of CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24520316,\n", " 'text': 'CRIF1 may play a regulatory role in the BM microenvironment-induced leukemia cell cycle arrest possibly through interacting with CDK2 and acting as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24623419,\n", " 'text': 'Authors identified and validated two additional host proteins interacting with human SAMHD1, namely, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24671051,\n", " 'text': 'Expression of Notch1, -2, and -3, CDK2, and CCNE1 was significantly decreased by upregulation of ALDH1A1 in A549 cells, but increased by its interruption in A549s cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24700371,\n", " 'text': 'In the subsequent molecular experiments, western blot analysis and kinase activity detection demonstrated that TAMs can significantly boost the expression levels and activities of CDK2 and CDK4 in SKOV3 cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24820417,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that CDK2 phosphorylates Thr-156 in GATA3.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24911186,\n", " 'text': 'Report structure-based discovery of allosteric inhibitors of CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24922574,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 Supports HIV-1 Reverse Transcription in CD4+ T Cells.HIV-1 reverse transcriptase Is a Substrate for CDK2-Dependent Phosphorylation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24935000,\n", " 'text': 'It is concluded that non-response to everolimus is characterized by increased cdk2/cyclin A, driving RCC cells into the G2/M-phase. VPA hinders everolimus non-response by diminishing cdk2/cyclin A.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 24947816,\n", " 'text': 'More effective packing and interactions between CDK2 and LMW cyclin E isoforms, however, produce more efficient protein-protein complexes that accelerate the cell division processes in cancer cells, where these cyclin E isoforms are overexpressed.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25015816,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 was strongly linked to cell cycle progression and coordinated SAMHD1 phosphorylation and inactivation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25071185,\n", " 'text': 'Cdk1 activity blocks lysosomal degradation of HIF-1alpha and increases HIF-1alpha protein stability and transcriptional activity. By contrast, Cdk2 activity promotes lysosomal degradation of HIF-1alpha at the G1/S phase transition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25136960,\n", " 'text': 'A positive correlation between cdk2/cyclin A expression level and tumor growth. Amygdalin, therefore, may block tumor growth.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25149358,\n", " 'text': 'for both oncogene- and DNA damage-induced cellular senescence, CDK2 transcript and protein are decreased in a p53- and RB-dependent manner, and this repression is necessary for cell-cycle exit during senescence'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25154617,\n", " 'text': 'Which is mutated at the CDK2 phosphorylation site.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25218592,\n", " 'text': 'The Cell Cycle Profiling - Risk Score (C2P-RS) based on CDK1 and CDK2 specific activities was significantly associated with relapse in breast cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25218637,\n", " 'text': 'Data indicate that tumour suppressor RASSF1A triggers large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS)-CDK2 interaction and restricts CDK2 kinase activity towards BRCA2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25220500,\n", " 'text': 'Cyclin A2 and its associated kinase (CDK2) activity are required for optimal induction of progesterone receptor target genes in breast cancer cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25265349,\n", " 'text': 'High CDK2 expression is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25271736,\n", " 'text': 'observations suggested that androgen suppresses the proliferation of CRPC cells partially through inhibition of Cyclin A, Cdk2, and Skp2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25303791,\n", " 'text': 'TPPII, MYBBP1A and CDK2 form a protein-protein interaction network.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25410660,\n", " 'text': 'Inhibition of CDK2 phosphorylation blocked phosphorylation of hnRNP K, preventing its incorporation into stress granules (SGs). Due to interaction between hnRNP K with TDP-43, the loss of hnRNP K from SGs prevented accumulation of TDP-43.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25443276,\n", " 'text': 'At a median follow-up of 36 months (1-109M), tumor with low CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio showed significantly better 5-year recurrence-free survival than those with high CDK2SA-CDK1SA ratio (88.7% vs. 54.7%, P = 0.00141).'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25451924,\n", " 'text': 'miR-638 regulates proliferation and myeloid differentiation by targeting CDK2 and may serve as a novel target for leukemia therapy or marker for AML diagnosis and prognosis'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25463638,\n", " 'text': 'No association of CDK2 polymorphisms with risk of endometrial carcinoma found in Chinese Han women.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25501982,\n", " 'text': 'HOXA7 promotes cell proliferation, and these changes are mediated by cyclin E1/CDK2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25541464,\n", " 'text': 'Using the fact that deletion of the yeast CDC28 gene is functionally complemented by human CDK1 or CDK2, we set up an in vivo screen system to evaluate the inhibitory potency of purine derivatives against these two human Cdks.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25728284,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 up-regulates the protein level of KLF10 through reducing its association with SIAH1, a KLF10 E3-ubiqutin ligase involved in proteasomal degradation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25744732,\n", " 'text': 'Diclofenac and curcumin overcome these carcinogenic effects by downregulating telomerase activity, diminishing the expression of TERT, CDK4, CDK2, cyclin D1, and cyclin E.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25754137,\n", " 'text': 'The docking and molecular dynamics investigation performed here led to the identification of the interactions responsible for stabilizing the ligand ChEMBL474807 at the active sites of the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3) and cyclin-dependent kinase-2'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25808870,\n", " 'text': 'CP110 plays a mechanistic role in response of lung cancer cells to CDK2 inhibition, especially in the presence of activated KRAS mutations.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25832654,\n", " 'text': 'NUAK2 silencing and inactivation of the PI3K pathway efficiently controlled CDK2 expression, whereas CDK2 inactivation specifically abrogated the growth of NUAK2-amplified and PTEN-deficient melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25860957,\n", " 'text': 'Identified ING5 as a novel CDK2 substrate. ING5 is phosphorylated at a single site, threonine 152, by cyclin E/CDK2 and cyclin A/CDK2. This site is also phosphorylated in cells in a cell cycle dependent manner, consistent with it being a CDK2 substrate.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 25918937,\n", " 'text': 'analysis of the conformational characteristics and ligand binding mechanisms of CDK2 [review]'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26026083,\n", " 'text': 'G1 arrest induced by SB265610 occurred at concentrations lacking CXCR2 selectivity and revealed cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) (Thr160) hypophosphorylation, cyclin D3 gene down-regulation, and p21 post-translational induction'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26028036,\n", " 'text': 'our study reveals a novel function of CDK2 in EGF-induced cell transformation and the associated signal transduction pathways. This indicates that CDK2 is a useful molecular target for the chemoprevention and therapy against skin cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26124340,\n", " 'text': 'We found no significant associations for CDKN2 p16 580 C>T and MDM2 SNP309 T>G variants between cases and controls.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26139602,\n", " 'text': 'Sox2 phosphorylation by Cdk2 promotes the establishment but not the maintenance of the pluripotent state.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26147897,\n", " 'text': 'fluspirilene is a potential CDK2 inhibitor and a candidate anti-cancer drug for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26151768,\n", " 'text': 'In G28 cells, a dosedependent induction of CDK2, p21 and cyclin D was observed between 10 and 50 microM roscovitine after 72 h, however, at the highest concentration of 100 microM, all investigated genes were downregulated.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26204491,\n", " 'text': 'ovary tumors with elevated CCNE1 expression may be staged for Cdk2-targeted therapy'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26248649,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that miR-200c plays an antioncogenic role in clear cell renal cell carcinomas, through controlling cell growth and cell-cycle progression by downregulating the G1-S regulator CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26297806,\n", " 'text': 'Centriolar satellites build a centrosomal microcephaly protein complex critical for human neurodevelopment that promotes CDK2 centrosomal localization and centriole duplication.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26304236,\n", " 'text': 'show thata combining cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) antagonism and ubiquitin thioesterase 33 (USP33) depletion augments anaphase catastrophe via changes in centrosomal protein of 110 kDa (CP110) protein expression.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26373553,\n", " 'text': 'PIWIL2 has a role in promoting progression of non-small cell lung cancer by inducing CDK2 and Cyclin A expression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26464264,\n", " 'text': 'the results suggest that CK1delta activity can be modulated by the interplay between CK1delta and CDK2/E or CDK5/p35.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26555773,\n", " 'text': 'both cell lines feature a significant reduction of CDK2 expression verified at the RNA and protein level, respectively'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26595527,\n", " 'text': 'Inappropriate activation of CDK2 in S phase underlies the sensitivity of a subset of cell lines to Chk1 inhibitors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26644182,\n", " 'text': 'PHD1 is phosphorylated by CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 at Serine 130.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26652902,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 and DNA-PK regulate PR transcriptional activity by distinct mechanisms.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26677902,\n", " 'text': 'Clioquinol suppressed cell cycle progression in the S-phase in SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells via the p21, p27-cyclin E,A/Cdk2 pathway.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26714749,\n", " 'text': 'SATB2 regulates the mitosis of cell cycle and affects G1 cell cycle via interaction with CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26730572,\n", " 'text': 'A novel link has been discussed between CDK2 expression and cell migration by characterizing the CDK2-mediated phosphorylation of BRMS1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26828990,\n", " 'text': 'The expression of cdk2 in malignancy of ovarian tumors.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26857166,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 controls a wide-spread epigenetic program that drives transcription at differentiation-related gene promoters specifically in G1. (Review)'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26861625,\n", " 'text': 'Foxo3 circular RNA retards cell cycle progression via forming ternary complexes with p21 and CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26876672,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 protects podocytes from apoptosis and reduced expression of CDK2 associates with the development of diabetic nephropathy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26890070,\n", " 'text': 'Consistent with these findings, a genome-scale pooled RNA interference screen revealed that toxic doses of MK-1775 are suppressed by CDK2 or Cyclin A2 knockdown. These findings support G2 exit as the more significant effect of Wee1 inhibition in pancreatic cancers.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 26960431,\n", " 'text': 'Study describes a positive feedback loop centred on cyclin A2-Cdk2 inhibition of interphase APC/C-Cdc20 to allow further cyclin A2 accumulation and mitotic entry.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27065328,\n", " 'text': 'Here, we found that centrosomal protein of 76 kDa (Cep76), previously shown to restrain centriole amplification, interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and is a bona fide substrate of this kinase. Cep76 is preferentially phosphorylated by cyclin A/CDK2 at a single site S83, and this event is crucial to suppress centriole amplification in S phase'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27100206,\n", " 'text': 'These two states are separated by different metastable states that share hybrid structural features with both forms of the kinase. In contrast, the CDK2/ANS complex landscape is compatible with a conformational selection picture where the binding of ANS in proximity of the alphaC helix causes a population shift toward the inactive conformation'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27109354,\n", " 'text': 'evidence that CDK1/2 participate in the regulation of constitutive pre-mRNA splicing by EGF stimulation in MDA-MB-468 cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27163259,\n", " 'text': 'a SUMO-deficient Rb mutant results in reduced SUMOylation and phosphorylation, weakened CDK2 binding, and attenuated E2F-1 sequestration.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27166195,\n", " 'text': 'Data show that Noxa-mediated MCL-1 phosphorylation and degradation is regulated by CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27259234,\n", " 'text': \"Findings suggest that ERK1/2-mediated Cdk2/cyclin A signaling pathway is involved in 7-hydroxy-5,4'-dimethoxy-2-arylbenzofuran (Ary) - induced G1/S-phase arrest.\"},\n", " {'pubmed': 27285764,\n", " 'text': 'WHSC1L1 and H3K36me2 are enriched in the gene bodies of the cell cycle-related genes CDC6 and CDK2, implying that WHSC1L1 directly regulates the transcription of these gene'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27378523,\n", " 'text': 'this study suggests that CDK2 and CDK9 are potential therapeutic targets in Neuroblastoma (NB) and that abrogating CDK2 and CDK9 activity by small molecules like dinaciclib is a promising strategy and a treatment option for NB patients'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27402161,\n", " 'text': 'periodic phosphorylation of Ku70 by cyclin-cyclin dependent kinases prevents the interaction of Ku with replication origin after initiation events in S-phase.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27465546,\n", " 'text': 'The upregulation of miR-302b reduced the expression of CDK2, and inhibited ERK signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting cell proliferation and G1/S phase conversion rate.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27629878,\n", " 'text': 'Dsg2 knockdown arrests non-small cell lung cancer cell cycle progression via modulation of p27-CDK2 levels.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27663592,\n", " 'text': 'Analysis of genomic data from TCGA demonstrated coamplification of CCNE1 and AKT2 Overexpression of Cyclin E1 and AKT isoforms, in addition to mutant TP53, imparted malignant characteristics in untransformed fallopian tube secretory cells, the dominant site of origin of high-grade serous ovarian cancer'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27819669,\n", " 'text': 'Here, we introduce a transcriptional signature to specifically track CDK2 activity. It responds to genetic and chemical perturbations in the CDK-RB-E2F axis, correlates with mitotic rate in vitro and in vivo and reacts rapidly to changes in CDK2 activity during cell cycle progression'},\n", " {'pubmed': 27831832,\n", " 'text': 'The data presented here suggest that the temporal separation of pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways by selective inhibition of CDK2 disrupts coherent signaling modules and may synergize with anti-proliferative drugs, averting toxic side effects from CDK1 inhibition.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28003546,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 phosphorylates polyQ-AR specifically at Ser(96). Phosphorylation of polyQ-AR by CDK2 increased protein stabilization and toxicity and is negatively regulated by the adenylyl cyclase/protein kinase A signaling pathway in spinobulbar muscular atrophy.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28030798,\n", " 'text': 'Date show that when Wee1 alone is inhibited, Chk1 suppresses CDC45 loading and thereby limits the extent of unscheduled replication initiation and subsequent S-phase DNA damage, despite very high CDK-activity.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28100774,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 serves as an important nexus linking primary beta-cell dysfunction to progressive beta-cell mass deterioration in diabetes'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28345297,\n", " 'text': 'Residual Cdk1/Cdk2 activity after DNA damage promotes cell senescence.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28350121,\n", " 'text': 'Results show that cyclin E1 and CDK2 participate in STC1 promoting cell proliferation of prostate neoplasm cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28430399,\n", " 'text': 'These compounds bind CDK2/ Cyclin A, inhibit its kinase activity, compete with substrate binding, but not with ATP, and dock onto the T-loop of CDK2. The best compound also binds CDK4 and CDK4/Cyclin D1, but not CDK1.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28666995,\n", " 'text': 'The authors find that Spy1 confers structural changes to Cdk2 that obviate the requirement of Cdk activation loop phosphorylation.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28760857,\n", " 'text': 'High CDK2 expression is associated with breast cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 28842430,\n", " 'text': 'identified a new phosphorylation-based substrate recognition mechanism of PTPN12 by CDK2, which orchestrated signaling crosstalk between the oncogenic CDK2 and HER2 pathways'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29157894,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 contributes to S81-AR phosphorylation and transactivation while CDK4 was not shown to be involved in this process.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29203878,\n", " 'text': 'ATM and CDK2 control the chromatin remodeling activity of CSB in the regulation of double strand break repair pathway choice.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29254517,\n", " 'text': 'The authors show that human Cyclin-Dependent-Kinases (CDKs) target the RAD9 subunit of the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp on Thr292, to modulate DNA damage checkpoint activation. Thr292 phosphorylation on RAD9 creates a binding site for Polo-Like-Kinase1 (PLK1), which phosphorylates RAD9 on Thr313.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29323532,\n", " 'text': 'Among these genes, STAT3 and CDK2 were significantly associated with recurrence. Further study suggested that inhibition of CDK2 reduced invasion of Pca cell lines. The invasion ability was rescued after reintroduction of CDK2.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29328425,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 may have key functions in neuroblastoma progression by regulating the expression of neoplastic genes.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29372687,\n", " 'text': 'Our findings provide a rationale for clinical use of Bcl-2 family inhibitors in combination with CDK2 inhibitors for treatment of Mcl-1-dependent colorectal tumours associated with expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bcl-w proteins. In addition, we have shown potential of CDK2 inhibitors for treatment of tumours expressing R273H mutant p53.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29507054,\n", " 'text': 'Proteomics and phosphoproteomics analyses identified CDK2 as a driver of resistance to both BRAF and Hsp90 inhibitors and its expression is regulated by the transcription factor MITF upon XL888 treatment of melanoma cells.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29570358,\n", " 'text': 'LINC00958 acts as an oncogenic gene in the gliomagenesis through miR-203-CDK2 regulation, providing a novel insight into glioma tumorigenesis.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 29896817,\n", " 'text': 'The roles of the CDK2/SIRT5 axis in gastric cancer.'},\n", " {'pubmed': 30300385,\n", " 'text': 'CDK2 gene is a strong candidate gene for type-2 diabetes. CDK2 gene is located in a risk area composed of 4 blocks in strong LD around the type-2 diabetes SNP rs2069408. CDK2 overexpression inhibits the association of insulin receptor to the microtubule components, tubulin alpha and tubulin beta. Physical association of the insulin receptor complex with CDK2 is inhibited by the expression of tyrosine phosphatase PTPLAD1.'}],\n", " 'genomic_pos': {'chr': '12',\n", " 'end': 55972784,\n", " 'ensemblgene': 'ENSG00000123374',\n", " 'start': 55966769,\n", " 'strand': 1},\n", " 'genomic_pos_hg19': {'chr': '12',\n", " 'end': 56366568,\n", " 'start': 56360553,\n", " 'strand': 1},\n", " 'go': {'BP': [{'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000082',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000082',\n", " 'term': 'G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle'},\n", " {'evidence': 'NAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000086',\n", " 'pubmed': 1653904,\n", " 'term': 'G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000086',\n", " 'term': 'G2/M transition of mitotic cell cycle'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0000122',\n", " 'term': 'negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006260',\n", " 'pubmed': 19238148,\n", " 'term': 'DNA replication'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006281',\n", " 'term': 'DNA repair'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IBA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006468',\n", " 'pubmed': 21873635,\n", " 'term': 'protein phosphorylation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IDA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006468',\n", " 'pubmed': [12944431, 28666995],\n", " 'term': 'protein phosphorylation'},\n", " {'evidence': 'IEA',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006813',\n", " 'term': 'potassium ion transport'},\n", " {'evidence': 'TAS',\n", " 'gocategory': 'BP',\n", " 'id': 'GO:0006977',\n", " 'term': 'DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle 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